Models, code, and papers for "Kalyan Sunkavalli":
We present a single-shot system to recover surface geometry of objects with spatially-varying albedos, from images captured under a calibrated RGB photometric stereo setup---with three light directions multiplexed across different color channels in the observed RGB image. Since the problem is ill-posed point-wise, we assume that the albedo map can be modeled as piece-wise constant with a restricted number of distinct albedo values. We show that under ideal conditions, the shape of a non-degenerate local constant albedo surface patch can theoretically be recovered exactly. Moreover, we present a practical and efficient algorithm that uses this model to robustly recover shape from real images. Our method first reasons about shape locally in a dense set of patches in the observed image, producing shape distributions for every patch. These local distributions are then combined to produce a single consistent surface normal map. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach through experiments on both synthetic renderings as well as real captured images.
We propose a material acquisition approach to recover the spatially-varying BRDF and normal map of a near-planar surface from a single image captured by a handheld mobile phone camera. Our method images the surface under arbitrary environment lighting with the flash turned on, thereby avoiding shadows while simultaneously capturing high-frequency specular highlights. We train a CNN to regress an SVBRDF and surface normals from this image. Our network is trained using a large-scale SVBRDF dataset and designed to incorporate physical insights for material estimation, including an in-network rendering layer to model appearance and a material classifier to provide additional supervision during training. We refine the results from the network using a dense CRF module whose terms are designed specifically for our task. The framework is trained end-to-end and produces high quality results for a variety of materials. We provide extensive ablation studies to evaluate our network on both synthetic and real data, while demonstrating significant improvements in comparisons with prior works.
We present a method to separate a single image captured under two illuminants, with different spectra, into the two images corresponding to the appearance of the scene under each individual illuminant. We do this by training a deep neural network to predict the per-pixel reflectance chromaticity of the scene, which we use in conjunction with a previous flash/no-flash image-based separation algorithm to produce the final two output images. We design our reflectance chromaticity network and loss functions by incorporating intuitions from the physics of image formation. We show that this leads to significantly better performance than other single image techniques and even approaches the quality of the two image separation method.
Real-world lighting often consists of multiple illuminants with different spectra. Separating and manipulating these illuminants in post-process is a challenging problem that requires either significant manual input or calibrated scene geometry and lighting. In this work, we leverage a flash/no-flash image pair to analyze and edit scene illuminants based on their spectral differences. We derive a novel physics-based relationship between color variations in the observed flash/no-flash intensities and the spectra and surface shading corresponding to individual scene illuminants. Our technique uses this constraint to automatically separate an image into constituent images lit by each illuminant. This separation can be used to support applications like white balancing, lighting editing, and RGB photometric stereo, where we demonstrate results that outperform state-of-the-art techniques on a wide range of images.
We propose a deep inverse rendering framework for indoor scenes. From a single RGB image of an arbitrary indoor scene, we create a complete scene reconstruction, estimating shape, spatially-varying lighting, and spatially-varying, non-Lambertian surface reflectance. To train this network, we augment the SUNCG indoor scene dataset with real-world materials and render them with a fast, high-quality, physically-based GPU renderer to create a large-scale, photorealistic indoor dataset. Our inverse rendering network incorporates physical insights -- including a spatially-varying spherical Gaussian lighting representation, a differentiable rendering layer to model scene appearance, a cascade structure to iteratively refine the predictions and a bilateral solver for refinement -- allowing us to jointly reason about shape, lighting, and reflectance. Experiments show that our framework outperforms previous methods for estimating individual scene components, which also enables various novel applications for augmented reality, such as photorealistic object insertion and material editing. Code and data will be made publicly available.
We propose a new approach for editing face images, which enables numerous exciting applications including face relighting, makeup transfer and face detail editing. Our face edits are based on a visual representation, which includes geometry, face segmentation, albedo, illumination and detail map. To recover our visual representation, we start by estimating geometry using a morphable face model, then decompose the face image to recover the albedo, and then shade the geometry with the albedo and illumination. The residual between our shaded geometry and the input image produces our detail map, which carries high frequency information that is either insufficiently or incorrectly captured by our shading process. By manipulating the detail map, we can edit face images with reality and identity preserved. Our representation allows various applications. First, it allows a user to directly manipulate various illumination. Second, it allows non-parametric makeup transfer with input face's distinctive identity features preserved. Third, it allows non-parametric modifications to the face appearance by transferring details. For face relighting and detail editing, we evaluate via a user study and our method outperforms other methods. For makeup transfer, we evaluate via an online attractiveness evaluation system, and can reliably make people look younger and more attractive. We also show extensive qualitative comparisons to existing methods, and have significant improvements over previous techniques.
Shadows often create unwanted artifacts in photographs, and removing them can be very challenging. Previous shadow removal methods often produce de-shadowed regions that are visually inconsistent with the rest of the image. In this work we propose a fully automatic shadow region harmonization approach that improves the appearance compatibility of the de-shadowed region as typically produced by previous methods. It is based on a shadow-guided patch-based image synthesis approach that reconstructs the shadow region using patches sampled from non-shadowed regions. The result is then refined based on the reconstruction confidence to handle unique image patterns. Many shadow removal results and comparisons are show the effectiveness of our improvement. Quantitative evaluation on a benchmark dataset suggests that our automatic shadow harmonization approach effectively improves upon the state-of-the-art.
We introduce a new technique that automatically generates diverse, visually compelling stylizations for a photograph in an unsupervised manner. We achieve this by learning style ranking for a given input using a large photo collection and selecting a diverse subset of matching styles for final style transfer. We also propose a novel technique that transfers the global color and tone of the chosen exemplars to the input photograph while avoiding the common visual artifacts produced by the existing style transfer methods. Together, our style selection and transfer techniques produce compelling, artifact-free results on a wide range of input photographs, and a user study shows that our results are preferred over other techniques.
We propose a real-time method to estimate spatiallyvarying indoor lighting from a single RGB image. Given an image and a 2D location in that image, our CNN estimates a 5th order spherical harmonic representation of the lighting at the given location in less than 20ms on a laptop mobile graphics card. While existing approaches estimate a single, global lighting representation or require depth as input, our method reasons about local lighting without requiring any geometry information. We demonstrate, through quantitative experiments including a user study, that our results achieve lower lighting estimation errors and are preferred by users over the state-of-the-art. Our approach can be used directly for augmented reality applications, where a virtual object is relit realistically at any position in the scene in real-time.
Reliable markerless motion tracking of multiple people participating in complex group activity from multiple handheld cameras is challenging due to frequent occlusions, strong viewpoint and appearance variations, and asynchronous video streams. The key to solving this problem is to reliably associate the same person across distant viewpoint and temporal instances. In this work, we combine motion tracking, mutual exclusion constraints, and multiview geometry in a multitask learning framework to automatically adapt a generic person appearance descriptor to the domain videos. Tracking is formulated as a spatiotemporally constrained clustering using the adapted person descriptor. Physical human constraints are exploited to reconstruct accurate and consistent 3D skeletons for every person across the entire sequence. We show significant improvement in association accuracy (up to 18%) in events with up to 60 people and 3D human skeleton reconstruction (5 to 10 times) over the baseline for events captured "in the wild".
We present a CNN-based technique to estimate high-dynamic range outdoor illumination from a single low dynamic range image. To train the CNN, we leverage a large dataset of outdoor panoramas. We fit a low-dimensional physically-based outdoor illumination model to the skies in these panoramas giving us a compact set of parameters (including sun position, atmospheric conditions, and camera parameters). We extract limited field-of-view images from the panoramas, and train a CNN with this large set of input image--output lighting parameter pairs. Given a test image, this network can be used to infer illumination parameters that can, in turn, be used to reconstruct an outdoor illumination environment map. We demonstrate that our approach allows the recovery of plausible illumination conditions and enables photorealistic virtual object insertion from a single image. An extensive evaluation on both the panorama dataset and captured HDR environment maps shows that our technique significantly outperforms previous solutions to this problem.
Traditional face editing methods often require a number of sophisticated and task specific algorithms to be applied one after the other --- a process that is tedious, fragile, and computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end generative adversarial network that infers a face-specific disentangled representation of intrinsic face properties, including shape (i.e. normals), albedo, and lighting, and an alpha matte. We show that this network can be trained on "in-the-wild" images by incorporating an in-network physically-based image formation module and appropriate loss functions. Our disentangling latent representation allows for semantically relevant edits, where one aspect of facial appearance can be manipulated while keeping orthogonal properties fixed, and we demonstrate its use for a number of facial editing applications.
We present a method to estimate lighting from a single image of an indoor scene. Previous work has used an environment map representation that does not account for the localized nature of indoor lighting. Instead, we represent lighting as a set of discrete 3D lights with geometric and photometric parameters. We train a deep neural network to regress these parameters from a single image, on a dataset of environment maps annotated with depth. We propose a differentiable layer to convert these parameters to an environment map to compute our loss; this bypasses the challenge of establishing correspondences between estimated and ground truth lights. We demonstrate, via quantitative and qualitative evaluations, that our representation and training scheme lead to more accurate results compared to previous work, while allowing for more realistic 3D object compositing with spatially-varying lighting.
We present a neural network that predicts HDR outdoor illumination from a single LDR image. At the heart of our work is a method to accurately learn HDR lighting from LDR panoramas under any weather condition. We achieve this by training another CNN (on a combination of synthetic and real images) to take as input an LDR panorama, and regress the parameters of the Lalonde-Matthews outdoor illumination model. This model is trained such that it a) reconstructs the appearance of the sky, and b) renders the appearance of objects lit by this illumination. We use this network to label a large-scale dataset of LDR panoramas with lighting parameters and use them to train our single image outdoor lighting estimation network. We demonstrate, via extensive experiments, that both our panorama and single image networks outperform the state of the art, and unlike prior work, are able to handle weather conditions ranging from fully sunny to overcast skies.
Compositing is one of the most common operations in photo editing. To generate realistic composites, the appearances of foreground and background need to be adjusted to make them compatible. Previous approaches to harmonize composites have focused on learning statistical relationships between hand-crafted appearance features of the foreground and background, which is unreliable especially when the contents in the two layers are vastly different. In this work, we propose an end-to-end deep convolutional neural network for image harmonization, which can capture both the context and semantic information of the composite images during harmonization. We also introduce an efficient way to collect large-scale and high-quality training data that can facilitate the training process. Experiments on the synthesized dataset and real composite images show that the proposed network outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.
Long-term human motion can be represented as a series of motion modes---motion sequences that capture short-term temporal dynamics---with transitions between them. We leverage this structure and present a novel Motion Transformation Variational Auto-Encoders (MT-VAE) for learning motion sequence generation. Our model jointly learns a feature embedding for motion modes (that the motion sequence can be reconstructed from) and a feature transformation that represents the transition of one motion mode to the next motion mode. Our model is able to generate multiple diverse and plausible motion sequences in the future from the same input. We apply our approach to both facial and full body motion, and demonstrate applications like analogy-based motion transfer and video synthesis.
Most current single image camera calibration methods rely on specific image features or user input, and cannot be applied to natural images captured in uncontrolled settings. We propose directly inferring camera calibration parameters from a single image using a deep convolutional neural network. This network is trained using automatically generated samples from a large-scale panorama dataset, and considerably outperforms other methods, including recent deep learning-based approaches, in terms of standard L2 error. However, we argue that in many cases it is more important to consider how humans perceive errors in camera estimation. To this end, we conduct a large-scale human perception study where we ask users to judge the realism of 3D objects composited with and without ground truth camera calibration. Based on this study, we develop a new perceptual measure for camera calibration, and demonstrate that our deep calibration network outperforms other methods on this measure. Finally, we demonstrate the use of our calibration network for a number of applications including virtual object insertion, image retrieval and compositing.
We propose an automatic method to infer high dynamic range illumination from a single, limited field-of-view, low dynamic range photograph of an indoor scene. In contrast to previous work that relies on specialized image capture, user input, and/or simple scene models, we train an end-to-end deep neural network that directly regresses a limited field-of-view photo to HDR illumination, without strong assumptions on scene geometry, material properties, or lighting. We show that this can be accomplished in a three step process: 1) we train a robust lighting classifier to automatically annotate the location of light sources in a large dataset of LDR environment maps, 2) we use these annotations to train a deep neural network that predicts the location of lights in a scene from a single limited field-of-view photo, and 3) we fine-tune this network using a small dataset of HDR environment maps to predict light intensities. This allows us to automatically recover high-quality HDR illumination estimates that significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art methods. Consequently, using our illumination estimates for applications like 3D object insertion, we can achieve results that are photo-realistic, which is validated via a perceptual user study.
We present a scene parsing method that utilizes global context information based on both the parametric and non- parametric models. Compared to previous methods that only exploit the local relationship between objects, we train a context network based on scene similarities to generate feature representations for global contexts. In addition, these learned features are utilized to generate global and spatial priors for explicit classes inference. We then design modules to embed the feature representations and the priors into the segmentation network as additional global context cues. We show that the proposed method can eliminate false positives that are not compatible with the global context representations. Experiments on both the MIT ADE20K and PASCAL Context datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against existing methods.