Models, code, and papers for "Jonathan Le Roux":

Finding Strength in Weakness: Learning to Separate Sounds with Weak Supervision

Nov 06, 2019
Fatemeh Pishdadian, Gordon Wichern, Jonathan Le Roux

While there has been much recent progress using deep learning techniques to separate speech and music audio signals, these systems typically require large collections of isolated sources during the training process. When extending audio source separation algorithms to more general domains such as environmental monitoring, it may not be possible to obtain isolated signals for training. Here, we propose objective functions and network architectures that enable training a source separation system with weak labels. In this scenario, weak labels are defined in contrast with strong time-frequency (TF) labels such as those obtained from isolated sources, and refer either to frame-level weak labels where one only has access to the time periods when different sources are active in an audio mixture, or to clip-level weak labels that only indicate the presence or absence of sounds in an entire audio clip. We train a separator that estimates a TF mask for each type of sound event, using a sound event classifier as an assessor of the separator's performance to bridge the gap between the TF-level separation and the ground truth weak labels only available at the frame or clip level. Our objective function requires the classifier applied to a separated source to assign high probability to the class corresponding to that source and low probability to all other classes. The objective function also enforces that the separated sources sum up to the mixture. We benchmark the performance of our algorithm using synthetic mixtures of overlapping events created from a database of sounds recorded in urban environments. Compared to training a network using isolated sources, our model achieves somewhat lower but still significant SI-SDR improvement, even in scenarios with significant sound event overlap.

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Deep Unfolding: Model-Based Inspiration of Novel Deep Architectures

Nov 20, 2014
John R. Hershey, Jonathan Le Roux, Felix Weninger

Model-based methods and deep neural networks have both been tremendously successful paradigms in machine learning. In model-based methods, problem domain knowledge can be built into the constraints of the model, typically at the expense of difficulties during inference. In contrast, deterministic deep neural networks are constructed in such a way that inference is straightforward, but their architectures are generic and it is unclear how to incorporate knowledge. This work aims to obtain the advantages of both approaches. To do so, we start with a model-based approach and an associated inference algorithm, and \emph{unfold} the inference iterations as layers in a deep network. Rather than optimizing the original model, we \emph{untie} the model parameters across layers, in order to create a more powerful network. The resulting architecture can be trained discriminatively to perform accurate inference within a fixed network size. We show how this framework allows us to interpret conventional networks as mean-field inference in Markov random fields, and to obtain new architectures by instead using belief propagation as the inference algorithm. We then show its application to a non-negative matrix factorization model that incorporates the problem-domain knowledge that sound sources are additive. Deep unfolding of this model yields a new kind of non-negative deep neural network, that can be trained using a multiplicative backpropagation-style update algorithm. We present speech enhancement experiments showing that our approach is competitive with conventional neural networks despite using far fewer parameters.

* Added sections on reducing belief propagation to network activation functions, and on conversion between conventional network parameters and BP potentials for binary MRFs. Some bugs and typos were also fixed, and notation made a bit clearer 

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Bootstrapping deep music separation from primitive auditory grouping principles

Oct 23, 2019
Prem Seetharaman, Gordon Wichern, Jonathan Le Roux, Bryan Pardo

Separating an audio scene such as a cocktail party into constituent, meaningful components is a core task in computer audition. Deep networks are the state-of-the-art approach. They are trained on synthetic mixtures of audio made from isolated sound source recordings so that ground truth for the separation is known. However, the vast majority of available audio is not isolated. The brain uses primitive cues that are independent of the characteristics of any particular sound source to perform an initial segmentation of the audio scene. We present a method for bootstrapping a deep model for music source separation without ground truth by using multiple primitive cues. We apply our method to train a network on a large set of unlabeled music recordings from YouTube to separate vocals from accompaniment without the need for ground truth isolated sources or artificial training mixtures.

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Cutting Music Source Separation Some Slakh: A Dataset to Study the Impact of Training Data Quality and Quantity

Sep 18, 2019
Ethan Manilow, Gordon Wichern, Prem Seetharaman, Jonathan Le Roux

Music source separation performance has greatly improved in recent years with the advent of approaches based on deep learning. Such methods typically require large amounts of labelled training data, which in the case of music consist of mixtures and corresponding instrument stems. However, stems are unavailable for most commercial music, and only limited datasets have so far been released to the public. It can thus be difficult to draw conclusions when comparing various source separation methods, as the difference in performance may stem as much from better data augmentation techniques or training tricks to alleviate the limited availability of training data, as from intrinsically better model architectures and objective functions. In this paper, we present the synthesized Lakh dataset (Slakh) as a new tool for music source separation research. Slakh consists of high-quality renderings of instrumental mixtures and corresponding stems generated from the Lakh MIDI dataset (LMD) using professional-grade sample-based virtual instruments. A first version, Slakh2100, focuses on 2100 songs, resulting in 145 hours of mixtures. While not fully comparable because it is purely instrumental, this dataset contains an order of magnitude more data than MUSDB18, the {\it de facto} standard dataset in the field. We show that Slakh can be used to effectively augment existing datasets for musical instrument separation, while opening the door to a wide array of data-intensive music signal analysis tasks.

* Accepted for publication at WASPAA 2019 

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Class-conditional embeddings for music source separation

Nov 07, 2018
Prem Seetharaman, Gordon Wichern, Shrikant Venkataramani, Jonathan Le Roux

Isolating individual instruments in a musical mixture has a myriad of potential applications, and seems imminently achievable given the levels of performance reached by recent deep learning methods. While most musical source separation techniques learn an independent model for each instrument, we propose using a common embedding space for the time-frequency bins of all instruments in a mixture inspired by deep clustering and deep attractor networks. Additionally, an auxiliary network is used to generate parameters of a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) where the posterior distribution over GMM components in the embedding space can be used to create a mask that separates individual sources from a mixture. In addition to outperforming a mask-inference baseline on the MUSDB-18 dataset, our embedding space is easily interpretable and can be used for query-based separation.

* 5 pages 

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Bootstrapping single-channel source separation via unsupervised spatial clustering on stereo mixtures

Nov 06, 2018
Prem Seetharaman, Gordon Wichern, Jonathan Le Roux, Bryan Pardo

Separating an audio scene into isolated sources is a fundamental problem in computer audition, analogous to image segmentation in visual scene analysis. Source separation systems based on deep learning are currently the most successful approaches for solving the underdetermined separation problem, where there are more sources than channels. Traditionally, such systems are trained on sound mixtures where the ground truth decomposition is already known. Since most real-world recordings do not have such a decomposition available, this limits the range of mixtures one can train on, and the range of mixtures the learned models may successfully separate. In this work, we use a simple blind spatial source separation algorithm to generate estimated decompositions of stereo mixtures. These estimates, together with a weighting scheme in the time-frequency domain, based on confidence in the separation quality, are used to train a deep learning model that can be used for single-channel separation, where no source direction information is available. This demonstrates how a simple cue such as the direction of origin of source can be used to bootstrap a model for source separation that can be used in situations where that cue is not available.

* 5 pages, 2 figures 

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End-to-End Speech Separation with Unfolded Iterative Phase Reconstruction

Apr 26, 2018
Zhong-Qiu Wang, Jonathan Le Roux, DeLiang Wang, John R. Hershey

This paper proposes an end-to-end approach for single-channel speaker-independent multi-speaker speech separation, where time-frequency (T-F) masking, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and its inverse are represented as layers within a deep network. Previous approaches, rather than computing a loss on the reconstructed signal, used a surrogate loss based on the target STFT magnitudes. This ignores reconstruction error introduced by phase inconsistency. In our approach, the loss function is directly defined on the reconstructed signals, which are optimized for best separation. In addition, we train through unfolded iterations of a phase reconstruction algorithm, represented as a series of STFT and inverse STFT layers. While mask values are typically limited to lie between zero and one for approaches using the mixture phase for reconstruction, this limitation is less relevant if the estimated magnitudes are to be used together with phase reconstruction. We thus propose several novel activation functions for the output layer of the T-F masking, to allow mask values beyond one. On the publicly-available wsj0-2mix dataset, our approach achieves state-of-the-art 12.6 dB scale-invariant signal-to-distortion ratio (SI-SDR) and 13.1 dB SDR, revealing new possibilities for deep learning based phase reconstruction and representing a fundamental progress towards solving the notoriously-hard cocktail party problem.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2018 

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Deep clustering: Discriminative embeddings for segmentation and separation

Aug 18, 2015
John R. Hershey, Zhuo Chen, Jonathan Le Roux, Shinji Watanabe

We address the problem of acoustic source separation in a deep learning framework we call "deep clustering." Rather than directly estimating signals or masking functions, we train a deep network to produce spectrogram embeddings that are discriminative for partition labels given in training data. Previous deep network approaches provide great advantages in terms of learning power and speed, but previously it has been unclear how to use them to separate signals in a class-independent way. In contrast, spectral clustering approaches are flexible with respect to the classes and number of items to be segmented, but it has been unclear how to leverage the learning power and speed of deep networks. To obtain the best of both worlds, we use an objective function that to train embeddings that yield a low-rank approximation to an ideal pairwise affinity matrix, in a class-independent way. This avoids the high cost of spectral factorization and instead produces compact clusters that are amenable to simple clustering methods. The segmentations are therefore implicitly encoded in the embeddings, and can be "decoded" by clustering. Preliminary experiments show that the proposed method can separate speech: when trained on spectrogram features containing mixtures of two speakers, and tested on mixtures of a held-out set of speakers, it can infer masking functions that improve signal quality by around 6dB. We show that the model can generalize to three-speaker mixtures despite training only on two-speaker mixtures. The framework can be used without class labels, and therefore has the potential to be trained on a diverse set of sound types, and to generalize to novel sources. We hope that future work will lead to segmentation of arbitrary sounds, with extensions to microphone array methods as well as image segmentation and other domains.

* Originally submitted on June 5, 2015 

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MIMO-SPEECH: End-to-End Multi-Channel Multi-Speaker Speech Recognition

Oct 16, 2019
Xuankai Chang, Wangyou Zhang, Yanmin Qian, Jonathan Le Roux, Shinji Watanabe

Recently, the end-to-end approach has proven its efficacy in monaural multi-speaker speech recognition. However, high word error rates (WERs) still prevent these systems from being used in practical applications. On the other hand, the spatial information in multi-channel signals has proven helpful in far-field speech recognition tasks. In this work, we propose a novel neural sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) architecture, MIMO-Speech, which extends the original seq2seq to deal with multi-channel input and multi-channel output so that it can fully model multi-channel multi-speaker speech separation and recognition. MIMO-Speech is a fully neural end-to-end framework, which is optimized only via an ASR criterion. It is comprised of: 1) a monaural masking network, 2) a multi-source neural beamformer, and 3) a multi-output speech recognition model. With this processing, the input overlapped speech is directly mapped to text sequences. We further adopted a curriculum learning strategy, making the best use of the training set to improve the performance. The experiments on the spatialized wsj1-2mix corpus show that our model can achieve more than 60% WER reduction compared to the single-channel system with high quality enhanced signals (SI-SDR = 23.1 dB) obtained by the above separation function.

* Accepted at ASRU 2019 

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Phasebook and Friends: Leveraging Discrete Representations for Source Separation

Oct 02, 2018
Jonathan Le Roux, Gordon Wichern, Shinji Watanabe, Andy Sarroff, John R. Hershey

Deep learning based speech enhancement and source separation systems have recently reached unprecedented levels of quality, to the point that performance is reaching a new ceiling. Most systems rely on estimating the magnitude of a target source by estimating a real-valued mask to be applied to a time-frequency representation of the mixture signal. A limiting factor in such approaches is a lack of phase estimation: the phase of the mixture is most often used when reconstructing the estimated time-domain signal. Here, we propose `MagBook', `phasebook', and `Combook', three new types of layers based on discrete representations that can be used to estimate complex time-frequency masks. MagBook layers extend classical sigmoidal units and a recently introduced convex softmax activation for mask-based magnitude estimation. Phasebook layers use a similar structure to give an estimate of the phase mask without suffering from phase wrapping issues. Combook layers are an alternative to the MagBook-Phasebook combination that directly estimate complex masks. We present various training and inference regimes involving these representations, and explain in particular how to include them in an end-to-end learning framework. We also present an oracle study to assess upper bounds on performance for various types of masks using discrete phase representations. We evaluate the proposed methods on the wsj0-2mix dataset, a well-studied corpus for single-channel speaker-independent speaker separation, matching the performance of state-of-the-art mask-based approaches without requiring additional phase reconstruction steps.

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A Purely End-to-end System for Multi-speaker Speech Recognition

May 15, 2018
Hiroshi Seki, Takaaki Hori, Shinji Watanabe, Jonathan Le Roux, John R. Hershey

Recently, there has been growing interest in multi-speaker speech recognition, where the utterances of multiple speakers are recognized from their mixture. Promising techniques have been proposed for this task, but earlier works have required additional training data such as isolated source signals or senone alignments for effective learning. In this paper, we propose a new sequence-to-sequence framework to directly decode multiple label sequences from a single speech sequence by unifying source separation and speech recognition functions in an end-to-end manner. We further propose a new objective function to improve the contrast between the hidden vectors to avoid generating similar hypotheses. Experimental results show that the model is directly able to learn a mapping from a speech mixture to multiple label sequences, achieving 83.1 % relative improvement compared to a model trained without the proposed objective. Interestingly, the results are comparable to those produced by previous end-to-end works featuring explicit separation and recognition modules.

* ACL 2018 

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Deep Clustering and Conventional Networks for Music Separation: Stronger Together

Jun 15, 2017
Yi Luo, Zhuo Chen, John R. Hershey, Jonathan Le Roux, Nima Mesgarani

Deep clustering is the first method to handle general audio separation scenarios with multiple sources of the same type and an arbitrary number of sources, performing impressively in speaker-independent speech separation tasks. However, little is known about its effectiveness in other challenging situations such as music source separation. Contrary to conventional networks that directly estimate the source signals, deep clustering generates an embedding for each time-frequency bin, and separates sources by clustering the bins in the embedding space. We show that deep clustering outperforms conventional networks on a singing voice separation task, in both matched and mismatched conditions, even though conventional networks have the advantage of end-to-end training for best signal approximation, presumably because its more flexible objective engenders better regularization. Since the strengths of deep clustering and conventional network architectures appear complementary, we explore combining them in a single hybrid network trained via an approach akin to multi-task learning. Remarkably, the combination significantly outperforms either of its components.

* Published in ICASSP 2017 

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Full-Capacity Unitary Recurrent Neural Networks

Oct 31, 2016
Scott Wisdom, Thomas Powers, John R. Hershey, Jonathan Le Roux, Les Atlas

Recurrent neural networks are powerful models for processing sequential data, but they are generally plagued by vanishing and exploding gradient problems. Unitary recurrent neural networks (uRNNs), which use unitary recurrence matrices, have recently been proposed as a means to avoid these issues. However, in previous experiments, the recurrence matrices were restricted to be a product of parameterized unitary matrices, and an open question remains: when does such a parameterization fail to represent all unitary matrices, and how does this restricted representational capacity limit what can be learned? To address this question, we propose full-capacity uRNNs that optimize their recurrence matrix over all unitary matrices, leading to significantly improved performance over uRNNs that use a restricted-capacity recurrence matrix. Our contribution consists of two main components. First, we provide a theoretical argument to determine if a unitary parameterization has restricted capacity. Using this argument, we show that a recently proposed unitary parameterization has restricted capacity for hidden state dimension greater than 7. Second, we show how a complete, full-capacity unitary recurrence matrix can be optimized over the differentiable manifold of unitary matrices. The resulting multiplicative gradient step is very simple and does not require gradient clipping or learning rate adaptation. We confirm the utility of our claims by empirically evaluating our new full-capacity uRNNs on both synthetic and natural data, achieving superior performance compared to both LSTMs and the original restricted-capacity uRNNs.

* 9 pages, to appear in NIPS 

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Single-Channel Multi-Speaker Separation using Deep Clustering

Jul 07, 2016
Yusuf Isik, Jonathan Le Roux, Zhuo Chen, Shinji Watanabe, John R. Hershey

Deep clustering is a recently introduced deep learning architecture that uses discriminatively trained embeddings as the basis for clustering. It was recently applied to spectrogram segmentation, resulting in impressive results on speaker-independent multi-speaker separation. In this paper we extend the baseline system with an end-to-end signal approximation objective that greatly improves performance on a challenging speech separation. We first significantly improve upon the baseline system performance by incorporating better regularization, larger temporal context, and a deeper architecture, culminating in an overall improvement in signal to distortion ratio (SDR) of 10.3 dB compared to the baseline of 6.0 dB for two-speaker separation, as well as a 7.1 dB SDR improvement for three-speaker separation. We then extend the model to incorporate an enhancement layer to refine the signal estimates, and perform end-to-end training through both the clustering and enhancement stages to maximize signal fidelity. We evaluate the results using automatic speech recognition. The new signal approximation objective, combined with end-to-end training, produces unprecedented performance, reducing the word error rate (WER) from 89.1% down to 30.8%. This represents a major advancement towards solving the cocktail party problem.

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Cycle-consistency training for end-to-end speech recognition

Nov 02, 2018
Takaaki Hori, Ramon Astudillo, Tomoki Hayashi, Yu Zhang, Shinji Watanabe, Jonathan Le Roux

This paper presents a method to train end-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) models using unpaired data. Although the end-to-end approach can eliminate the need for expert knowledge such as pronunciation dictionaries to build ASR systems, it still requires a large amount of paired data, i.e., speech utterances and their transcriptions. Cycle-consistency losses have been recently proposed as a way to mitigate the problem of limited paired data. These approaches compose a reverse operation with a given transformation, e.g., text-to-speech (TTS) with ASR, to build a loss that only requires unsupervised data, speech in this example. Applying cycle consistency to ASR models is not trivial since fundamental information, such as speaker traits, are lost in the intermediate text bottleneck. To solve this problem, this work presents a loss that is based on the speech encoder state sequence instead of the raw speech signal. This is achieved by training a Text-To-Encoder model and defining a loss based on the encoder reconstruction error. Experimental results on the LibriSpeech corpus show that the proposed cycle-consistency training reduced the word error rate by 14.7% from an initial model trained with 100-hour paired data, using an additional 360 hours of audio data without transcriptions. We also investigate the use of text-only data mainly for language modeling to further improve the performance in the unpaired data training scenario.

* Submitted to ICASSP'19 

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Universal Sound Separation

May 08, 2019
Ilya Kavalerov, Scott Wisdom, Hakan Erdogan, Brian Patton, Kevin Wilson, Jonathan Le Roux, John R. Hershey

Recent deep learning approaches have achieved impressive performance on speech enhancement and separation tasks. However, these approaches have not been investigated for separating mixtures of arbitrary sounds of different types, a task we refer to as universal sound separation, and it is unknown whether performance on speech tasks carries over to non-speech tasks. To study this question, we develop a universal dataset of mixtures containing arbitrary sounds, and use it to investigate the space of mask-based separation architectures, varying both the overall network architecture and the framewise analysis-synthesis basis for signal transformations. These network architectures include convolutional long short-term memory networks and time-dilated convolution stacks inspired by the recent success of time-domain enhancement networks like ConvTasNet. For the latter architecture, we also propose novel modifications that further improve separation performance. In terms of the framewise analysis-synthesis basis, we explore using either a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) or a learnable basis, as used in ConvTasNet, and for both of these bases, we examine the effect of window size. In particular, for STFTs, we find that longer windows (25-50 ms) work best for speech/non-speech separation, while shorter windows (2.5 ms) work best for arbitrary sounds. For learnable bases, shorter windows (2.5 ms) work best on all tasks. Surprisingly, for universal sound separation, STFTs outperform learnable bases. Our best methods produce an improvement in scale-invariant signal-to-distortion ratio of over 13 dB for speech/non-speech separation and close to 10 dB for universal sound separation.

* 5 pages, submitted to WASPAA 2019 

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Block Coordinate Descent for Sparse NMF

Mar 18, 2013
Vamsi K. Potluru, Sergey M. Plis, Jonathan Le Roux, Barak A. Pearlmutter, Vince D. Calhoun, Thomas P. Hayes

Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become a ubiquitous tool for data analysis. An important variant is the sparse NMF problem which arises when we explicitly require the learnt features to be sparse. A natural measure of sparsity is the L$_0$ norm, however its optimization is NP-hard. Mixed norms, such as L$_1$/L$_2$ measure, have been shown to model sparsity robustly, based on intuitive attributes that such measures need to satisfy. This is in contrast to computationally cheaper alternatives such as the plain L$_1$ norm. However, present algorithms designed for optimizing the mixed norm L$_1$/L$_2$ are slow and other formulations for sparse NMF have been proposed such as those based on L$_1$ and L$_0$ norms. Our proposed algorithm allows us to solve the mixed norm sparsity constraints while not sacrificing computation time. We present experimental evidence on real-world datasets that shows our new algorithm performs an order of magnitude faster compared to the current state-of-the-art solvers optimizing the mixed norm and is suitable for large-scale datasets.

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WHAM!: Extending Speech Separation to Noisy Environments

Jul 02, 2019
Gordon Wichern, Joe Antognini, Michael Flynn, Licheng Richard Zhu, Emmett McQuinn, Dwight Crow, Ethan Manilow, Jonathan Le Roux

Recent progress in separating the speech signals from multiple overlapping speakers using a single audio channel has brought us closer to solving the cocktail party problem. However, most studies in this area use a constrained problem setup, comparing performance when speakers overlap almost completely, at artificially low sampling rates, and with no external background noise. In this paper, we strive to move the field towards more realistic and challenging scenarios. To that end, we created the WSJ0 Hipster Ambient Mixtures (WHAM!) dataset, consisting of two speaker mixtures from the wsj0-2mix dataset combined with real ambient noise samples. The samples were collected in coffee shops, restaurants, and bars in the San Francisco Bay Area, and are made publicly available. We benchmark various speech separation architectures and objective functions to evaluate their robustness to noise. While separation performance decreases as a result of noise, we still observe substantial gains relative to the noisy signals for most approaches.

* Accepted for publication at Interspeech 2019 

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