In this paper, we propose PointRCNN for 3D object detection from raw point cloud. The whole framework is composed of two stages: stage-1 for the bottom-up 3D proposal generation and stage-2 for refining proposals in the canonical coordinates to obtain the final detection results. Instead of generating proposals from RGB image or projecting point cloud to bird's view or voxels as previous methods do, our stage-1 sub-network directly generates a small number of high-quality 3D proposals from point cloud in a bottom-up manner via segmenting the point cloud of whole scene into foreground points and background. The stage-2 sub-network transforms the pooled points of each proposal to canonical coordinates to learn better local spatial features, which is combined with global semantic features of each point learned in stage-1 for accurate box refinement and confidence prediction. Extensive experiments on the 3D detection benchmark of KITTI dataset show that our proposed architecture outperforms state-of-the-art methods with remarkable margins by using only point cloud as input.

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In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for analysis-based sparsity reconstruction. It can solve the generalized problem by structured sparsity regularization with an orthogonal basis and total variation regularization. The proposed algorithm is based on the iterative reweighted least squares (IRLS) model, which is further accelerated by the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The convergence rate of the proposed algorithm is almost the same as that of the traditional IRLS algorithms, that is, exponentially fast. Moreover, with the specifically devised preconditioner, the computational cost for each iteration is significantly less than that of traditional IRLS algorithms, which enables our approach to handle large scale problems. In addition to the fast convergence, it is straightforward to apply our method to standard sparsity, group sparsity, overlapping group sparsity and TV based problems. Experiments are conducted on a practical application: compressive sensing magnetic resonance imaging. Extensive results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves superior performance over 14 state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both accuracy and computational cost.

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We present highly efficient algorithms for performing forward and backward propagation of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for pixelwise classification on images. For pixelwise classification tasks, such as image segmentation and object detection, surrounding image patches are fed into CNN for predicting the classes of centered pixels via forward propagation and for updating CNN parameters via backward propagation. However, forward and backward propagation was originally designed for whole-image classification. Directly applying it to pixelwise classification in a patch-by-patch scanning manner is extremely inefficient, because surrounding patches of pixels have large overlaps, which lead to a lot of redundant computation. The proposed algorithms eliminate all the redundant computation in convolution and pooling on images by introducing novel d-regularly sparse kernels. It generates exactly the same results as those by patch-by-patch scanning. Convolution and pooling operations with such kernels are able to continuously access memory and can run efficiently on GPUs. A fraction of patches of interest can be chosen from each training image for backward propagation by applying a mask to the error map at the last CNN layer. Its computation complexity is constant with respect to the number of patches sampled from the image. Experiments have shown that our proposed algorithms speed up commonly used patch-by-patch scanning over 1500 times in both forward and backward propagation. The speedup increases with the sizes of images and patches.

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Statistical features, such as histogram, Bag-of-Words (BoW) and Fisher Vector, were commonly used with hand-crafted features in conventional classification methods, but attract less attention since the popularity of deep learning methods. In this paper, we propose a learnable histogram layer, which learns histogram features within deep neural networks in end-to-end training. Such a layer is able to back-propagate (BP) errors, learn optimal bin centers and bin widths, and be jointly optimized with other layers in deep networks during training. Two vision problems, semantic segmentation and object detection, are explored by integrating the learnable histogram layer into deep networks, which show that the proposed layer could be well generalized to different applications. In-depth investigations are conducted to provide insights on the newly introduced layer.

* refined some typos, ECCV 2016
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Scene labeling is a challenging classification problem where each input image requires a pixel-level prediction map. Recently, deep-learning-based methods have shown their effectiveness on solving this problem. However, we argue that the large intra-class variation provides ambiguous training information and hinders the deep models' ability to learn more discriminative deep feature representations. Unlike existing methods that mainly utilize semantic context for regularizing or smoothing the prediction map, we design novel supervisions from semantic context for learning better deep feature representations. Two types of semantic context, scene names of images and label map statistics of image patches, are exploited to create label hierarchies between the original classes and newly created subclasses as the learning supervisions. Such subclasses show lower intra-class variation, and help CNN detect more meaningful visual patterns and learn more effective deep features. Novel training strategies and network structure that take advantages of such label hierarchies are introduced. Our proposed method is evaluated extensively on four popular datasets, Stanford Background (8 classes), SIFTFlow (33 classes), Barcelona (170 classes) and LM+Sun datasets (232 classes) with 3 different networks structures, and show state-of-the-art performance. The experiments show that our proposed method makes deep models learn more discriminative feature representations without increasing model size or complexity.

* 13 pages
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Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have achieved great success. On the other hand, modeling structural information has been proved critical in many vision problems. It is of great interest to integrate them effectively. In a classical neural network, there is no message passing between neurons in the same layer. In this paper, we propose a CRF-CNN framework which can simultaneously model structural information in both output and hidden feature layers in a probabilistic way, and it is applied to human pose estimation. A message passing scheme is proposed, so that in various layers each body joint receives messages from all the others in an efficient way. Such message passing can be implemented with convolution between features maps in the same layer, and it is also integrated with feedforward propagation in neural networks. Finally, a neural network implementation of end-to-end learning CRF-CNN is provided. Its effectiveness is demonstrated through experiments on two benchmark datasets.

* NIPS
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Learning generic and robust feature representations with data from multiple domains for the same problem is of great value, especially for the problems that have multiple datasets but none of them are large enough to provide abundant data variations. In this work, we present a pipeline for learning deep feature representations from multiple domains with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). When training a CNN with data from all the domains, some neurons learn representations shared across several domains, while some others are effective only for a specific one. Based on this important observation, we propose a Domain Guided Dropout algorithm to improve the feature learning procedure. Experiments show the effectiveness of our pipeline and the proposed algorithm. Our methods on the person re-identification problem outperform state-of-the-art methods on multiple datasets by large margins.

* To appear in CVPR2016
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Deep Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown impressive performance in various vision tasks such as image classification, object detection and semantic segmentation. For object detection, particularly in still images, the performance has been significantly increased last year thanks to powerful deep networks (e.g. GoogleNet) and detection frameworks (e.g. Regions with CNN features (R-CNN)). The lately introduced ImageNet task on object detection from video (VID) brings the object detection task into the video domain, in which objects' locations at each frame are required to be annotated with bounding boxes. In this work, we introduce a complete framework for the VID task based on still-image object detection and general object tracking. Their relations and contributions in the VID task are thoroughly studied and evaluated. In addition, a temporal convolution network is proposed to incorporate temporal information to regularize the detection results and shows its effectiveness for the task.

* Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016 IEEE Conference on (pp. 817-825)
* Accepted in CVPR 2016 as a Spotlight paper
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In this paper, we propose a structured feature learning framework to reason the correlations among body joints at the feature level in human pose estimation. Different from existing approaches of modelling structures on score maps or predicted labels, feature maps preserve substantially richer descriptions of body joints. The relationships between feature maps of joints are captured with the introduced geometrical transform kernels, which can be easily implemented with a convolution layer. Features and their relationships are jointly learned in an end-to-end learning system. A bi-directional tree structured model is proposed, so that the feature channels at a body joint can well receive information from other joints. The proposed framework improves feature learning substantially. With very simple post processing, it reaches the best mean PCP on the LSP and FLIC datasets. Compared with the baseline of learning features at each joint separately with ConvNet, the mean PCP has been improved by 18% on FLIC. The code is released to the public.

* Accepted by CVPR2016
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Recently, the Visual Question Answering (VQA) task has gained increasing attention in artificial intelligence. Existing VQA methods mainly adopt the visual attention mechanism to associate the input question with corresponding image regions for effective question answering. The free-form region based and the detection-based visual attention mechanisms are mostly investigated, with the former ones attending free-form image regions and the latter ones attending pre-specified detection-box regions. We argue that the two attention mechanisms are able to provide complementary information and should be effectively integrated to better solve the VQA problem. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural network for VQA that integrates both attention mechanisms. Our proposed framework effectively fuses features from free-form image regions, detection boxes, and question representations via a multi-modal multiplicative feature embedding scheme to jointly attend question-related free-form image regions and detection boxes for more accurate question answering. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on two publicly available datasets, COCO-QA and VQA, and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Source code is available at https://github.com/lupantech/dual-mfa-vqa.

* To appear in AAAI 2018
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Textual-visual matching aims at measuring similarities between sentence descriptions and images. Most existing methods tackle this problem without effectively utilizing identity-level annotations. In this paper, we propose an identity-aware two-stage framework for the textual-visual matching problem. Our stage-1 CNN-LSTM network learns to embed cross-modal features with a novel Cross-Modal Cross-Entropy (CMCE) loss. The stage-1 network is able to efficiently screen easy incorrect matchings and also provide initial training point for the stage-2 training. The stage-2 CNN-LSTM network refines the matching results with a latent co-attention mechanism. The spatial attention relates each word with corresponding image regions while the latent semantic attention aligns different sentence structures to make the matching results more robust to sentence structure variations. Extensive experiments on three datasets with identity-level annotations show that our framework outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by large margins.

* Accepted to ICCV 2017
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Articulated human pose estimation is a fundamental yet challenging task in computer vision. The difficulty is particularly pronounced in scale variations of human body parts when camera view changes or severe foreshortening happens. Although pyramid methods are widely used to handle scale changes at inference time, learning feature pyramids in deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) is still not well explored. In this work, we design a Pyramid Residual Module (PRMs) to enhance the invariance in scales of DCNNs. Given input features, the PRMs learn convolutional filters on various scales of input features, which are obtained with different subsampling ratios in a multi-branch network. Moreover, we observe that it is inappropriate to adopt existing methods to initialize the weights of multi-branch networks, which achieve superior performance than plain networks in many tasks recently. Therefore, we provide theoretic derivation to extend the current weight initialization scheme to multi-branch network structures. We investigate our method on two standard benchmarks for human pose estimation. Our approach obtains state-of-the-art results on both benchmarks. Code is available at https://github.com/bearpaw/PyraNet.

* Submitted to ICCV 2017
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Dense depth cues are important and have wide applications in various computer vision tasks. In autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors are adopted to acquire depth measurements around the vehicle to perceive the surrounding environments. However, depth maps obtained by LIDAR are generally sparse because of its hardware limitation. The task of depth completion attracts increasing attention, which aims at generating a dense depth map from an input sparse depth map. To effectively utilize multi-scale features, we propose three novel sparsity-invariant operations, based on which, a sparsity-invariant multi-scale encoder-decoder network (HMS-Net) for handling sparse inputs and sparse feature maps is also proposed. Additional RGB features could be incorporated to further improve the depth completion performance. Our extensive experiments and component analysis on two public benchmarks, KITTI depth completion benchmark and NYU-depth-v2 dataset, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. As of Aug. 12th, 2018, on KITTI depth completion leaderboard, our proposed model without RGB guidance ranks first among all peer-reviewed methods without using RGB information, and our model with RGB guidance ranks second among all RGB-guided methods.

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Monocular depth estimation aims at estimating a pixelwise depth map for a single image, which has wide applications in scene understanding and autonomous driving. Existing supervised and unsupervised methods face great challenges. Supervised methods require large amounts of depth measurement data, which are generally difficult to obtain, while unsupervised methods are usually limited in estimation accuracy. Synthetic data generated by graphics engines provide a possible solution for collecting large amounts of depth data. However, the large domain gaps between synthetic and realistic data make directly training with them challenging. In this paper, we propose to use the stereo matching network as a proxy to learn depth from synthetic data and use predicted stereo disparity maps for supervising the monocular depth estimation network. Cross-domain synthetic data could be fully utilized in this novel framework. Different strategies are proposed to ensure learned depth perception capability well transferred across different domains. Our extensive experiments show state-of-the-art results of monocular depth estimation on KITTI dataset.

* ECCV 2018
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Environment perception is an important task with great practical value and bird view is an essential part for creating panoramas of surrounding environment. Due to the large gap and severe deformation between the frontal view and bird view, generating a bird view image from a single frontal view is challenging. To tackle this problem, we propose the BridgeGAN, i.e., a novel generative model for bird view synthesis. First, an intermediate view, i.e., homography view, is introduced to bridge the large gap. Next, conditioned on the three views (frontal view, homography view and bird view) in our task, a multi-GAN based model is proposed to learn the challenging cross-view translation. Extensive experiments conducted on a synthetic dataset have demonstrated that the images generated by our model are much better than those generated by existing methods, with more consistent global appearance and sharper details. Ablation studies and discussions show its reliability and robustness in some challenging cases.

* Accepted to 3DV 2018
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Person re-identification aims to robustly measure similarities between person images. The significant variation of person poses and viewing angles challenges for accurate person re-identification. The spatial layout and correspondences between query person images are vital information for tackling this problem but are ignored by most state-of-the-art methods. In this paper, we propose a novel Kronecker Product Matching module to match feature maps of different persons in an end-to-end trainable deep neural network. A novel feature soft warping scheme is designed for aligning the feature maps based on matching results, which is shown to be crucial for achieving superior accuracy. The multi-scale features based on hourglass-like networks and self-residual attention are also exploited to further boost the re-identification performance. The proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the Market-1501, CUHK03, and DukeMTMC datasets, which demonstrates the effectiveness and generalization ability of our proposed approach.

* CVPR 2018 poster
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The person re-identification task requires to robustly estimate visual similarities between person images. However, existing person re-identification models mostly estimate the similarities of different image pairs of probe and gallery images independently while ignores the relationship information between different probe-gallery pairs. As a result, the similarity estimation of some hard samples might not be accurate. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning framework, named Similarity-Guided Graph Neural Network (SGGNN) to overcome such limitations. Given a probe image and several gallery images, SGGNN creates a graph to represent the pairwise relationships between probe-gallery pairs (nodes) and utilizes such relationships to update the probe-gallery relation features in an end-to-end manner. Accurate similarity estimation can be achieved by using such updated probe-gallery relation features for prediction. The input features for nodes on the graph are the relation features of different probe-gallery image pairs. The probe-gallery relation feature updating is then performed by the messages passing in SGGNN, which takes other nodes' information into account for similarity estimation. Different from conventional GNN approaches, SGGNN learns the edge weights with rich labels of gallery instance pairs directly, which provides relation fusion more precise information. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated on three public person re-identification datasets.

* accepted to ECCV 2018
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The aim of image captioning is to generate captions by machine to describe image contents. Despite many efforts, generating discriminative captions for images remains non-trivial. Most traditional approaches imitate the language structure patterns, thus tend to fall into a stereotype of replicating frequent phrases or sentences and neglect unique aspects of each image. In this work, we propose an image captioning framework with a self-retrieval module as training guidance, which encourages generating discriminative captions. It brings unique advantages: (1) the self-retrieval guidance can act as a metric and an evaluator of caption discriminativeness to assure the quality of generated captions. (2) The correspondence between generated captions and images are naturally incorporated in the generation process without human annotations, and hence our approach could utilize a large amount of unlabeled images to boost captioning performance with no additional laborious annotations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed retrieval-guided method on COCO and Flickr30k captioning datasets, and show its superior captioning performance with more discriminative captions.

* Accepted by ECCV 2018
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Online Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) is a challenging problem and has many important applications including intelligence surveillance, robot navigation and autonomous driving. In existing MOT methods, individual object's movements and inter-object relations are mostly modeled separately and relations between them are still manually tuned. In addition, inter-object relations are mostly modeled in a symmetric way, which we argue is not an optimal setting. To tackle those difficulties, in this paper, we propose a Deep Continuous Conditional Random Field (DCCRF) for solving the online MOT problem in a track-by-detection framework. The DCCRF consists of unary and pairwise terms. The unary terms estimate tracked objects' displacements across time based on visual appearance information. They are modeled as deep Convolution Neural Networks, which are able to learn discriminative visual features for tracklet association. The asymmetric pairwise terms model inter-object relations in an asymmetric way, which encourages high-confidence tracklets to help correct errors of low-confidence tracklets and not to be affected by low-confidence ones much. The DCCRF is trained in an end-to-end manner for better adapting the influences of visual information as well as inter-object relations. Extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-arts as well as detailed component analysis of our proposed DCCRF on two public benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed MOT framework.

* Accepted to TCSVT
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Vehicle re-identification is an important problem and has many applications in video surveillance and intelligent transportation. It gains increasing attention because of the recent advances of person re-identification techniques. However, unlike person re-identification, the visual differences between pairs of vehicle images are usually subtle and even challenging for humans to distinguish. Incorporating additional spatio-temporal information is vital for solving the challenging re-identification task. Existing vehicle re-identification methods ignored or used over-simplified models for the spatio-temporal relations between vehicle images. In this paper, we propose a two-stage framework that incorporates complex spatio-temporal information for effectively regularizing the re-identification results. Given a pair of vehicle images with their spatio-temporal information, a candidate visual-spatio-temporal path is first generated by a chain MRF model with a deeply learned potential function, where each visual-spatio-temporal state corresponds to an actual vehicle image with its spatio-temporal information. A Siamese-CNN+Path-LSTM model takes the candidate path as well as the pairwise queries to generate their similarity score. Extensive experiments and analysis show the effectiveness of our proposed method and individual components.

* To appear in ICCV 2017
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