Models, code, and papers for "Joshua B. Tenenbaum":
Both scientists and children make important structural discoveries, yet their computational underpinnings are not well understood. Structure discovery has previously been formalized as probabilistic inference about the right structural form --- where form could be a tree, ring, chain, grid, etc. [Kemp & Tenenbaum (2008). The discovery of structural form. PNAS, 105(3), 10687-10692]. While this approach can learn intuitive organizations, including a tree for animals and a ring for the color circle, it assumes a strong inductive bias that considers only these particular forms, and each form is explicitly provided as initial knowledge. Here we introduce a new computational model of how organizing structure can be discovered, utilizing a broad hypothesis space with a preference for sparse connectivity. Given that the inductive bias is more general, the model's initial knowledge shows little qualitative resemblance to some of the discoveries it supports. As a consequence, the model can also learn complex structures for domains that lack intuitive description, as well as predict human property induction judgments without explicit structural forms. By allowing form to emerge from sparsity, our approach clarifies how both the richness and flexibility of human conceptual organization can coexist.
Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (a) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (b) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology, to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (c) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes towards these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.
Common statistical practice has shown that the full power of Bayesian methods is not realized until hierarchical priors are used, as these allow for greater "robustness" and the ability to "share statistical strength." Yet it is an ongoing challenge to provide a learning-theoretically sound formalism of such notions that: offers practical guidance concerning when and how best to utilize hierarchical models; provides insights into what makes for a good hierarchical prior; and, when the form of the prior has been chosen, can guide the choice of hyperparameter settings. We present a set of analytical tools for understanding hierarchical priors in both the online and batch learning settings. We provide regret bounds under log-loss, which show how certain hierarchical models compare, in retrospect, to the best single model in the model class. We also show how to convert a Bayesian log-loss regret bound into a Bayesian risk bound for any bounded loss, a result which may be of independent interest. Risk and regret bounds for Student's $t$ and hierarchical Gaussian priors allow us to formalize the concepts of "robustness" and "sharing statistical strength." Priors for feature selection are investigated as well. Our results suggest that the learning-theoretic benefits of using hierarchical priors can often come at little cost on practical problems.
Children learning their first language face multiple problems of induction: how to learn the meanings of words, and how to build meaningful phrases from those words according to syntactic rules. We consider how children might solve these problems efficiently by solving them jointly, via a computational model that learns the syntax and semantics of multi-word utterances in a grounded reference game. We select a well-studied empirical case in which children are aware of patterns linking the syntactic and semantic properties of words --- that the properties picked out by base nouns tend to be related to shape, while prenominal adjectives tend to refer to other properties such as color. We show that children applying such inductive biases are accurately reflecting the statistics of child-directed speech, and that inducing similar biases in our computational model captures children's behavior in a classic adjective learning experiment. Our model incorporating such biases also demonstrates a clear data efficiency in learning, relative to a baseline model that learns without forming syntax-sensitive overhypotheses of word meaning. Thus solving a more complex joint inference problem may make the full problem of language acquisition easier, not harder.
Joint visual attention is characterized by two or more individuals looking at a common target at the same time. The ability to identify joint attention in scenes, the people involved, and their common target, is fundamental to the understanding of social interactions, including others' intentions and goals. In this work we deal with the extraction of joint attention events, and the use of such events for image descriptions. The work makes two novel contributions. First, our extraction algorithm is the first which identifies joint visual attention in single static images. It computes 3D gaze direction, identifies the gaze target by combining gaze direction with a 3D depth map computed for the image, and identifies the common gaze target. Second, we use a human study to demonstrate the sensitivity of humans to joint attention, suggesting that the detection of such a configuration in an image can be useful for understanding the image, including the goals of the agents and their joint activity, and therefore can contribute to image captioning and related tasks.
Many animals, and an increasing number of artificial agents, display sophisticated capabilities to perceive and manipulate objects. But human beings remain distinctive in their capacity for flexible, creative tool use -- using objects in new ways to act on the world, achieve a goal, or solve a problem. Here we introduce the "Tools" game, a simple but challenging domain for studying this behavior in human and artificial agents. Players place objects in a dynamic scene to accomplish a goal that can only be achieved if those objects interact with other scene elements in appropriate ways: for instance, launching, blocking, supporting or tipping them. Only a few attempts are permitted, requiring rapid trial-and-error learning if a solution is not found at first. We propose a "Sample, Simulate, Update" (SSUP) framework for modeling how people solve these challenges, based on exploiting rich world knowledge to sample actions that would lead to successful outcomes, simulate candidate actions before trying them out, and update beliefs about which tools and actions are best in a rapid learning loop. SSUP captures human performance well across 20 levels of the Tools game, and fits significantly better than alternate accounts based on deep reinforcement learning or learning the simulator parameters online. We discuss how the Tools challenge might guide the development of better physical reasoning agents in AI, as well as better accounts of human physical reasoning and tool use.
Three years ago, we released the Omniglot dataset for developing more human-like learning algorithms. Omniglot is a one-shot learning challenge, inspired by how people can learn a new concept from just one or a few examples. Along with the dataset, we proposed a suite of five challenge tasks and a computational model based on probabilistic program induction that addresses them. The computational model, although powerful, was not meant to be the final word on Omniglot; we hoped that the machine learning community would both build on our work and develop novel approaches to tackling the challenge. In the time since, we have been pleased to see the wide adoption of Omniglot and notable technical progress. There has been genuine progress on one-shot classification, but it has been difficult to measure since researchers have adopted different splits and training procedures that make the task easier. The other four tasks, while essential components of human conceptual understanding, have received considerably less attention. We review the progress so far and conclude that neural networks are still far from human-like concept learning on Omniglot, a challenge that requires performing all of the tasks with a single model. We also discuss new tasks to stimulate further progress.
There has been a recent explosion in the capabilities of game-playing artificial intelligence. Many classes of RL tasks, from Atari games to motor control to board games, are now solvable by fairly generic algorithms, based on deep learning, that learn to play from experience with minimal knowledge of the specific domain of interest. In this work, we will investigate the performance of these methods on Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM), a popular console fighting game. The SSBM environment has complex dynamics and partial observability, making it challenging for human and machine alike. The multi-player aspect poses an additional challenge, as the vast majority of recent advances in RL have focused on single-agent environments. Nonetheless, we will show that it is possible to train agents that are competitive against and even surpass human professionals, a new result for the multi-player video game setting.
Most human behaviors consist of multiple parts, steps, or subtasks. These structures guide our action planning and execution, but when we observe others, the latent structure of their actions is typically unobservable, and must be inferred in order to learn new skills by demonstration, or to assist others in completing their tasks. For example, an assistant who has learned the subgoal structure of a colleague's task can more rapidly recognize and support their actions as they unfold. Here we model how humans infer subgoals from observations of complex action sequences using a nonparametric Bayesian model, which assumes that observed actions are generated by approximately rational planning over unknown subgoal sequences. We test this model with a behavioral experiment in which humans observed different series of goal-directed actions, and inferred both the number and composition of the subgoal sequences associated with each goal. The Bayesian model predicts human subgoal inferences with high accuracy, and significantly better than several alternative models and straightforward heuristics. Motivated by this result, we simulate how learning and inference of subgoals can improve performance in an artificial user assistance task. The Bayesian model learns the correct subgoals from fewer observations, and better assists users by more rapidly and accurately inferring the goal of their actions than alternative approaches.
Most structure inference methods either rely on exhaustive search or are purely data-driven. Exhaustive search robustly infers the structure of arbitrarily complex data, but it is slow. Data-driven methods allow efficient inference, but do not generalize when test data have more complex structures than training data. In this paper, we propose a hybrid inference algorithm, the Neurally-Guided Structure Inference (NG-SI), keeping the advantages of both search-based and data-driven methods. The key idea of NG-SI is to use a neural network to guide the hierarchical, layer-wise search over the compositional space of structures. We evaluate our algorithm on two representative structure inference tasks: probabilistic matrix decomposition and symbolic program parsing. It outperforms data-driven and search-based alternatives on both tasks.
We propose a framework for the completely unsupervised learning of latent object properties from their interactions: the perception-prediction network (PPN). Consisting of a perception module that extracts representations of latent object properties and a prediction module that uses those extracted properties to simulate system dynamics, the PPN can be trained in an end-to-end fashion purely from samples of object dynamics. The representations of latent object properties learned by PPNs not only are sufficient to accurately simulate the dynamics of systems comprised of previously unseen objects, but also can be translated directly into human-interpretable properties (e.g., mass, coefficient of restitution) in an entirely unsupervised manner. Crucially, PPNs also generalize to novel scenarios: their gradient-based training can be applied to many dynamical systems and their graph-based structure functions over systems comprised of different numbers of objects. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of graph-based neural architectures in object-centric inference and prediction tasks, and our model has the potential to discover relevant object properties in systems that are not yet well understood.
We explore the representational space of emotions by combining methods from different academic fields. Cognitive science has proposed appraisal theory as a view on human emotion with previous research showing how human-rated abstract event features can predict fine-grained emotions and capture the similarity space of neural patterns in mentalizing brain regions. At the same time, natural language processing (NLP) has demonstrated how transfer and multitask learning can be used to cope with scarcity of annotated data for text modeling. The contribution of this work is to show that appraisal theory can be combined with NLP for mutual benefit. First, fine-grained emotion prediction can be improved to human-level performance by using NLP representations in addition to appraisal features. Second, using the appraisal features as auxiliary targets during training can improve predictions even when only text is available as input. Third, we obtain a representation with a similarity matrix that better correlates with the neural activity across regions. Best results are achieved when the model is trained to simultaneously predict appraisals, emotions and emojis using a shared representation. While these results are preliminary, the integration of cognitive neuroscience and NLP techniques opens up an interesting direction for future research.
We present the Neural Physics Engine (NPE), a framework for learning simulators of intuitive physics that naturally generalize across variable object count and different scene configurations. We propose a factorization of a physical scene into composable object-based representations and a neural network architecture whose compositional structure factorizes object dynamics into pairwise interactions. Like a symbolic physics engine, the NPE is endowed with generic notions of objects and their interactions; realized as a neural network, it can be trained via stochastic gradient descent to adapt to specific object properties and dynamics of different worlds. We evaluate the efficacy of our approach on simple rigid body dynamics in two-dimensional worlds. By comparing to less structured architectures, we show that the NPE's compositional representation of the structure in physical interactions improves its ability to predict movement, generalize across variable object count and different scene configurations, and infer latent properties of objects such as mass.
The problem of replicating the flexibility of human common-sense reasoning has captured the imagination of computer scientists since the early days of Alan Turing's foundational work on computation and the philosophy of artificial intelligence. In the intervening years, the idea of cognition as computation has emerged as a fundamental tenet of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cognitive science. But what kind of computation is cognition? We describe a computational formalism centered around a probabilistic Turing machine called QUERY, which captures the operation of probabilistic conditioning via conditional simulation. Through several examples and analyses, we demonstrate how the QUERY abstraction can be used to cast common-sense reasoning as probabilistic inference in a statistical model of our observations and the uncertain structure of the world that generated that experience. This formulation is a recent synthesis of several research programs in AI and cognitive science, but it also represents a surprising convergence of several of Turing's pioneering insights in AI, the foundations of computation, and statistics.
We propose infinite mixture prototypes to adaptively represent both simple and complex data distributions for few-shot learning. Our infinite mixture prototypes represent each class by a set of clusters, unlike existing prototypical methods that represent each class by a single cluster. By inferring the number of clusters, infinite mixture prototypes interpolate between nearest neighbor and prototypical representations, which improves accuracy and robustness in the few-shot regime. We show the importance of adaptive capacity for capturing complex data distributions such as alphabets, with 25% absolute accuracy improvements over prototypical networks, while still maintaining or improving accuracy on the standard Omniglot and mini-ImageNet benchmarks. In clustering labeled and unlabeled data by the same clustering rule, infinite mixture prototypes achieves state-of-the-art semi-supervised accuracy. As a further capability, we show that infinite mixture prototypes can perform purely unsupervised clustering, unlike existing prototypical methods.
Human social behavior is structured by relationships. We form teams, groups, tribes, and alliances at all scales of human life. These structures guide multi-agent cooperation and competition, but when we observe others these underlying relationships are typically unobservable and hence must be inferred. Humans make these inferences intuitively and flexibly, often making rapid generalizations about the latent relationships that underlie behavior from just sparse and noisy observations. Rapid and accurate inferences are important for determining who to cooperate with, who to compete with, and how to cooperate in order to compete. Towards the goal of building machine-learning algorithms with human-like social intelligence, we develop a generative model of multi-agent action understanding based on a novel representation for these latent relationships called Composable Team Hierarchies (CTH). This representation is grounded in the formalism of stochastic games and multi-agent reinforcement learning. We use CTH as a target for Bayesian inference yielding a new algorithm for understanding behavior in groups that can both infer hidden relationships as well as predict future actions for multiple agents interacting together. Our algorithm rapidly recovers an underlying causal model of how agents relate in spatial stochastic games from just a few observations. The patterns of inference made by this algorithm closely correspond with human judgments and the algorithm makes the same rapid generalizations that people do.
We introduce a model that learns to convert simple hand drawings into graphics programs written in a subset of \LaTeX. The model combines techniques from deep learning and program synthesis. We learn a convolutional neural network that proposes plausible drawing primitives that explain an image. These drawing primitives are like a trace of the set of primitive commands issued by a graphics program. We learn a model that uses program synthesis techniques to recover a graphics program from that trace. These programs have constructs like variable bindings, iterative loops, or simple kinds of conditionals. With a graphics program in hand, we can correct errors made by the deep network, measure similarity between drawings by use of similar high-level geometric structures, and extrapolate drawings. Taken together these results are a step towards agents that induce useful, human-readable programs from perceptual input.
Objects are made of parts, each with distinct geometry, physics, functionality, and affordances. Developing such a distributed, physical, interpretable representation of objects will facilitate intelligent agents to better explore and interact with the world. In this paper, we study physical primitive decomposition---understanding an object through its components, each with physical and geometric attributes. As annotated data for object parts and physics are rare, we propose a novel formulation that learns physical primitives by explaining both an object's appearance and its behaviors in physical events. Our model performs well on block towers and tools in both synthetic and real scenarios; we also demonstrate that visual and physical observations often provide complementary signals. We further present ablation and behavioral studies to better understand our model and contrast it with human performance.
Humans can easily describe, imagine, and, crucially, predict a wide variety of behaviors of liquids--splashing, squirting, gushing, sloshing, soaking, dripping, draining, trickling, pooling, and pouring--despite tremendous variability in their material and dynamical properties. Here we propose and test a computational model of how people perceive and predict these liquid dynamics, based on coarse approximate simulations of fluids as collections of interacting particles. Our model is analogous to a "game engine in the head", drawing on techniques for interactive simulations (as in video games) that optimize for efficiency and natural appearance rather than physical accuracy. In two behavioral experiments, we found that the model accurately captured people's predictions about how liquids flow among complex solid obstacles, and was significantly better than two alternatives based on simple heuristics and deep neural networks. Our model was also able to explain how people's predictions varied as a function of the liquids' properties (e.g., viscosity and stickiness). Together, the model and empirical results extend the recent proposal that human physical scene understanding for the dynamics of rigid, solid objects can be supported by approximate probabilistic simulation, to the more complex and unexplored domain of fluid dynamics.