Models, code, and papers for "Hai Zhao":

Korean-to-Chinese Machine Translation using Chinese Character as Pivot Clue

Nov 25, 2019
Jeonghyeok Park, Hai Zhao

Korean-Chinese is a low resource language pair, but Korean and Chinese have a lot in common in terms of vocabulary. Sino-Korean words, which can be converted into corresponding Chinese characters, account for more than fifty of the entire Korean vocabulary. Motivated by this, we propose a simple linguistically motivated solution to improve the performance of the Korean-to-Chinese neural machine translation model by using their common vocabulary. We adopt Chinese characters as a translation pivot by converting Sino-Korean words in Korean sentences to Chinese characters and then train the machine translation model with the converted Korean sentences as source sentences. The experimental results on Korean-to-Chinese translation demonstrate that the models with the proposed method improve translation quality up to 1.5 BLEU points in comparison to the baseline models.

* 33rd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation (PACLIC 33), pages 558-566, Hakodate, Japan, September 13-15, 2019 
* 9 pages 

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Deepening Hidden Representations from Pre-trained Language Models for Natural Language Understanding

Nov 05, 2019
Junjie Yang, Hai Zhao

Transformer-based pre-trained language models have proven to be effective for learning contextualized language representation. However, current approaches only take advantage of the output of the encoder's final layer when fine-tuning the downstream tasks. We argue that only taking single layer's output restricts the power of pre-trained representation. Thus we deepen the representation learned by the model by fusing the hidden representation in terms of an explicit HIdden Representation Extractor (HIRE), which automatically absorbs the complementary representation with respect to the output from the final layer. Utilizing RoBERTa as the backbone encoder, our proposed improvement over the pre-trained models is shown effective on multiple natural language understanding tasks and help our model rival with the state-of-the-art models on the GLUE benchmark.

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Attention Is All You Need for Chinese Word Segmentation

Oct 31, 2019
Sufeng Duan, Hai Zhao

This paper presents a fast and accurate Chinese word segmentation (CWS) model with only unigram feature and greedy decoding algorithm. Our model uses only attention mechanism for network block building. In detail, we adopt a Transformer-based encoder empowered by self-attention mechanism as backbone to take input representation. Then we extend the Transformer encoder with our proposed Gaussian-masked directional multi-head attention, which is a variant of scaled dot-product attention. At last, a bi-affinal attention scorer is to make segmentation decision in a linear time. Our model is evaluated on SIGHAN Bakeoff benchmark dataset. The experimental results show that with the highest segmentation speed, the proposed attention-only model achieves new state-of-the-art or comparable performance against strong baselines in terms of closed test setting.

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Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar Parsing on Penn Treebank

Jul 08, 2019
Junru Zhou, Hai Zhao

Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) enjoys a uniform formalism representing rich contextual syntactic and even semantic meanings. This paper makes the first attempt to formulate a simplified HPSG by integrating constituent and dependency formal representations into head-driven phrase structure. Then two parsing algorithms are respectively proposed for two converted tree representations, division span and joint span. As HPSG encodes both constituent and dependency structure information, the proposed HPSG parsers may be regarded as a sort of joint decoder for both types of structures and thus are evaluated in terms of extracted or converted constituent and dependency parsing trees. Our parser achieves new state-of-the-art performance for both parsing tasks on Penn Treebank (PTB) and Chinese Penn Treebank, verifying the effectiveness of joint learning constituent and dependency structures. In details, we report 95.84 F1 of constituent parsing and 97.00% UAS of dependency parsing on PTB.

* Accepted by ACL 2019 

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Span Based Open Information Extraction

Mar 01, 2019
Junlang Zhan, Hai Zhao

In this paper, we propose a span based model combined with syntactic information for n-ary open information extraction. The advantage of span model is that it can leverage span level features, which is difficult in token based BIO tagging methods. We also improve the previous bootstrap method to construct training corpus. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous open information extraction systems. Our code and data are publicly available at

* There is an error in this article. In section 2.2, we state that span level syntactic information is helpful for Open IE, which is one of major contribution of this paper. However, after our examination, there is a fatal error in the code for this part so the statement is not true 

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Chemical Names Standardization using Neural Sequence to Sequence Model

Jan 21, 2019
Junlang Zhan, Hai Zhao

Chemical information extraction is to convert chemical knowledge in text into true chemical database, which is a text processing task heavily relying on chemical compound name identification and standardization. Once a systematic name for a chemical compound is given, it will naturally and much simply convert the name into the eventually required molecular formula. However, for many chemical substances, they have been shown in many other names besides their systematic names which poses a great challenge for this task. In this paper, we propose a framework to do the auto standardization from the non-systematic names to the corresponding systematic names by using the spelling error correction, byte pair encoding tokenization and neural sequence to sequence model. Our framework is trained end to end and is fully data-driven. Our standardization accuracy on the test dataset achieves 54.04% which has a great improvement compared to previous state-of-the-art result.

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Effective Subtree Encoding for Easy-First Dependency Parsing

Nov 08, 2018
Jiaxun Cai, Hai Zhao

Easy-first parsing relies on subtree re-ranking to build the complete parse tree. Whereas the intermediate state of parsing processing are represented by various subtrees, whose internal structural information is the key lead for later parsing action decisions, we explore a better representation for such subtrees. In detail, this work introduces a bottom-up subtree encoder based on the child-sum tree-LSTM. Starting from an easy-first dependency parser without other handcraft features, we show that the effective subtree encoder does promote the parsing process, and is able to make a greedy search easy-first parser achieve promising results on benchmark treebanks compared to state-of-the-art baselines.

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Chinese Pinyin Aided IME, Input What You Have Not Keystroked Yet

Sep 02, 2018
Yafang Huang, Hai Zhao

Chinese pinyin input method engine (IME) converts pinyin into character so that Chinese characters can be conveniently inputted into computer through common keyboard. IMEs work relying on its core component, pinyin-to-character conversion (P2C). Usually Chinese IMEs simply predict a list of character sequences for user choice only according to user pinyin input at each turn. However, Chinese inputting is a multi-turn online procedure, which can be supposed to be exploited for further user experience promoting. This paper thus for the first time introduces a sequence-to-sequence model with gated-attention mechanism for the core task in IMEs. The proposed neural P2C model is learned by encoding previous input utterance as extra context to enable our IME capable of predicting character sequence with incomplete pinyin input. Our model is evaluated in different benchmark datasets showing great user experience improvement compared to traditional models, which demonstrates the first engineering practice of building Chinese aided IME.

* 7 pages, accepted by EMNLP 2018 

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Finding Better Subword Segmentation for Neural Machine Translation

Jul 25, 2018
Yingting Wu, Hai Zhao

For different language pairs, word-level neural machine translation (NMT) models with a fixed-size vocabulary suffer from the same problem of representing out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. The common practice usually replaces all these rare or unknown words with a <UNK> token, which limits the translation performance to some extent. Most of recent work handled such a problem by splitting words into characters or other specially extracted subword units to enable open-vocabulary translation. Byte pair encoding (BPE) is one of the successful attempts that has been shown extremely competitive by providing effective subword segmentation for NMT systems. In this paper, we extend the BPE style segmentation to a general unsupervised framework with three statistical measures: frequency (FRQ), accessor variety (AV) and description length gain (DLG). We test our approach on two translation tasks: German to English and Chinese to English. The experimental results show that AV and DLG enhanced systems outperform the FRQ baseline in the frequency weighted schemes at different significant levels.

* 12 pages, accepted by CCL 2018 

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Deep Enhanced Representation for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition

Jul 13, 2018
Hongxiao Bai, Hai Zhao

Implicit discourse relation recognition is a challenging task as the relation prediction without explicit connectives in discourse parsing needs understanding of text spans and cannot be easily derived from surface features from the input sentence pairs. Thus, properly representing the text is very crucial to this task. In this paper, we propose a model augmented with different grained text representations, including character, subword, word, sentence, and sentence pair levels. The proposed deeper model is evaluated on the benchmark treebank and achieves state-of-the-art accuracy with greater than 48% in 11-way and $F_1$ score greater than 50% in 4-way classifications for the first time according to our best knowledge.

* 13(10) pages, accepted by COLING 2018 

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One-shot Learning for Question-Answering in Gaokao History Challenge

Jun 24, 2018
Zhuosheng Zhang, Hai Zhao

Answering questions from university admission exams (Gaokao in Chinese) is a challenging AI task since it requires effective representation to capture complicated semantic relations between questions and answers. In this work, we propose a hybrid neural model for deep question-answering task from history examinations. Our model employs a cooperative gated neural network to retrieve answers with the assistance of extra labels given by a neural turing machine labeler. Empirical study shows that the labeler works well with only a small training dataset and the gated mechanism is good at fetching the semantic representation of lengthy answers. Experiments on question answering demonstrate the proposed model obtains substantial performance gains over various neural model baselines in terms of multiple evaluation metrics.

* Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2018) 

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Neural Word Segmentation Learning for Chinese

Dec 02, 2016
Deng Cai, Hai Zhao

Most previous approaches to Chinese word segmentation formalize this problem as a character-based sequence labeling task where only contextual information within fixed sized local windows and simple interactions between adjacent tags can be captured. In this paper, we propose a novel neural framework which thoroughly eliminates context windows and can utilize complete segmentation history. Our model employs a gated combination neural network over characters to produce distributed representations of word candidates, which are then given to a long short-term memory (LSTM) language scoring model. Experiments on the benchmark datasets show that without the help of feature engineering as most existing approaches, our models achieve competitive or better performances with previous state-of-the-art methods.

* ACL2016 

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Probabilistic Models for High-Order Projective Dependency Parsing

Feb 14, 2015
Xuezhe Ma, Hai Zhao

This paper presents generalized probabilistic models for high-order projective dependency parsing and an algorithmic framework for learning these statistical models involving dependency trees. Partition functions and marginals for high-order dependency trees can be computed efficiently, by adapting our algorithms which extend the inside-outside algorithm to higher-order cases. To show the effectiveness of our algorithms, we perform experiments on three languages---English, Chinese and Czech, using maximum conditional likelihood estimation for model training and L-BFGS for parameter estimation. Our methods achieve competitive performance for English, and outperform all previously reported dependency parsers for Chinese and Czech.

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Syntax-aware Multilingual Semantic Role Labeling

Sep 10, 2019
Shexia He, Zuchao Li, Hai Zhao

Recently, semantic role labeling (SRL) has earned a series of success with even higher performance improvements, which can be mainly attributed to syntactic integration and enhanced word representation. However, most of these efforts focus on English, while SRL on multiple languages more than English has received relatively little attention so that is kept underdevelopment. Thus this paper intends to fill the gap on multilingual SRL with special focus on the impact of syntax and contextualized word representation. Unlike existing work, we propose a novel method guided by syntactic rule to prune arguments, which enables us to integrate syntax into multilingual SRL model simply and effectively. We present a unified SRL model designed for multiple languages together with the proposed uniform syntax enhancement. Our model achieves new state-of-the-art results on the CoNLL-2009 benchmarks of all seven languages. Besides, we pose a discussion on the syntactic role among different languages and verify the effectiveness of deep enhanced representation for multilingual SRL.

* Shexia He and Zuchao Li made equal contribution to this paper 

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Memorizing All for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition

Aug 29, 2019
Hongxiao Bai, Hai Zhao, Junhan Zhao

Implicit discourse relation recognition is a challenging task due to the absence of the necessary informative clue from explicit connectives. The prediction of relations requires a deep understanding of the semantic meanings of sentence pairs. As implicit discourse relation recognizer has to carefully tackle the semantic similarity of the given sentence pairs and the severe data sparsity issue exists in the meantime, it is supposed to be beneficial from mastering the entire training data. Thus in this paper, we propose a novel memory mechanism to tackle the challenges for further performance improvement. The memory mechanism is adequately memorizing information by pairing representations and discourse relations of all training instances, which right fills the slot of the data-hungry issue in the current implicit discourse relation recognizer. Our experiments show that our full model with memorizing the entire training set reaches new state-of-the-art against strong baselines, which especially for the first time exceeds the milestone of 60% accuracy in the 4-way task.

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Global Greedy Dependency Parsing

Nov 20, 2019
Zuchao Li, Hai Zhao, Kevin Parnow

Most syntactic dependency parsing models may fall into one of two categories: transition- and graph-based models. The former models enjoy high inference efficiency with linear time complexity, but they rely on the stacking or re-ranking of partially-built parse trees to build a complete parse tree and are stuck with slower training for the necessity of dynamic oracle training. The latter, graph-based models, may boast better performance but are unfortunately marred by polynomial time inference. In this paper, we propose a novel parsing order objective, resulting in a novel dependency parsing model capable of both global (in sentence scope) feature extraction as in graph models and linear time inference as in transitional models. The proposed global greedy parser only uses two arc-building actions, left and right arcs, for projective parsing. When equipped with two extra non-projective arc-building actions, the proposed parser may also smoothly support non-projective parsing. Using multiple benchmark treebanks, including the Penn Treebank (PTB), the CoNLL-X treebanks, and the Universal Dependency Treebanks, we evaluate our parser and demonstrate that the proposed novel parser achieves good performance with faster training and decoding.

* Accepted by AAAI-20 

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Hierarchical Contextualized Representation for Named Entity Recognition

Nov 19, 2019
Ying Luo, Fengshun Xiao, Hai Zhao

Named entity recognition (NER) models are typically based on the architecture of Bi-directional LSTM (BiLSTM). The constraints of sequential nature and the modeling of single input prevent the full utilization of global information from larger scope, not only in the entire sentence, but also in the entire document (dataset). In this paper, we address these two deficiencies and propose a model augmented with hierarchical contextualized representation: sentence-level representation and document-level representation. In sentence-level, we take different contributions of words in a single sentence into consideration to enhance the sentence representation learned from an independent BiLSTM via label embedding attention mechanism. In document-level, the key-value memory network is adopted to record the document-aware information for each unique word which is sensitive to similarity of context information. Our two-level hierarchical contextualized representations are fused with each input token embedding and corresponding hidden state of BiLSTM, respectively. The experimental results on three benchmark NER datasets (CoNLL-2003 and Ontonotes 5.0 English datasets, CoNLL-2002 Spanish dataset) show that we establish new state-of-the-art results.

* Accepted by AAAI 2020 

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