Models, code, and papers for "Jianjun Zhao":
State-of-the-art face recognition algorithms are able to achieve good performance when sufficient training images are provided. Unfortunately, the number of facial images is limited in some real face recognition applications. In this paper, we propose ComplexFace, a novel and effective algorithm for face recognition with limited samples using complex number based data augmentation. The algorithm first generates new representations from original samples and then fuse both into complex numbers, which avoids the difficulty of weight setting in other fusion approaches. A test sample can then be expressed by the linear combination of all the training samples, which mapped the sample to the new representation space for classification by the kernel function. The collaborative representation based classifier is then built to make predictions. Extensive experiments on the Georgia Tech (GT) face database and the ORL face database show that our algorithm significantly outperforms existing methods: the average errors of previous approaches ranging from 31.66% to 41.75% are reduced to 14.54% over the GT database; the average errors of previous approaches ranging from 5.21% to 10.99% are reduced to 1.67% over the ORL database. In other words, our algorithm has decreased the average errors by up to 84.80% on the ORL database.
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has proved effective in many clustering and classification tasks. The classic ways to measure the errors between the original and the reconstructed matrix are $l_2$ distance or Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence. However, nonlinear cases are not properly handled when we use these error measures. As a consequence, alternative measures based on nonlinear kernels, such as correntropy, are proposed. However, the current correntropy-based NMF only targets on the low-level features without considering the intrinsic geometrical distribution of data. In this paper, we propose a new NMF algorithm that preserves local invariance by adding graph regularization into the process of max-correntropy-based matrix factorization. Meanwhile, each feature can learn corresponding kernel from the data. The experiment results of Caltech101 and Caltech256 show the benefits of such combination against other NMF algorithms for the unsupervised image clustering.
Deep learning (DL) defines a data-driven programming paradigm that automatically composes the system decision logic from the training data. In company with the data explosion and hardware acceleration during the past decade, DL achieves tremendous success in many cutting-edge applications. However, even the state-of-the-art DL systems still suffer from quality and reliability issues. It was only until recently that some preliminary progress was made in testing feed-forward DL systems. In contrast to feed-forward DL systems, recurrent neural networks (RNN) follow a very different architectural design, implementing temporal behaviors and memory with loops and internal states. Such stateful nature of RNN contributes to its success in handling sequential inputs such as audio, natural languages and video processing, but also poses new challenges for quality assurance. In this paper, we initiate the very first step towards testing RNN-based stateful DL systems. We model RNN as an abstract state transition system, based on which we define a set of test coverage criteria specialized for stateful DL systems. Moreover, we propose an automated testing framework, DeepCruiser, which systematically generates tests in large scale to uncover defects of stateful DL systems with coverage guidance. Our in-depth evaluation on a state-of-the-art speech-to-text DL system demonstrates the effectiveness of our technique in improving quality and reliability of stateful DL systems.
Deep learning (DL) has achieved remarkable progress over the past decade and been widely applied to many safety-critical applications. However, the robustness of DL systems recently receives great concerns, such as adversarial examples against computer vision systems, which could potentially result in severe consequences. Adopting testing techniques could help to evaluate the robustness of a DL system and therefore detect vulnerabilities at an early stage. The main challenge of testing such systems is that its runtime state space is too large: if we view each neuron as a runtime state for DL, then a DL system often contains massive states, rendering testing each state almost impossible. For traditional software, combinatorial testing (CT) is an effective testing technique to reduce the testing space while obtaining relatively high defect detection abilities. In this paper, we perform an exploratory study of CT on DL systems. We adapt the concept in CT and propose a set of coverage criteria for DL systems, as well as a CT coverage guided test generation technique. Our evaluation demonstrates that CT provides a promising avenue for testing DL systems. We further pose several open questions and interesting directions for combinatorial testing of DL systems.
Deep learning (DL) has recently achieved tremendous success in a variety of cutting-edge applications, e.g., image recognition, speech and natural language processing, and autonomous driving. Besides the available big data and hardware evolution, DL frameworks and platforms play a key role to catalyze the research, development, and deployment of DL intelligent solutions. However, the difference in computation paradigm, architecture design and implementation of existing DL frameworks and platforms brings challenges for DL software development, deployment, maintenance, and migration. Up to the present, it still lacks a comprehensive study on how current diverse DL frameworks and platforms influence the DL software development process. In this paper, we initiate the first step towards the investigation on how existing state-of-the-art DL frameworks (i.e., TensorFlow, Theano, and Torch) and platforms (i.e., server/desktop, web, and mobile) support the DL software development activities. We perform an in-depth and comparative evaluation on metrics such as learning accuracy, DL model size, robustness, and performance, on state-of-the-art DL frameworks across platforms using two popular datasets MNIST and CIFAR-10. Our study reveals that existing DL frameworks still suffer from compatibility issues, which becomes even more severe when it comes to different platforms. We pinpoint the current challenges and opportunities towards developing high quality and compatible DL systems. To ignite further investigation along this direction to address urgent industrial demands of intelligent solutions, we make all of our assembled feasible toolchain and dataset publicly available.
Deep Learning (DL) has recently achieved tremendous success. A variety of DL frameworks and platforms play a key role to catalyze such progress. However, the differences in architecture designs and implementations of existing frameworks and platforms bring new challenges for DL software development and deployment. Till now, there is no study on how various mainstream frameworks and platforms influence both DL software development and deployment in practice. To fill this gap, we take the first step towards understanding how the most widely-used DL frameworks and platforms support the DL software development and deployment. We conduct a systematic study on these frameworks and platforms by using two types of DNN architectures and three popular datasets. (1) For development process, we investigate the prediction accuracy under the same runtime training configuration or same model weights/biases. We also study the adversarial robustness of trained models by leveraging the existing adversarial attack techniques. The experimental results show that the computing differences across frameworks could result in an obvious prediction accuracy decline, which should draw the attention of DL developers. (2) For deployment process, we investigate the prediction accuracy and performance (refers to time cost and memory consumption) when the trained models are migrated/quantized from PC to real mobile devices and web browsers. The DL platform study unveils that the migration and quantization still suffer from compatibility and reliability issues. Meanwhile, we find several DL software bugs by using the results as a benchmark. We further validate the results through bug confirmation from stakeholders and industrial positive feedback to highlight the implications of our study. Through our study, we summarize practical guidelines, identify challenges and pinpoint new research directions.
Over the past decades, deep learning (DL) systems have achieved tremendous success and gained great popularity in various applications, such as intelligent machines, image processing, speech processing, and medical diagnostics. Deep neural networks are the key driving force behind its recent success, but still seem to be a magic black box lacking interpretability and understanding. This brings up many open safety and security issues with enormous and urgent demands on rigorous methodologies and engineering practice for quality enhancement. A plethora of studies have shown that the state-of-the-art DL systems suffer from defects and vulnerabilities that can lead to severe loss and tragedies, especially when applied to real-world safety-critical applications. In this paper, we perform a large-scale study and construct a paper repository of 223 relevant works to the quality assurance, security, and interpretation of deep learning. We, from a software quality assurance perspective, pinpoint challenges and future opportunities towards universal secure deep learning engineering. We hope this work and the accompanied paper repository can pave the path for the software engineering community towards addressing the pressing industrial demand of secure intelligent applications.
In company with the data explosion over the past decade, deep neural network (DNN) based software has experienced unprecedented leap and is becoming the key driving force of many novel industrial applications, including many safety-critical scenarios such as autonomous driving. Despite great success achieved in various human intelligence tasks, similar to traditional software, DNNs could also exhibit incorrect behaviors caused by hidden defects causing severe accidents and losses. In this paper, we propose an automated fuzz testing framework for hunting potential defects of general-purpose DNNs. It performs metamorphic mutation to generate new semantically preserved tests, and leverages multiple plugable coverage criteria as feedback to guide the test generation from different perspectives. To be scalable towards practical-sized DNNs, our framework maintains tests in batch, and prioritizes the tests selection based on active feedback. The effectiveness of our framework is extensively investigated on 3 popular datasets (MNIST, CIFAR-10, ImageNet) and 7 DNNs with diverse complexities, under large set of 6 coverage criteria as feedback. The large-scale experiments demonstrate that our fuzzing framework can (1) significantly boost the coverage with guidance; (2) generate useful tests to detect erroneous behaviors and facilitate the DNN model quality evaluation; (3) accurately capture potential defects during DNN quantization for platform migration.
Deep learning (DL) defines a new data-driven programming paradigm that constructs the internal system logic of a crafted neuron network through a set of training data. We have seen wide adoption of DL in many safety-critical scenarios. However, a plethora of studies have shown that the state-of-the-art DL systems suffer from various vulnerabilities which can lead to severe consequences when applied to real-world applications. Currently, the testing adequacy of a DL system is usually measured by the accuracy of test data. Considering the limitation of accessible high quality test data, good accuracy performance on test data can hardly provide confidence to the testing adequacy and generality of DL systems. Unlike traditional software systems that have clear and controllable logic and functionality, the lack of interpretability in a DL system makes system analysis and defect detection difficult, which could potentially hinder its real-world deployment. In this paper, we propose DeepGauge, a set of multi-granularity testing criteria for DL systems, which aims at rendering a multi-faceted portrayal of the testbed. The in-depth evaluation of our proposed testing criteria is demonstrated on two well-known datasets, five DL systems, and with four state-of-the-art adversarial attack techniques against DL. The potential usefulness of DeepGauge sheds light on the construction of more generic and robust DL systems.
In many real-time applications, the deployment of deep neural networks is constrained by high computational cost and efficient lightweight neural networks are widely concerned. In this paper, we propose that depthwise convolution (DWC) is used to expand the number of channels in a bottleneck block, which is more efficient than 1 x 1 convolution. The proposed Pointwise-Standard-Depthwise network (PSDNet) based on channel expansion with DWC has fewer number of parameters, less computational cost and higher accuracy than corresponding ResNet on CIFAR datasets. To design more efficient lightweight concolutional neural netwok, Depthwise-Pointwise-Depthwise inverted bottleneck block (DPD block) is proposed and DPDNet is designed by stacking DPD block. Meanwhile, the number of parameters of DPDNet is only about 60% of that of MobileNetV2 for networks with the same number of layers, but can achieve approximated accuracy. Additionally, two hyperparameters of DPDNet can make the trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, which makes DPDNet suitable for diverse tasks. Furthermore, we find the networks with more DWC layers outperform the networks with more 1x1 convolution layers, which indicates that extracting spatial information is more important than combining channel information.