Models, code, and papers for "Jeffrey Dean":

Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space

Sep 07, 2013
Tomas Mikolov, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado, Jeffrey Dean

We propose two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets. The quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task, and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks. We observe large improvements in accuracy at much lower computational cost, i.e. it takes less than a day to learn high quality word vectors from a 1.6 billion words data set. Furthermore, we show that these vectors provide state-of-the-art performance on our test set for measuring syntactic and semantic word similarities.


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Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases and their Compositionality

Oct 16, 2013
Tomas Mikolov, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado, Jeffrey Dean

The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. We also describe a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling. An inherent limitation of word representations is their indifference to word order and their inability to represent idiomatic phrases. For example, the meanings of "Canada" and "Air" cannot be easily combined to obtain "Air Canada". Motivated by this example, we present a simple method for finding phrases in text, and show that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible.


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The Case for Learned Index Structures

Apr 30, 2018
Tim Kraska, Alex Beutel, Ed H. Chi, Jeffrey Dean, Neoklis Polyzotis

Indexes are models: a B-Tree-Index can be seen as a model to map a key to the position of a record within a sorted array, a Hash-Index as a model to map a key to a position of a record within an unsorted array, and a BitMap-Index as a model to indicate if a data record exists or not. In this exploratory research paper, we start from this premise and posit that all existing index structures can be replaced with other types of models, including deep-learning models, which we term learned indexes. The key idea is that a model can learn the sort order or structure of lookup keys and use this signal to effectively predict the position or existence of records. We theoretically analyze under which conditions learned indexes outperform traditional index structures and describe the main challenges in designing learned index structures. Our initial results show, that by using neural nets we are able to outperform cache-optimized B-Trees by up to 70% in speed while saving an order-of-magnitude in memory over several real-world data sets. More importantly though, we believe that the idea of replacing core components of a data management system through learned models has far reaching implications for future systems designs and that this work just provides a glimpse of what might be possible.


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Zero-Shot Learning by Convex Combination of Semantic Embeddings

Mar 21, 2014
Mohammad Norouzi, Tomas Mikolov, Samy Bengio, Yoram Singer, Jonathon Shlens, Andrea Frome, Greg S. Corrado, Jeffrey Dean

Several recent publications have proposed methods for mapping images into continuous semantic embedding spaces. In some cases the embedding space is trained jointly with the image transformation. In other cases the semantic embedding space is established by an independent natural language processing task, and then the image transformation into that space is learned in a second stage. Proponents of these image embedding systems have stressed their advantages over the traditional \nway{} classification framing of image understanding, particularly in terms of the promise for zero-shot learning -- the ability to correctly annotate images of previously unseen object categories. In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing an image embedding system from any existing \nway{} image classifier and a semantic word embedding model, which contains the $\n$ class labels in its vocabulary. Our method maps images into the semantic embedding space via convex combination of the class label embedding vectors, and requires no additional training. We show that this simple and direct method confers many of the advantages associated with more complex image embedding schemes, and indeed outperforms state of the art methods on the ImageNet zero-shot learning task.


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Microscope 2.0: An Augmented Reality Microscope with Real-time Artificial Intelligence Integration

Dec 04, 2018
Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen, Krishna Gadepalli, Robert MacDonald, Yun Liu, Kunal Nagpal, Timo Kohlberger, Jeffrey Dean, Greg S. Corrado, Jason D. Hipp, Martin C. Stumpe

The brightfield microscope is instrumental in the visual examination of both biological and physical samples at sub-millimeter scales. One key clinical application has been in cancer histopathology, where the microscopic assessment of the tissue samples is used for the diagnosis and staging of cancer and thus guides clinical therapy. However, the interpretation of these samples is inherently subjective, resulting in significant diagnostic variability. Moreover, in many regions of the world, access to pathologists is severely limited due to lack of trained personnel. In this regard, Artificial Intelligence (AI) based tools promise to improve the access and quality of healthcare. However, despite significant advances in AI research, integration of these tools into real-world cancer diagnosis workflows remains challenging because of the costs of image digitization and difficulties in deploying AI solutions. Here we propose a cost-effective solution to the integration of AI: the Augmented Reality Microscope (ARM). The ARM overlays AI-based information onto the current view of the sample through the optical pathway in real-time, enabling seamless integration of AI into the regular microscopy workflow. We demonstrate the utility of ARM in the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer and the identification of prostate cancer with a latency that supports real-time workflows. We anticipate that ARM will remove barriers towards the use of AI in microscopic analysis and thus improve the accuracy and efficiency of cancer diagnosis. This approach is applicable to other microscopy tasks and AI algorithms in the life sciences and beyond.


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Google's Multilingual Neural Machine Translation System: Enabling Zero-Shot Translation

Aug 21, 2017
Melvin Johnson, Mike Schuster, Quoc V. Le, Maxim Krikun, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, Nikhil Thorat, Fernanda Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, Greg Corrado, Macduff Hughes, Jeffrey Dean

We propose a simple solution to use a single Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model to translate between multiple languages. Our solution requires no change in the model architecture from our base system but instead introduces an artificial token at the beginning of the input sentence to specify the required target language. The rest of the model, which includes encoder, decoder and attention, remains unchanged and is shared across all languages. Using a shared wordpiece vocabulary, our approach enables Multilingual NMT using a single model without any increase in parameters, which is significantly simpler than previous proposals for Multilingual NMT. Our method often improves the translation quality of all involved language pairs, even while keeping the total number of model parameters constant. On the WMT'14 benchmarks, a single multilingual model achieves comparable performance for English$\rightarrow$French and surpasses state-of-the-art results for English$\rightarrow$German. Similarly, a single multilingual model surpasses state-of-the-art results for French$\rightarrow$English and German$\rightarrow$English on WMT'14 and WMT'15 benchmarks respectively. On production corpora, multilingual models of up to twelve language pairs allow for better translation of many individual pairs. In addition to improving the translation quality of language pairs that the model was trained with, our models can also learn to perform implicit bridging between language pairs never seen explicitly during training, showing that transfer learning and zero-shot translation is possible for neural translation. Finally, we show analyses that hints at a universal interlingua representation in our models and show some interesting examples when mixing languages.


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Accelerating Deep Learning by Focusing on the Biggest Losers

Oct 02, 2019
Angela H. Jiang, Daniel L. -K. Wong, Giulio Zhou, David G. Andersen, Jeffrey Dean, Gregory R. Ganger, Gauri Joshi, Michael Kaminksy, Michael Kozuch, Zachary C. Lipton, Padmanabhan Pillai

This paper introduces Selective-Backprop, a technique that accelerates the training of deep neural networks (DNNs) by prioritizing examples with high loss at each iteration. Selective-Backprop uses the output of a training example's forward pass to decide whether to use that example to compute gradients and update parameters, or to skip immediately to the next example. By reducing the number of computationally-expensive backpropagation steps performed, Selective-Backprop accelerates training. Evaluation on CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and SVHN, across a variety of modern image models, shows that Selective-Backprop converges to target error rates up to 3.5x faster than with standard SGD and between 1.02--1.8x faster than a state-of-the-art importance sampling approach. Further acceleration of 26% can be achieved by using stale forward pass results for selection, thus also skipping forward passes of low priority examples.


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TensorFlow: A system for large-scale machine learning

May 31, 2016
Martín Abadi, Paul Barham, Jianmin Chen, Zhifeng Chen, Andy Davis, Jeffrey Dean, Matthieu Devin, Sanjay Ghemawat, Geoffrey Irving, Michael Isard, Manjunath Kudlur, Josh Levenberg, Rajat Monga, Sherry Moore, Derek G. Murray, Benoit Steiner, Paul Tucker, Vijay Vasudevan, Pete Warden, Martin Wicke, Yuan Yu, Xiaoqiang Zheng

TensorFlow is a machine learning system that operates at large scale and in heterogeneous environments. TensorFlow uses dataflow graphs to represent computation, shared state, and the operations that mutate that state. It maps the nodes of a dataflow graph across many machines in a cluster, and within a machine across multiple computational devices, including multicore CPUs, general-purpose GPUs, and custom designed ASICs known as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). This architecture gives flexibility to the application developer: whereas in previous "parameter server" designs the management of shared state is built into the system, TensorFlow enables developers to experiment with novel optimizations and training algorithms. TensorFlow supports a variety of applications, with particularly strong support for training and inference on deep neural networks. Several Google services use TensorFlow in production, we have released it as an open-source project, and it has become widely used for machine learning research. In this paper, we describe the TensorFlow dataflow model in contrast to existing systems, and demonstrate the compelling performance that TensorFlow achieves for several real-world applications.

* 18 pages, 9 figures; v2 has a spelling correction in the metadata 

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Google's Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation

Oct 08, 2016
Yonghui Wu, Mike Schuster, Zhifeng Chen, Quoc V. Le, Mohammad Norouzi, Wolfgang Macherey, Maxim Krikun, Yuan Cao, Qin Gao, Klaus Macherey, Jeff Klingner, Apurva Shah, Melvin Johnson, Xiaobing Liu, Łukasz Kaiser, Stephan Gouws, Yoshikiyo Kato, Taku Kudo, Hideto Kazawa, Keith Stevens, George Kurian, Nishant Patil, Wei Wang, Cliff Young, Jason Smith, Jason Riesa, Alex Rudnick, Oriol Vinyals, Greg Corrado, Macduff Hughes, Jeffrey Dean

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is an end-to-end learning approach for automated translation, with the potential to overcome many of the weaknesses of conventional phrase-based translation systems. Unfortunately, NMT systems are known to be computationally expensive both in training and in translation inference. Also, most NMT systems have difficulty with rare words. These issues have hindered NMT's use in practical deployments and services, where both accuracy and speed are essential. In this work, we present GNMT, Google's Neural Machine Translation system, which attempts to address many of these issues. Our model consists of a deep LSTM network with 8 encoder and 8 decoder layers using attention and residual connections. To improve parallelism and therefore decrease training time, our attention mechanism connects the bottom layer of the decoder to the top layer of the encoder. To accelerate the final translation speed, we employ low-precision arithmetic during inference computations. To improve handling of rare words, we divide words into a limited set of common sub-word units ("wordpieces") for both input and output. This method provides a good balance between the flexibility of "character"-delimited models and the efficiency of "word"-delimited models, naturally handles translation of rare words, and ultimately improves the overall accuracy of the system. Our beam search technique employs a length-normalization procedure and uses a coverage penalty, which encourages generation of an output sentence that is most likely to cover all the words in the source sentence. On the WMT'14 English-to-French and English-to-German benchmarks, GNMT achieves competitive results to state-of-the-art. Using a human side-by-side evaluation on a set of isolated simple sentences, it reduces translation errors by an average of 60% compared to Google's phrase-based production system.


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TensorFlow: Large-Scale Machine Learning on Heterogeneous Distributed Systems

Mar 16, 2016
Martín Abadi, Ashish Agarwal, Paul Barham, Eugene Brevdo, Zhifeng Chen, Craig Citro, Greg S. Corrado, Andy Davis, Jeffrey Dean, Matthieu Devin, Sanjay Ghemawat, Ian Goodfellow, Andrew Harp, Geoffrey Irving, Michael Isard, Yangqing Jia, Rafal Jozefowicz, Lukasz Kaiser, Manjunath Kudlur, Josh Levenberg, Dan Mane, Rajat Monga, Sherry Moore, Derek Murray, Chris Olah, Mike Schuster, Jonathon Shlens, Benoit Steiner, Ilya Sutskever, Kunal Talwar, Paul Tucker, Vincent Vanhoucke, Vijay Vasudevan, Fernanda Viegas, Oriol Vinyals, Pete Warden, Martin Wattenberg, Martin Wicke, Yuan Yu, Xiaoqiang Zheng

TensorFlow is an interface for expressing machine learning algorithms, and an implementation for executing such algorithms. A computation expressed using TensorFlow can be executed with little or no change on a wide variety of heterogeneous systems, ranging from mobile devices such as phones and tablets up to large-scale distributed systems of hundreds of machines and thousands of computational devices such as GPU cards. The system is flexible and can be used to express a wide variety of algorithms, including training and inference algorithms for deep neural network models, and it has been used for conducting research and for deploying machine learning systems into production across more than a dozen areas of computer science and other fields, including speech recognition, computer vision, robotics, information retrieval, natural language processing, geographic information extraction, and computational drug discovery. This paper describes the TensorFlow interface and an implementation of that interface that we have built at Google. The TensorFlow API and a reference implementation were released as an open-source package under the Apache 2.0 license in November, 2015 and are available at www.tensorflow.org.

* Version 2 updates only the metadata, to correct the formatting of Mart\'in Abadi's name 

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Image Space Potential Fields: Constant Size Environment Representation for Vision-based Subsumption Control Architectures

Sep 26, 2017
Jeffrey Kane Johnson

This technical report presents an environment representation for use in vision-based navigation. The representation has two useful properties: 1) it has constant size, which can enable strong run-time guarantees to be made for control algorithms using it, and 2) it is structurally similar to a camera image space, which effectively allows control to operate in the sensor space rather than employing difficult, and often inaccurate, projections into a structurally different control space (e.g. Euclidean). The presented representation is intended to form the basis of a vision-based subsumption control architecture.

* Maeve Automation Technical Report. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1709.03947 

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Constant Space Complexity Environment Representation for Vision-based Navigation

Sep 12, 2017
Jeffrey Kane Johnson

This paper presents a preliminary conceptual investigation into an environment representation that has constant space complexity with respect to the camera image space. This type of representation allows the planning algorithms of a mobile agent to bypass what are often complex and noisy transformations between camera image space and Euclidean space. The approach is to compute per-pixel potential values directly from processed camera data, which results in a discrete potential field that has constant space complexity with respect to the image plane. This can enable planning and control algorithms, whose complexity often depends on the size of the environment representation, to be defined with constant run-time. This type of approach can be particularly useful for platforms with strict resource constraints, such as embedded and real-time systems.

* IROS 2017: 9th Workshop on Planning, Perception and Navigation for Intelligent Vehicles 

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A Generalized Matrix Inverse with Applications to Robotic Systems

May 07, 2018
Bo Zhang, Jeffrey Uhlmann

It is well-understood that the robustness of mechanical and robotic control systems depends critically on minimizing sensitivity to arbitrary application-specific details whenever possible. For example, if a system is defined and performs well in one particular Euclidean coordinate frame then it should be expected to perform identically if that coordinate frame is arbitrarily rotated or scaled. Similarly, the performance of the system should not be affected if its key parameters are all consistently defined in metric units or in imperial units. In this paper we show that a recently introduced generalized matrix inverse permits performance consistency to be rigorously guaranteed in control systems that require solutions to underdetermined and/or overdetermined systems of equations.


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Improved Support Recovery Guarantees for the Group Lasso With Applications to Structural Health Monitoring

May 19, 2018
Mojtaba Kadkhodaie Elyaderani, Swayambhoo Jain, Jeffrey Druce, Stefano Gonella, Jarvis Haupt

This paper considers the problem of estimating an unknown high dimensional signal from noisy linear measurements, {when} the signal is assumed to possess a \emph{group-sparse} structure in a {known,} fixed dictionary. We consider signals generated according to a natural probabilistic model, and establish new conditions under which the set of indices of the non-zero groups of the signal (called the group-level support) may be accurately estimated via the group Lasso. Our results strengthen existing coherence-based analyses that exhibit the well-known "square root" bottleneck, allowing for the number of recoverable nonzero groups to be nearly as large as the total number of groups. We also establish a sufficient recovery condition relating the number of nonzero groups and the signal to noise ratio (quantified in terms of the ratio of the squared Euclidean norms of nonzero groups and the variance of the random additive {measurement} noise), and validate this trend empirically. Finally, we examine the implications of our results in the context of a structural health monitoring application, where the group Lasso approach facilitates demixing of a propagating acoustic wavefield, acquired on the material surface by a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, into antithetical components, one of which indicates the locations of internal material defects.


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word2vec Explained: deriving Mikolov et al.'s negative-sampling word-embedding method

Feb 15, 2014
Yoav Goldberg, Omer Levy

The word2vec software of Tomas Mikolov and colleagues (https://code.google.com/p/word2vec/ ) has gained a lot of traction lately, and provides state-of-the-art word embeddings. The learning models behind the software are described in two research papers. We found the description of the models in these papers to be somewhat cryptic and hard to follow. While the motivations and presentation may be obvious to the neural-networks language-modeling crowd, we had to struggle quite a bit to figure out the rationale behind the equations. This note is an attempt to explain equation (4) (negative sampling) in "Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases and their Compositionality" by Tomas Mikolov, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado and Jeffrey Dean.


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