Models, code, and papers for "Kai Shu":

Mining Disinformation and Fake News: Concepts, Methods, and Recent Advancements

Jan 02, 2020
Kai Shu, Suhang Wang, Dongwon Lee, Huan Liu

In recent years, disinformation including fake news, has became a global phenomenon due to its explosive growth, particularly on social media. The wide spread of disinformation and fake news can cause detrimental societal effects. Despite the recent progress in detecting disinformation and fake news, it is still non-trivial due to its complexity, diversity, multi-modality, and costs of fact-checking or annotation. The goal of this chapter is to pave the way for appreciating the challenges and advancements via: (1) introducing the types of information disorder on social media and examine their differences and connections; (2) describing important and emerging tasks to combat disinformation for characterization, detection and attribution; and (3) discussing a weak supervision approach to detect disinformation with limited labeled data. We then provide an overview of the chapters in this book that represent the recent advancements in three related parts: (1) user engagements in the dissemination of information disorder; (2) techniques on detecting and mitigating disinformation; and (3) trending issues such as ethics, blockchain, clickbaits, etc. We hope this book to be a convenient entry point for researchers, practitioners, and students to understand the problems and challenges, learn state-of-the-art solutions for their specific needs, and quickly identify new research problems in their domains.

* Submitted as an introductory chapter for the edited book on "Fake News, Disinformation, and Misinformation in Social Media- Emerging Research Challenges and Opportunities", Springer Press 

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Deep causal representation learning for unsupervised domain adaptation

Oct 28, 2019
Raha Moraffah, Kai Shu, Adrienne Raglin, Huan Liu

Studies show that the representations learned by deep neural networks can be transferred to similar prediction tasks in other domains for which we do not have enough labeled data. However, as we transition to higher layers in the model, the representations become more task-specific and less generalizable. Recent research on deep domain adaptation proposed to mitigate this problem by forcing the deep model to learn more transferable feature representations across domains. This is achieved by incorporating domain adaptation methods into deep learning pipeline. The majority of existing models learn the transferable feature representations which are highly correlated with the outcome. However, correlations are not always transferable. In this paper, we propose a novel deep causal representation learning framework for unsupervised domain adaptation, in which we propose to learn domain-invariant causal representations of the input from the source domain. We simulate a virtual target domain using reweighted samples from the source domain and estimate the causal effect of features on the outcomes. The extensive comparative study demonstrates the strengths of the proposed model for unsupervised domain adaptation via causal representations.

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Graph Neural Networks for User Identity Linkage

Mar 06, 2019
Wen Zhang, Kai Shu, Huan Liu, Yalin Wang

The increasing popularity and diversity of social media sites has encouraged more and more people to participate in multiple online social networks to enjoy their services. Each user may create a user identity to represent his or her unique public figure in every social network. User identity linkage across online social networks is an emerging task and has attracted increasing attention, which could potentially impact various domains such as recommendations and link predictions. The majority of existing work focuses on mining network proximity or user profile data for discovering user identity linkages. With the recent advancements in graph neural networks (GNNs), it provides great potential to advance user identity linkage since users are connected in social graphs, and learning latent factors of users and items is the key. However, predicting user identity linkages based on GNNs faces challenges. For example, the user social graphs encode both \textit{local} structure such as users' neighborhood signals, and \textit{global} structure with community properties. To address these challenges simultaneously, in this paper, we present a novel graph neural network framework ({\m}) for user identity linkage. In particular, we provide a principled approach to jointly capture local and global information in the user-user social graph and propose the framework {\m}, which jointly learning user representations for user identity linkage. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

* 7 pages, 3 figures 

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Cross-Platform Emoji Interpretation: Analysis, a Solution, and Applications

Sep 14, 2017
Fred Morstatter, Kai Shu, Suhang Wang, Huan Liu

Most social media platforms are largely based on text, and users often write posts to describe where they are, what they are seeing, and how they are feeling. Because written text lacks the emotional cues of spoken and face-to-face dialogue, ambiguities are common in written language. This problem is exacerbated in the short, informal nature of many social media posts. To bypass this issue, a suite of special characters called "emojis," which are small pictograms, are embedded within the text. Many emojis are small depictions of facial expressions designed to help disambiguate the emotional meaning of the text. However, a new ambiguity arises in the way that emojis are rendered. Every platform (Windows, Mac, and Android, to name a few) renders emojis according to their own style. In fact, it has been shown that some emojis can be rendered so differently that they look "happy" on some platforms, and "sad" on others. In this work, we use real-world data to verify the existence of this problem. We verify that the usage of the same emoji can be significantly different across platforms, with some emojis exhibiting different sentiment polarities on different platforms. We propose a solution to identify the intended emoji based on the platform-specific nature of the emoji used by the author of a social media post. We apply our solution to sentiment analysis, a task that can benefit from the emoji calibration technique we use in this work. We conduct experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the mapping in this task.

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Attribute Aware Pooling for Pedestrian Attribute Recognition

Jul 27, 2019
Kai Han, Yunhe Wang, Han Shu, Chuanjian Liu, Chunjing Xu, Chang Xu

This paper expands the strength of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to the pedestrian attribute recognition problem by devising a novel attribute aware pooling algorithm. Existing vanilla CNNs cannot be straightforwardly applied to handle multi-attribute data because of the larger label space as well as the attribute entanglement and correlations. We tackle these challenges that hampers the development of CNNs for multi-attribute classification by fully exploiting the correlation between different attributes. The multi-branch architecture is adopted for fucusing on attributes at different regions. Besides the prediction based on each branch itself, context information of each branch are employed for decision as well. The attribute aware pooling is developed to integrate both kinds of information. Therefore, attributes which are indistinct or tangled with others can be accurately recognized by exploiting the context information. Experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed pooling method appropriately explores and exploits the correlations between attributes for the pedestrian attribute recognition.

* Accepted by IJCAI 2019 

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Exploiting Emotions for Fake News Detection on Social Media

Mar 05, 2019
Chuan Guo, Juan Cao, Xueyao Zhang, Kai Shu, Miao Yu

Microblog has become a popular platform for people to post, share, and seek information due to its convenience and low cost. However, it also facilitates the generation and propagation of fake news, which could cause detrimental societal consequences. Detecting fake news on microblogs is important for societal good. Emotion is a significant indicator while verifying information on social media. Existing fake news detection studies utilize emotion mainly through users stances or simple statistical emotional features; and exploiting the emotion information from both news content and user comments is also limited. In the realistic scenarios, to impress the audience and spread extensively, the publishers typically either post a tweet with intense emotion which could easily resonate with the crowd, or post a controversial statement unemotionally but aim to evoke intense emotion among the users. Therefore, in this paper, we study the novel problem of exploiting emotion information for fake news detection. We propose a new Emotion-based Fake News Detection framework (EFN), which can i) learn content- and comment- emotion representations for publishers and users respectively; and ii) exploit content and social emotions simultaneously for fake news detection. Experimental results on real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

* 7 pages, 6 figures 

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Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective

Sep 03, 2017
Kai Shu, Amy Sliva, Suhang Wang, Jiliang Tang, Huan Liu

Social media for news consumption is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, its low cost, easy access, and rapid dissemination of information lead people to seek out and consume news from social media. On the other hand, it enables the wide spread of "fake news", i.e., low quality news with intentionally false information. The extensive spread of fake news has the potential for extremely negative impacts on individuals and society. Therefore, fake news detection on social media has recently become an emerging research that is attracting tremendous attention. Fake news detection on social media presents unique characteristics and challenges that make existing detection algorithms from traditional news media ineffective or not applicable. First, fake news is intentionally written to mislead readers to believe false information, which makes it difficult and nontrivial to detect based on news content; therefore, we need to include auxiliary information, such as user social engagements on social media, to help make a determination. Second, exploiting this auxiliary information is challenging in and of itself as users' social engagements with fake news produce data that is big, incomplete, unstructured, and noisy. Because the issue of fake news detection on social media is both challenging and relevant, we conducted this survey to further facilitate research on the problem. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of detecting fake news on social media, including fake news characterizations on psychology and social theories, existing algorithms from a data mining perspective, evaluation metrics and representative datasets. We also discuss related research areas, open problems, and future research directions for fake news detection on social media.

* ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, 2017 

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A realistic and robust model for Chinese word segmentation

May 21, 2019
Chu-Ren Huang, Ting-Shuo Yo, Petr Simon, Shu-Kai Hsieh

A realistic Chinese word segmentation tool must adapt to textual variations with minimal training input and yet robust enough to yield reliable segmentation result for all variants. Various lexicon-driven approaches to Chinese segmentation, e.g. [1,16], achieve high f-scores yet require massive training for any variation. Text-driven approach, e.g. [12], can be easily adapted for domain and genre changes yet has difficulty matching the high f-scores of the lexicon-driven approaches. In this paper, we refine and implement an innovative text-driven word boundary decision (WBD) segmentation model proposed in [15]. The WBD model treats word segmentation simply and efficiently as a binary decision on whether to realize the natural textual break between two adjacent characters as a word boundary. The WBD model allows simple and quick training data preparation converting characters as contextual vectors for learning the word boundary decision. Machine learning experiments with four different classifiers show that training with 1,000 vectors and 1 million vectors achieve comparable and reliable results. In addition, when applied to SigHAN Bakeoff 3 competition data, the WBD model produces OOV recall rates that are higher than all published results. Unlike all previous work, our OOV recall rate is comparable to our own F-score. Both experiments support the claim that the WBD model is a realistic model for Chinese word segmentation as it can be easily adapted for new variants with the robust result. In conclusion, we will discuss linguistic ramifications as well as future implications for the WBD approach.

* Proceedings of the 20th Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing 

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Identification of primary angle-closure on AS-OCT images with Convolutional Neural Networks

Oct 23, 2019
Chenglang Yuan, Cheng Bian, Hongjian Kang, Shu Liang, Kai Ma, Yefeng Zheng

Primary angle-closure disease (PACD) is a severe retinal disease, which might cause irreversible vision loss. In clinic, accurate identification of angle-closure and localization of the scleral spur's position on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is essential for the diagnosis of PACD. However, manual delineation might confine in low accuracy and low efficiency. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate end-to-end architecture for angle-closure classification and scleral spur localization. Specifically, we utilize a revised ResNet152 as our backbone to improve the accuracy of the angle-closure identification. For scleral spur localization, we adopt EfficientNet as encoder because of its powerful feature extraction potential. By combining the skip-connect module and pyramid pooling module, the network is able to collect semantic cues in feature maps from multiple dimensions and scales. Afterward, we propose a novel keypoint registration loss to constrain the model's attention to the intensity and location of the scleral spur area. Several experiments are extensively conducted to evaluate our method on the angle-closure glaucoma evaluation (AGE) Challenge dataset. The results show that our proposed architecture ranks the first place of the classification task on the test dataset and achieves the average Euclidean distance error of 12.00 pixels in the scleral spur localization task.

* The third place in angle-closure glaucoma evaluation (AGE) Challenge, MICCAI 2019 

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Applications of Social Media in Hydroinformatics: A Survey

May 01, 2019
Yufeng Yu, Yuelong Zhu, Dingsheng Wan, Qun Zhao, Kai Shu, Huan Liu

Floods of research and practical applications employ social media data for a wide range of public applications, including environmental monitoring, water resource managing, disaster and emergency response.Hydroinformatics can benefit from the social media technologies with newly emerged data, techniques and analytical tools to handle large datasets, from which creative ideas and new values could be mined.This paper first proposes a 4W (What, Why, When, hoW) model and a methodological structure to better understand and represent the application of social media to hydroinformatics, then provides an overview of academic research of applying social media to hydroinformatics such as water environment, water resources, flood, drought and water Scarcity management. At last,some advanced topics and suggestions of water related social media applications from data collection, data quality management, fake news detection, privacy issues, algorithms and platforms was present to hydroinformatics managers and researchers based on previous discussion.

* 37pages 

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Deep Ordinal Hashing with Spatial Attention

May 07, 2018
Lu Jin, Xiangbo Shu, Kai Li, Zechao Li, Guo-Jun Qi, Jinhui Tang

Hashing has attracted increasing research attentions in recent years due to its high efficiency of computation and storage in image retrieval. Recent works have demonstrated the superiority of simultaneous feature representations and hash functions learning with deep neural networks. However, most existing deep hashing methods directly learn the hash functions by encoding the global semantic information, while ignoring the local spatial information of images. The loss of local spatial structure makes the performance bottleneck of hash functions, therefore limiting its application for accurate similarity retrieval. In this work, we propose a novel Deep Ordinal Hashing (DOH) method, which learns ordinal representations by leveraging the ranking structure of feature space from both local and global views. In particular, to effectively build the ranking structure, we propose to learn the rank correlation space by exploiting the local spatial information from Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) and the global semantic information from the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) simultaneously. More specifically, an effective spatial attention model is designed to capture the local spatial information by selectively learning well-specified locations closely related to target objects. In such hashing framework,the local spatial and global semantic nature of images are captured in an end-to-end ranking-to-hashing manner. Experimental results conducted on three widely-used datasets demonstrate that the proposed DOH method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art hashing methods.

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Co-Evolutionary Compression for Unpaired Image Translation

Jul 25, 2019
Han Shu, Yunhe Wang, Xu Jia, Kai Han, Hanting Chen, Chunjing Xu, Qi Tian, Chang Xu

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been successfully used for considerable computer vision tasks, especially the image-to-image translation. However, generators in these networks are of complicated architectures with large number of parameters and huge computational complexities. Existing methods are mainly designed for compressing and speeding-up deep neural networks in the classification task, and cannot be directly applied on GANs for image translation, due to their different objectives and training procedures. To this end, we develop a novel co-evolutionary approach for reducing their memory usage and FLOPs simultaneously. In practice, generators for two image domains are encoded as two populations and synergistically optimized for investigating the most important convolution filters iteratively. Fitness of each individual is calculated using the number of parameters, a discriminator-aware regularization, and the cycle consistency. Extensive experiments conducted on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for obtaining compact and effective generators.

* Accepted by ICCV 2019 

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Collaborative Deep Reinforcement Learning

Feb 19, 2017
Kaixiang Lin, Shu Wang, Jiayu Zhou

Besides independent learning, human learning process is highly improved by summarizing what has been learned, communicating it with peers, and subsequently fusing knowledge from different sources to assist the current learning goal. This collaborative learning procedure ensures that the knowledge is shared, continuously refined, and concluded from different perspectives to construct a more profound understanding. The idea of knowledge transfer has led to many advances in machine learning and data mining, but significant challenges remain, especially when it comes to reinforcement learning, heterogeneous model structures, and different learning tasks. Motivated by human collaborative learning, in this paper we propose a collaborative deep reinforcement learning (CDRL) framework that performs adaptive knowledge transfer among heterogeneous learning agents. Specifically, the proposed CDRL conducts a novel deep knowledge distillation method to address the heterogeneity among different learning tasks with a deep alignment network. Furthermore, we present an efficient collaborative Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (cA3C) algorithm to incorporate deep knowledge distillation into the online training of agents, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the CDRL framework using extensive empirical evaluation on OpenAI gym.

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Learning Deep CNN Denoiser Prior for Image Restoration

Apr 11, 2017
Kai Zhang, Wangmeng Zuo, Shuhang Gu, Lei Zhang

Model-based optimization methods and discriminative learning methods have been the two dominant strategies for solving various inverse problems in low-level vision. Typically, those two kinds of methods have their respective merits and drawbacks, e.g., model-based optimization methods are flexible for handling different inverse problems but are usually time-consuming with sophisticated priors for the purpose of good performance; in the meanwhile, discriminative learning methods have fast testing speed but their application range is greatly restricted by the specialized task. Recent works have revealed that, with the aid of variable splitting techniques, denoiser prior can be plugged in as a modular part of model-based optimization methods to solve other inverse problems (e.g., deblurring). Such an integration induces considerable advantage when the denoiser is obtained via discriminative learning. However, the study of integration with fast discriminative denoiser prior is still lacking. To this end, this paper aims to train a set of fast and effective CNN (convolutional neural network) denoisers and integrate them into model-based optimization method to solve other inverse problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the learned set of denoisers not only achieve promising Gaussian denoising results but also can be used as prior to deliver good performance for various low-level vision applications.

* Accepted to CVPR 2017. Code: 

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Arithmetic addition of two integers by deep image classification networks: experiments to quantify their autonomous reasoning ability

Dec 10, 2019
Shuaicheng Liu, Zehao Zhang, Kai Song, Bing Zeng

The unprecedented performance achieved by deep convolutional neural networks for image classification is linked primarily to their ability of capturing rich structural features at various layers within networks. Here we design a series of experiments, inspired by children's learning of the arithmetic addition of two integers, to showcase that such deep networks can go beyond the structural features to learn deeper knowledge. In our experiments, a set of images is constructed, each image containing an arithmetic addition $n+m$ in its central area, and several classification networks are then trained over a subset of images, using the sum as the label. Tests on the excluded images show that, as the image set gets larger, the networks have well learnt the law of arithmetic additions so as to build up their autonomous reasoning ability strongly. For instance, networks trained over a small percentage of images can classify a big majority of the remaining images correctly, and many arithmetic additions involving some integers that have never been seen during the training can also be solved correctly by the trained networks.

* 6 pages, 6 figures 

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Learning a Fixed-Length Fingerprint Representation

Sep 21, 2019
Joshua J. Engelsma, Kai Cao, Anil K. Jain

We present DeepPrint, a deep network, which learns to extract fixed-length fingerprint representations of only 200 bytes. DeepPrint incorporates fingerprint domain knowledge, including alignment and minutiae detection, into the deep network architecture to maximize the discriminative power of its representation. The compact, DeepPrint representation has several advantages over the prevailing variable length minutiae representation which (i) requires computationally expensive graph matching techniques, (ii) is difficult to secure using strong encryption schemes (e.g. homomorphic encryption), and (iii) has low discriminative power in poor quality fingerprints where minutiae extraction is unreliable. We benchmark DeepPrint against two top performing COTS SDKs (Verifinger and Innovatrics) from the NIST and FVC evaluations. Coupled with a re-ranking scheme, the DeepPrint rank-1 search accuracy on the NIST SD4 dataset against a gallery of 1.1 million fingerprints is comparable to the top COTS matcher, but it is significantly faster (DeepPrint: 98.80% in 0.3 seconds vs. COTS A: 98.85% in 27 seconds). To the best of our knowledge, the DeepPrint representation is the most compact and discriminative fixed-length fingerprint representation reported in the academic literature.

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Adaptive Noise Injection: A Structure-Expanding Regularization for RNN

Jul 25, 2019
Rui Li, Kai Shuang, Mengyu Gu, Sen Su

The vanilla LSTM has become one of the most potential architectures in word-level language modeling, like other recurrent neural networks, overfitting is always a key barrier for its effectiveness. The existing noise-injected regularizations introduce the random noises of fixation intensity, which inhibits the learning of the RNN throughout the training process. In this paper, we propose a new structure-expanding regularization method called Adjective Noise Injection (ANI), which considers the output of an extra RNN branch as a kind of adaptive noises and injects it into the main-branch RNN output. Due to the adaptive noises can be improved as the training processes, its negative effects can be weakened and even transformed into a positive effect to further improve the expressiveness of the main-branch RNN. As a result, ANI can regularize the RNN in the early stage of training and further promoting its training performance in the later stage. We conduct experiments on three widely-used corpora: PTB, WT2, and WT103, whose results verify both the regularization and promoting the training performance functions of ANI. Furthermore, we design a series simulation experiments to explore the reasons that may lead to the regularization effect of ANI, and we find that in training process, the robustness against the parameter update errors can be strengthened when the LSTM equipped with ANI.

* 10 pages, 3 figures 

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Fingerprints: Fixed Length Representation via Deep Networks and Domain Knowledge

Apr 01, 2019
Joshua J. Engelsma, Kai Cao, Anil K. Jain

We learn a discriminative fixed length feature representation of fingerprints which stands in contrast to commonly used unordered, variable length sets of minutiae points. To arrive at this fixed length representation, we embed fingerprint domain knowledge into a multitask deep convolutional neural network architecture. Empirical results, on two public-domain fingerprint databases (NIST SD4 and FVC 2004 DB1) show that compared to minutiae representations, extracted by two state-of-the-art commercial matchers (Verifinger v6.3 and Innovatrics v2.0.3), our fixed-length representations provide (i) higher search accuracy: Rank-1 accuracy of 97.9% vs. 97.3% on NIST SD4 against a gallery size of 2000 and (ii) significantly faster, large scale search: 682,594 matches per second vs. 22 matches per second for commercial matchers on an i5 3.3 GHz processor with 8 GB of RAM.

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Learning Competitive and Discriminative Reconstructions for Anomaly Detection

Mar 17, 2019
Kai Tian, Shuigeng Zhou, Jianping Fan, Jihong Guan

Most of the existing methods for anomaly detection use only positive data to learn the data distribution, thus they usually need a pre-defined threshold at the detection stage to determine whether a test instance is an outlier. Unfortunately, a good threshold is vital for the performance and it is really hard to find an optimal one. In this paper, we take the discriminative information implied in unlabeled data into consideration and propose a new method for anomaly detection that can learn the labels of unlabelled data directly. Our proposed method has an end-to-end architecture with one encoder and two decoders that are trained to model inliers and outliers' data distributions in a competitive way. This architecture works in a discriminative manner without suffering from overfitting, and the training algorithm of our model is adopted from SGD, thus it is efficient and scalable even for large-scale datasets. Empirical studies on 7 datasets including KDD99, MNIST, Caltech-256, and ImageNet etc. show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

* 8 pages 

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Global Semantic Consistency for Zero-Shot Learning

Jun 22, 2018
Fan Wu, Kai Tian, Jihong Guan, Shuigeng Zhou

In image recognition, there are many cases where training samples cannot cover all target classes. Zero-shot learning (ZSL) utilizes the class semantic information to classify samples of the unseen categories that have no corresponding samples contained in the training set. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end framework, called Global Semantic Consistency Network (GSC-Net for short), which makes complete use of the semantic information of both seen and unseen classes, to support effective zero-shot learning. We also adopt a soft label embedding loss to further exploit the semantic relationships among classes. To adapt GSC-Net to a more practical setting, Generalized Zero-shot Learning (GZSL), we introduce a parametric novelty detection mechanism. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance on both ZSL and GZSL tasks over three visual attribute datasets, which validates the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed framework.

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