Recent years have seen tremendous progress in still-image segmentation; however the na\"ive application of these state-of-the-art algorithms to every video frame requires considerable computation and ignores the temporal continuity inherent in video. We propose a video recognition framework that relies on two key observations: 1) while pixels may change rapidly from frame to frame, the semantic content of a scene evolves more slowly, and 2) execution can be viewed as an aspect of architecture, yielding purpose-fit computation schedules for networks. We define a novel family of "clockwork" convnets driven by fixed or adaptive clock signals that schedule the processing of different layers at different update rates according to their semantic stability. We design a pipeline schedule to reduce latency for real-time recognition and a fixed-rate schedule to reduce overall computation. Finally, we extend clockwork scheduling to adaptive video processing by incorporating data-driven clocks that can be tuned on unlabeled video. The accuracy and efficiency of clockwork convnets are evaluated on the Youtube-Objects, NYUD, and Cityscapes video datasets.

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Learning-based methods for visual segmentation have made progress on particular types of segmentation tasks, but are limited by the necessary supervision, the narrow definitions of fixed tasks, and the lack of control during inference for correcting errors. To remedy the rigidity and annotation burden of standard approaches, we address the problem of few-shot segmentation: given few image and few pixel supervision, segment any images accordingly. We propose guided networks, which extract a latent task representation from any amount of supervision, and optimize our architecture end-to-end for fast, accurate few-shot segmentation. Our method can switch tasks without further optimization and quickly update when given more guidance. We report the first results for segmentation from one pixel per concept and show real-time interactive video segmentation. Our unified approach propagates pixel annotations across space for interactive segmentation, across time for video segmentation, and across scenes for semantic segmentation. Our guided segmentor is state-of-the-art in accuracy for the amount of annotation and time. See http://github.com/shelhamer/revolver for code, models, and more details.

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Many details about our world are not captured in written records because they are too mundane or too abstract to describe in words. Fortunately, since the invention of the camera, an ever-increasing number of photographs capture much of this otherwise lost information. This plethora of artifacts documenting our "visual culture" is a treasure trove of knowledge as yet untapped by historians. We present a dataset of 37,921 frontal-facing American high school yearbook photos that allow us to use computation to glimpse into the historical visual record too voluminous to be evaluated manually. The collected portraits provide a constant visual frame of reference with varying content. We can therefore use them to consider issues such as a decade's defining style elements, or trends in fashion and social norms over time. We demonstrate that our historical image dataset may be used together with weakly-supervised data-driven techniques to perform scalable historical analysis of large image corpora with minimal human effort, much in the same way that large text corpora together with natural language processing revolutionized historians' workflow. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of our dataset in dating grayscale portraits using deep learning methods.

* ICCV 2015 Extreme Imaging Workshop
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