Research papers and code for "Jingwen Chen":
A deep learning approach has been widely applied in sequence modeling problems. In terms of automatic speech recognition (ASR), its performance has significantly been improved by increasing large speech corpus and deeper neural network. Especially, recurrent neural network and deep convolutional neural network have been applied in ASR successfully. Given the arising problem of training speed, we build a novel deep recurrent convolutional network for acoustic modeling and then apply deep residual learning to it. Our experiments show that it has not only faster convergence speed but better recognition accuracy over traditional deep convolutional recurrent network. In the experiments, we compare the convergence speed of our novel deep recurrent convolutional networks and traditional deep convolutional recurrent networks. With faster convergence speed, our novel deep recurrent convolutional networks can reach the comparable performance. We further show that applying deep residual learning can boost the convergence speed of our novel deep recurret convolutional networks. Finally, we evaluate all our experimental networks by phoneme error rate (PER) with our proposed bidirectional statistical n-gram language model. Our evaluation results show that our newly proposed deep recurrent convolutional network applied with deep residual learning can reach the best PER of 17.33\% with the fastest convergence speed on TIMIT database. The outstanding performance of our novel deep recurrent convolutional neural network with deep residual learning indicates that it can be potentially adopted in other sequential problems.

* 11 pages, 13 figures
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It is well believed that video captioning is a fundamental but challenging task in both computer vision and artificial intelligence fields. The prevalent approach is to map an input video to a variable-length output sentence in a sequence to sequence manner via Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Nevertheless, the training of RNN still suffers to some degree from vanishing/exploding gradient problem, making the optimization difficult. Moreover, the inherently recurrent dependency in RNN prevents parallelization within a sequence during training and therefore limits the computations. In this paper, we present a novel design --- Temporal Deformable Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Networks (dubbed as TDConvED) that fully employ convolutions in both encoder and decoder networks for video captioning. Technically, we exploit convolutional block structures that compute intermediate states of a fixed number of inputs and stack several blocks to capture long-term relationships. The structure in encoder is further equipped with temporal deformable convolution to enable free-form deformation of temporal sampling. Our model also capitalizes on temporal attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on both MSVD and MSR-VTT video captioning datasets, and superior results are reported when comparing to conventional RNN-based encoder-decoder techniques. More remarkably, TDConvED increases CIDEr-D performance from 58.8% to 67.2% on MSVD.

* AAAI 2019
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Recently, researchers have started decomposing deep neural network models according to their semantics or functions. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of decomposed functional blocks for defending adversarial attacks, which add small input perturbation to the input image to fool the DNN models. This work proposes a profiling-based method to decompose the DNN models to different functional blocks, which lead to the effective path as a new approach to exploring DNNs' internal organization. Specifically, the per-image effective path can be aggregated to the class-level effective path, through which we observe that adversarial images activate effective path different from normal images. We propose an effective path similarity-based method to detect adversarial images with an interpretable model, which achieve better accuracy and broader applicability than the state-of-the-art technique.

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This paper describes our solution for the 2$^\text{nd}$ YouTube-8M video understanding challenge organized by Google AI. Unlike the video recognition benchmarks, such as Kinetics and Moments, the YouTube-8M challenge provides pre-extracted visual and audio features instead of raw videos. In this challenge, the submitted model is restricted to 1GB, which encourages participants focus on constructing one powerful single model rather than incorporating of the results from a bunch of models. Our system fuses six different sub-models into one single computational graph, which are categorized into three families. More specifically, the most effective family is the model with non-local operations following the NetVLAD encoding. The other two family models are Soft-BoF and GRU, respectively. In order to further boost single models performance, the model parameters of different checkpoints are averaged. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed system can effectively perform the video classification task, achieving 0.88763 on the public test set and 0.88704 on the private set in terms of GAP@20, respectively. We finally ranked at the fourth place in the YouTube-8M video understanding challenge.

* ECCV2018 workshop on YouTube-8M Large-Scale Video Understanding
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Creating aesthetically pleasing pieces of art, including music, has been a long-term goal for artificial intelligence research. Despite recent successes of long-short term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in sequential learning, LSTM neural networks have not, by themselves, been able to generate natural-sounding music conforming to music theory. To transcend this inadequacy, we put forward a novel method for music composition that combines the LSTM with Grammars motivated by music theory. The main tenets of music theory are encoded as grammar argumented (GA) filters on the training data, such that the machine can be trained to generate music inheriting the naturalness of human-composed pieces from the original dataset while adhering to the rules of music theory. Unlike previous approaches, pitches and durations are encoded as one semantic entity, which we refer to as note-level encoding. This allows easy implementation of music theory grammars, as well as closer emulation of the thinking pattern of a musician. Although the GA rules are applied to the training data and never directly to the LSTM music generation, our machine still composes music that possess high incidences of diatonic scale notes, small pitch intervals and chords, in deference to music theory.

* 6 pages, 4 figures
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The seminal work of Gatys et al. demonstrated the power of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) in creating artistic imagery by separating and recombining image content and style. This process of using CNNs to render a content image in different styles is referred to as Neural Style Transfer (NST). Since then, NST has become a trending topic both in academic literature and industrial applications. It is receiving increasing attention and a variety of approaches are proposed to either improve or extend the original NST algorithm. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current progress towards NST. We first propose a taxonomy of current algorithms in the field of NST. Then, we present several evaluation methods and compare different NST algorithms both qualitatively and quantitatively. The review concludes with a discussion of various applications of NST and open problems for future research. A list of papers discussed in this review, corresponding codes, pre-trained models and more comparison results are publicly available at https://github.com/ycjing/Neural-Style-Transfer-Papers.

* Project page: https://github.com/ycjing/Neural-Style-Transfer-Papers
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Person re-identification plays an important role in realistic video surveillance with increasing demand for public safety. In this paper, we propose a novel framework with rules of updating images for person re-identification in real-world surveillance system. First, Image Pool is generated by using mean-shift tracking method to automatically select video frame fragments of the target person. Second, features extracted from Image Pool by convolutional network work together to re-rank original ranking list of the main image and matching results will be generated. In addition, updating rules are designed for replacing images in Image Pool when a new image satiating with our updating critical formula in video system. These rules fall into two categories: if the new image is from the same camera as the previous updated image, it will replace one of assist images; otherwise, it will replace the main image directly. Experiments are conduced on Market-1501, iLIDS-VID and PRID-2011 and our ITSD datasets to validate that our framework outperforms on rank-1 accuracy and mAP for person re-identification. Furthermore, the update ability of our framework provides consistently remarkable accuracy rate in real-world surveillance system.

* 23 pages,5 figures. submitted to JVCI
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In the literature, most existing graph-based semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods only use the label information of observed samples in the label propagation stage, while ignoring such valuable information when learning the graph. In this paper, we argue that it is beneficial to consider the label information in the graph learning stage. Specifically, by enforcing the weight of edges between labeled samples of different classes to be zero, we explicitly incorporate the label information into the state-of-the-art graph learning methods, such as the Low-Rank Representation (LRR), and propose a novel semi-supervised graph learning method called Semi-Supervised Low-Rank Representation (SSLRR). This results in a convex optimization problem with linear constraints, which can be solved by the linearized alternating direction method. Though we take LRR as an example, our proposed method is in fact very general and can be applied to any self-representation graph learning methods. Experiment results on both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate that the proposed graph learning method can better capture the global geometric structure of the data, and therefore is more effective for semi-supervised learning tasks.

* This paper is withdrawn by the authors for some errors
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