Models, code, and papers for "Jiebo Luo":
Skin lesion identification is a key step toward dermatological diagnosis. When describing a skin lesion, it is very important to note its body site distribution as many skin diseases commonly affect particular parts of the body. To exploit the correlation between skin lesions and their body site distributions, in this study, we investigate the possibility of improving skin lesion classification using the additional context information provided by body location. Specifically, we build a deep multi-task learning (MTL) framework to jointly optimize skin lesion classification and body location classification (the latter is used as an inductive bias). Our MTL framework uses the state-of-the-art ImageNet pretrained model with specialized loss functions for the two related tasks. Our experiments show that the proposed MTL based method performs more robustly than its standalone (single-task) counterpart.
In this paper, we focus on studying the appearing time of different kinds of cars on the road. This information will enable us to infer the life style of the car owners. The results can further be used to guide marketing towards car owners. Conventionally, this kind of study is carried out by sending out questionnaires, which is limited in scale and diversity. To solve this problem, we propose a fully automatic method to carry out this study. Our study is based on publicly available surveillance camera data. To make the results reliable, we only use the high resolution cameras (i.e. resolution greater than $1280 \times 720$). Images from the public cameras are downloaded every minute. After obtaining 50,000 images, we apply faster R-CNN (region-based convoluntional neural network) to detect the cars in the downloaded images and a fine-tuned VGG16 model is used to recognize the car makes. Based on the recognition results, we present a data-driven analysis on the relationship between car makes and their appearing times, with implications on lifestyles.
Small data challenges have emerged in many learning problems, since the success of deep neural networks often relies on the availability of a huge amount of labeled data that is expensive to collect. To address it, many efforts have been made on training complex models with small data in an unsupervised and semi-supervised fashion. In this paper, we will review the recent progresses on these two major categories of methods. A wide spectrum of small data models will be categorized in a big picture, where we will show how they interplay with each other to motivate explorations of new ideas. We will review the criteria of learning the transformation equivariant, disentangled, self-supervised and semi-supervised representations, which underpin the foundations of recent developments. Many instantiations of unsupervised and semi-supervised generative models have been developed on the basis of these criteria, greatly expanding the territory of existing autoencoders, generative adversarial nets (GANs) and other deep networks by exploring the distribution of unlabeled data for more powerful representations. While we focus on the unsupervised and semi-supervised methods, we will also provide a broader review of other emerging topics, from unsupervised and semi-supervised domain adaptation to the fundamental roles of transformation equivariance and invariance in training a wide spectrum of deep networks. It is impossible for us to write an exclusive encyclopedia to include all related works. Instead, we aim at exploring the main ideas, principles and methods in this area to reveal where we are heading on the journey towards addressing the small data challenges in this big data era.
Automatic image captioning has recently approached human-level performance due to the latest advances in computer vision and natural language understanding. However, most of the current models can only generate plain factual descriptions about the content of a given image. However, for human beings, image caption writing is quite flexible and diverse, where additional language dimensions, such as emotion, humor and language styles, are often incorporated to produce diverse, emotional, or appealing captions. In particular, we are interested in generating sentiment-conveying image descriptions, which has received little attention. The main challenge is how to effectively inject sentiments into the generated captions without altering the semantic matching between the visual content and the generated descriptions. In this work, we propose two different models, which employ different schemes for injecting sentiments into image captions. Compared with the few existing approaches, the proposed models are much simpler and yet more effective. The experimental results show that our model outperform the state-of-the-art models in generating sentimental (i.e., sentiment-bearing) image captions. In addition, we can also easily manipulate the model by assigning different sentiments to the testing image to generate captions with the corresponding sentiments.
With the prevalence of e-commence websites and the ease of online shopping, consumers are embracing huge amounts of various options in products. Undeniably, shopping is one of the most essential activities in our society and studying consumer's shopping behavior is important for the industry as well as sociology and psychology. Indisputable, one of the most popular e-commerce categories is clothing business. There arises the needs for analysis of popular and attractive clothing features which could further boost many emerging applications, such as clothing recommendation and advertising. In this work, we design a novel system that consists of three major components: 1) exploring and organizing a large-scale clothing dataset from a online shopping website, 2) pruning and extracting images of best-selling products in clothing item data and user transaction history, and 3) utilizing a machine learning based approach to discovering fine-grained clothing attributes as the representative and discriminative characteristics of popular clothing style elements. Through the experiments over a large-scale online clothing shopping dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system, and obtain useful insights on clothing consumption trends and profitable clothing features.
We address the problem of video moment localization with natural language, i.e. localizing a video segment described by a natural language sentence. While most prior work focuses on grounding the query as a whole, temporal dependencies and reasoning between events within the text are not fully considered. In this paper, we propose a novel Temporal Compositional Modular Network (TCMN) where a tree attention network first automatically decomposes a sentence into three descriptions with respect to the main event, context event and temporal signal. Two modules are then utilized to measure the visual similarity and location similarity between each segment and the decomposed descriptions. Moreover, since the main event and context event may rely on different modalities (RGB or optical flow), we use late fusion to form an ensemble of four models, where each model is independently trained by one combination of the visual input. Experiments show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the TEMPO dataset.
As an intuitive way of expression emotion, the animated Graphical Interchange Format (GIF) images have been widely used on social media. Most previous studies on automated GIF emotion recognition fail to effectively utilize GIF's unique properties, and this potentially limits the recognition performance. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of human related information in GIFs and conduct human-centered GIF emotion recognition with a proposed Keypoint Attended Visual Attention Network (KAVAN). The framework consists of a facial attention module and a hierarchical segment temporal module. The facial attention module exploits the strong relationship between GIF contents and human characters, and extracts frame-level visual feature with a focus on human faces. The Hierarchical Segment LSTM (HS-LSTM) module is then proposed to better learn global GIF representations. Our proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art on the MIT GIFGIF dataset. Furthermore, the facial attention module provides reliable facial region mask predictions, which improves the model's interpretability.
In this study, we investigate what a practically useful approach is in order to achieve robust skin disease diagnosis. A direct approach is to target the ground truth diagnosis labels, while an alternative approach instead focuses on determining skin lesion characteristics that are more visually consistent and discernible. We argue that, for computer-aided skin disease diagnosis, it is both more realistic and more useful that lesion type tags should be considered as the target of an automated diagnosis system such that the system can first achieve a high accuracy in describing skin lesions, and in turn facilitate disease diagnosis using lesion characteristics in conjunction with other evidence. To further meet such an objective, we employ convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for both the disease-targeted and lesion-targeted classifications. We have collected a large-scale and diverse dataset of 75,665 skin disease images from six publicly available dermatology atlantes. Then we train and compare both disease-targeted and lesion-targeted classifiers, respectively. For disease-targeted classification, only 27.6% top-1 accuracy and 57.9% top-5 accuracy are achieved with a mean average precision (mAP) of 0.42. In contrast, for lesion-targeted classification, we can achieve a much higher mAP of 0.70.
Automatic vertebrae identification and localization from arbitrary CT images is challenging. Vertebrae usually share similar morphological appearance. Because of pathology and the arbitrary field-of-view of CT scans, one can hardly rely on the existence of some anchor vertebrae or parametric methods to model the appearance and shape. To solve the problem, we argue that one should make use of the short-range contextual information, such as the presence of some nearby organs (if any), to roughly estimate the target vertebrae; due to the unique anatomic structure of the spine column, vertebrae have fixed sequential order which provides the important long-range contextual information to further calibrate the results. We propose a robust and efficient vertebrae identification and localization system that can inherently learn to incorporate both the short-range and long-range contextual information in a supervised manner. To this end, we develop a multi-task 3D fully convolutional neural network (3D FCN) to effectively extract the short-range contextual information around the target vertebrae. For the long-range contextual information, we propose a multi-task bidirectional recurrent neural network (Bi-RNN) to encode the spatial and contextual information among the vertebrae of the visible spine column. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a challenging dataset and the experimental results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin.
Learning to rank has recently emerged as an attractive technique to train deep convolutional neural networks for various computer vision tasks. Pairwise ranking, in particular, has been successful in multi-label image classification, achieving state-of-the-art results on various benchmarks. However, most existing approaches use the hinge loss to train their models, which is non-smooth and thus is difficult to optimize especially with deep networks. Furthermore, they employ simple heuristics, such as top-k or thresholding, to determine which labels to include in the output from a ranked list of labels, which limits their use in the real-world setting. In this work, we propose two techniques to improve pairwise ranking based multi-label image classification: (1) we propose a novel loss function for pairwise ranking, which is smooth everywhere and thus is easier to optimize; and (2) we incorporate a label decision module into the model, estimating the optimal confidence thresholds for each visual concept. We provide theoretical analyses of our loss function in the Bayes consistency and risk minimization framework, and show its benefit over existing pairwise ranking formulations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on three large-scale datasets, VOC2007, NUS-WIDE and MS-COCO, achieving the best reported results in the literature.
Sentiment analysis is crucial for extracting social signals from social media content. Due to the prevalence of images in social media, image sentiment analysis is receiving increasing attention in recent years. However, most existing systems are black-boxes that do not provide insight on how image content invokes sentiment and emotion in the viewers. Psychological studies have confirmed that salient objects in an image often invoke emotions. In this work, we investigate more fine-grained and more comprehensive interaction between visual saliency and visual sentiment. In particular, we partition images in several primary scene-type dimensions, including: open-closed, natural-manmade, indoor-outdoor, and face-noface. Using state of the art saliency detection algorithm and sentiment classification algorithm, we examine how the sentiment of the salient region(s) in an image relates to the overall sentiment of the image. The experiments on a representative image emotion dataset have shown interesting correlation between saliency and sentiment in different scene types and in turn shed light on the mechanism of visual sentiment evocation.
With the rapid development of economy in China over the past decade, air pollution has become an increasingly serious problem in major cities and caused grave public health concerns in China. Recently, a number of studies have dealt with air quality and air pollution. Among them, some attempt to predict and monitor the air quality from different sources of information, ranging from deployed physical sensors to social media. These methods are either too expensive or unreliable, prompting us to search for a novel and effective way to sense the air quality. In this study, we propose to employ the state of the art in computer vision techniques to analyze photos that can be easily acquired from online social media. Next, we establish the correlation between the haze level computed directly from photos with the official PM 2.5 record of the taken city at the taken time. Our experiments based on both synthetic and real photos have shown the promise of this image-based approach to estimating and monitoring air pollution.
The key challenge in photorealistic style transfer is that an algorithm should faithfully transfer the style of a reference photo to a content photo while the generated image should look like one captured by a camera. Although several photorealistic style transfer algorithms have been proposed, they need to rely on post- and/or pre-processing to make the generated images look photorealistic. If we disable the additional processing, these algorithms would fail to produce plausible photorealistic stylization in terms of detail preservation and photorealism. In this work, we propose an effective solution to these issues. Our method consists of a construction step (C-step) to build a photorealistic stylization network and a pruning step (P-step) for acceleration. In the C-step, we propose a dense auto-encoder named PhotoNet based on a carefully designed pre-analysis. PhotoNet integrates a feature aggregation module (BFA) and instance normalized skip links (INSL). To generate faithful stylization, we introduce multiple style transfer modules in the decoder and INSLs. PhotoNet significantly outperforms existing algorithms in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. In the P-step, we adopt a neural architecture search method to accelerate PhotoNet. We propose an automatic network pruning framework in the manner of teacher-student learning for photorealistic stylization. The network architecture named PhotoNAS resulted from the search achieves significant acceleration over PhotoNet while keeping the stylization effects almost intact. We conduct extensive experiments on both image and video transfer. The results show that our method can produce favorable results while achieving 20-30 times acceleration in comparison with the existing state-of-the-art approaches. It is worth noting that the proposed algorithm accomplishes better performance without any pre- or post-processing.
Generating radiology reports is time-consuming and requires extensive expertise in practice. Therefore, reliable automatic radiology report generation is highly desired to alleviate the workload. Although deep learning techniques have been successfully applied to image classification and image captioning tasks, radiology report generation remains challenging in regards to understanding and linking complicated medical visual contents with accurate natural language descriptions. In addition, the data scales of open-access datasets that contain paired medical images and reports remain very limited. To cope with these practical challenges, we propose a generative encoder-decoder model and focus on chest x-ray images and reports with the following improvements. First, we pretrain the encoder with a large number of chest x-ray images to accurately recognize 14 common radiographic observations, while taking advantage of the multi-view images by enforcing the cross-view consistency. Second, we synthesize multi-view visual features based on a sentence-level attention mechanism in a late fusion fashion. In addition, in order to enrich the decoder with descriptive semantics and enforce the correctness of the deterministic medical-related contents such as mentions of organs or diagnoses, we extract medical concepts based on the radiology reports in the training data and fine-tune the encoder to extract the most frequent medical concepts from the x-ray images. Such concepts are fused with each decoding step by a word-level attention model. The experimental results conducted on the Indiana University Chest X-Ray dataset demonstrate that the proposed model achieves the state-of-the-art performance compared with other baseline approaches.
Sentiment analysis on large-scale social media data is important to bridge the gaps between social media contents and real world activities including political election prediction, individual and public emotional status monitoring and analysis, and so on. Although textual sentiment analysis has been well studied based on platforms such as Twitter and Instagram, analysis of the role of extensive emoji uses in sentiment analysis remains light. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for Twitter sentiment analysis with extra attention on emojis. We first learn bi-sense emoji embeddings under positive and negative sentimental tweets individually, and then train a sentiment classifier by attending on these bi-sense emoji embeddings with an attention-based long short-term memory network (LSTM). Our experiments show that the bi-sense embedding is effective for extracting sentiment-aware embeddings of emojis and outperforms the state-of-the-art models. We also visualize the attentions to show that the bi-sense emoji embedding provides better guidance on the attention mechanism to obtain a more robust understanding of the semantics and sentiments.
Action recognition with 3D skeleton sequences is becoming popular due to its speed and robustness. The recently proposed Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based methods have shown good performance in learning spatio-temporal representations for skeleton sequences. Despite the good recognition accuracy achieved by previous CNN based methods, there exist two problems that potentially limit the performance. First, previous skeleton representations are generated by chaining joints with a fixed order. The corresponding semantic meaning is unclear and the structural information among the joints is lost. Second, previous models do not have an ability to focus on informative joints. The attention mechanism is important for skeleton based action recognition because there exist spatio-temporal key stages while the joint predictions can be inaccurate. To solve these two problems, we propose a novel CNN based method for skeleton based action recognition. We first redesign the skeleton representations with a depth-first tree traversal order, which enhances the semantic meaning of skeleton images and better preserves the associated structural information. We then propose the idea of a two-branch attention architecture that focuses on spatio-temporal key stages and filters out unreliable joint predictions. A base attention model with the simplest structure is first introduced. By improving the structures in both branches, we further propose a Global Long-sequence Attention Network (GLAN). Furthermore, in order to adjust the kernel's spatio-temporal aspect ratios and better capture long term dependencies, we propose a Sub-Sequence Attention Network (SSAN) that takes sub-image sequences as inputs. Our experiment results on NTU RGB+D and SBU Kinetic Interaction outperforms the state-of-the-art. The model is further validated on noisy estimated poses from UCF101 and Kinetics.
Image forgery detection is the task of detecting and localizing forged parts in tampered images. Previous works mostly focus on high resolution images using traces of resampling features, demosaicing features or sharpness of edges. However, a good detection method should also be applicable to low resolution images because compressed or resized images are common these days. To this end, we propose a Shallow Convolutional Neural Network(SCNN), capable of distinguishing the boundaries of forged regions from original edges in low resolution images. SCNN is designed to utilize the information of chroma and saturation. Based on SCNN, two approaches that are named Sliding Windows Detection (SWD) and Fast SCNN, respectively, are developed to detect and localize image forgery region. In this paper, we substantiate that Fast SCNN can detect drastic change of chroma and saturation. In image forgery detection experiments Our model is evaluated on the CASIA 2.0 dataset. The results show that Fast SCNN performs well on low resolution images and achieves significant improvements over the state-of-the-art.
Real estate appraisal, which is the process of estimating the price for real estate properties, is crucial for both buys and sellers as the basis for negotiation and transaction. Traditionally, the repeat sales model has been widely adopted to estimate real estate price. However, it depends the design and calculation of a complex economic related index, which is challenging to estimate accurately. Today, real estate brokers provide easy access to detailed online information on real estate properties to their clients. We are interested in estimating the real estate price from these large amounts of easily accessed data. In particular, we analyze the prediction power of online house pictures, which is one of the key factors for online users to make a potential visiting decision. The development of robust computer vision algorithms makes the analysis of visual content possible. In this work, we employ a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to predict real estate price using the state-of-the-art visual features. The experimental results indicate that our model outperforms several of other state-of-the-art baseline algorithms in terms of both mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE).
Psychological research results have confirmed that people can have different emotional reactions to different visual stimuli. Several papers have been published on the problem of visual emotion analysis. In particular, attempts have been made to analyze and predict people's emotional reaction towards images. To this end, different kinds of hand-tuned features are proposed. The results reported on several carefully selected and labeled small image data sets have confirmed the promise of such features. While the recent successes of many computer vision related tasks are due to the adoption of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), visual emotion analysis has not achieved the same level of success. This may be primarily due to the unavailability of confidently labeled and relatively large image data sets for visual emotion analysis. In this work, we introduce a new data set, which started from 3+ million weakly labeled images of different emotions and ended up 30 times as large as the current largest publicly available visual emotion data set. We hope that this data set encourages further research on visual emotion analysis. We also perform extensive benchmarking analyses on this large data set using the state of the art methods including CNNs.
Sentiment analysis of online user generated content is important for many social media analytics tasks. Researchers have largely relied on textual sentiment analysis to develop systems to predict political elections, measure economic indicators, and so on. Recently, social media users are increasingly using images and videos to express their opinions and share their experiences. Sentiment analysis of such large scale visual content can help better extract user sentiments toward events or topics, such as those in image tweets, so that prediction of sentiment from visual content is complementary to textual sentiment analysis. Motivated by the needs in leveraging large scale yet noisy training data to solve the extremely challenging problem of image sentiment analysis, we employ Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). We first design a suitable CNN architecture for image sentiment analysis. We obtain half a million training samples by using a baseline sentiment algorithm to label Flickr images. To make use of such noisy machine labeled data, we employ a progressive strategy to fine-tune the deep network. Furthermore, we improve the performance on Twitter images by inducing domain transfer with a small number of manually labeled Twitter images. We have conducted extensive experiments on manually labeled Twitter images. The results show that the proposed CNN can achieve better performance in image sentiment analysis than competing algorithms.