Models, code, and papers for "Joonho Lee":

Robust Recovery Controller for a Quadrupedal Robot using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Jan 22, 2019
Joonho Lee, Jemin Hwangbo, Marco Hutter

The ability to recover from a fall is an essential feature for a legged robot to navigate in challenging environments robustly. Until today, there has been very little progress on this topic. Current solutions mostly build upon (heuristically) predefined trajectories, resulting in unnatural behaviors and requiring considerable effort in engineering system-specific components. In this paper, we present an approach based on model-free Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) to control recovery maneuvers of quadrupedal robots using a hierarchical behavior-based controller. The controller consists of four neural network policies including three behaviors and one behavior selector to coordinate them. Each of them is trained individually in simulation and deployed directly on a real system. We experimentally validate our approach on the quadrupedal robot ANYmal, which is a dog-sized quadrupedal system with 12 degrees of freedom. With our method, ANYmal manifests dynamic and reactive recovery behaviors to recover from an arbitrary fall configuration within less than 5 seconds. We tested the recovery maneuver more than 100 times, and the success rate was higher than 97 %.

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DeepGait: Planning and Control of Quadrupedal Gaits using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Sep 18, 2019
Vassilios Tsounis, Mitja Alge, Joonho Lee, Farbod Farshidian, Marco Hutter

This paper addresses the problem of legged locomotion in non-flat terrain. As legged robots such as quadrupeds are to be deployed in terrains with geometries which are difficult to model and predict, the need arises to equip them with the capability to generalize well to unforeseen situations. In this work, we propose a novel technique for training neural-network policies for terrain-aware locomotion, which combines state-of-the-art methods for model-based motion planning and reinforcement learning. Our approach is centered on formulating Markov decision processes using the evaluation of dynamic feasibility criteria in place of physical simulation. We thus employ policy-gradient methods to independently train policies which respectively plan and execute foothold and base motions in 3D environments using both proprioceptive and exteroceptive measurements. We apply our method within a challenging suite of simulated terrain scenarios which contain features such as narrow bridges, gaps and stepping-stones, and train policies which succeed in locomoting effectively in all cases.

* Submitted IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L) and IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2020 in Paris, France 

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ProbAct: A Probabilistic Activation Function for Deep Neural Networks

May 26, 2019
Joonho Lee, Kumar Shridhar, Hideaki Hayashi, Brian Kenji Iwana, Seokjun Kang, Seiichi Uchida

Activation functions play an important role in the training of artificial neural networks and the Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) has been the mainstream in recent years. Most of the activation functions currently used are deterministic in nature, whose input-output relationship is fixed. In this work, we propose a probabilistic activation function, called ProbAct. The output value of ProbAct is sampled from a normal distribution, with the mean value same as the output of ReLU and with a fixed or trainable variance for each element. In the trainable ProbAct, the variance of the activation distribution is trained through back-propagation. We also show that the stochastic perturbation through ProbAct is a viable generalization technique that can prevent overfitting. In our experiments, we demonstrate that when using ProbAct, it is possible to boost the image classification performance on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and STL-10 datasets.

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Learning agile and dynamic motor skills for legged robots

Jan 24, 2019
Jemin Hwangbo, Joonho Lee, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Dario Bellicoso, Vassilios Tsounis, Vladlen Koltun, Marco Hutter

Legged robots pose one of the greatest challenges in robotics. Dynamic and agile maneuvers of animals cannot be imitated by existing methods that are crafted by humans. A compelling alternative is reinforcement learning, which requires minimal craftsmanship and promotes the natural evolution of a control policy. However, so far, reinforcement learning research for legged robots is mainly limited to simulation, and only few and comparably simple examples have been deployed on real systems. The primary reason is that training with real robots, particularly with dynamically balancing systems, is complicated and expensive. In the present work, we introduce a method for training a neural network policy in simulation and transferring it to a state-of-the-art legged system, thereby leveraging fast, automated, and cost-effective data generation schemes. The approach is applied to the ANYmal robot, a sophisticated medium-dog-sized quadrupedal system. Using policies trained in simulation, the quadrupedal machine achieves locomotion skills that go beyond what had been achieved with prior methods: ANYmal is capable of precisely and energy-efficiently following high-level body velocity commands, running faster than before, and recovering from falling even in complex configurations.

* Science Robotics 4.26 (2019): eaau5872 

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REFUGE Challenge: A Unified Framework for Evaluating Automated Methods for Glaucoma Assessment from Fundus Photographs

Oct 08, 2019
José Ignacio Orlando, Huazhu Fu, João Barbossa Breda, Karel van Keer, Deepti R. Bathula, Andrés Diaz-Pinto, Ruogu Fang, Pheng-Ann Heng, Jeyoung Kim, JoonHo Lee, Joonseok Lee, Xiaoxiao Li, Peng Liu, Shuai Lu, Balamurali Murugesan, Valery Naranjo, Sai Samarth R. Phaye, Sharath M. Shankaranarayana, Apoorva Sikka, Jaemin Son, Anton van den Hengel, Shujun Wang, Junyan Wu, Zifeng Wu, Guanghui Xu, Yongli Xu, Pengshuai Yin, Fei Li, Xiulan Zhang, Yanwu Xu, Xiulan Zhang, Hrvoje Bogunović

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible but preventable blindness in working age populations. Color fundus photography (CFP) is the most cost-effective imaging modality to screen for retinal disorders. However, its application to glaucoma has been limited to the computation of a few related biomarkers such as the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. Deep learning approaches, although widely applied for medical image analysis, have not been extensively used for glaucoma assessment due to the limited size of the available data sets. Furthermore, the lack of a standardize benchmark strategy makes difficult to compare existing methods in a uniform way. In order to overcome these issues we set up the Retinal Fundus Glaucoma Challenge, REFUGE (\url{}), held in conjunction with MICCAI 2018. The challenge consisted of two primary tasks, namely optic disc/cup segmentation and glaucoma classification. As part of REFUGE, we have publicly released a data set of 1200 fundus images with ground truth segmentations and clinical glaucoma labels, currently the largest existing one. We have also built an evaluation framework to ease and ensure fairness in the comparison of different models, encouraging the development of novel techniques in the field. 12 teams qualified and participated in the online challenge. This paper summarizes their methods and analyzes their corresponding results. In particular, we observed that two of the top-ranked teams outperformed two human experts in the glaucoma classification task. Furthermore, the segmentation results were in general consistent with the ground truth annotations, with complementary outcomes that can be further exploited by ensembling the results.

* Accepted for publication in Medical Image Analysis 

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