Research papers and code for "Kee Yuan Ngiam":
Owe to the recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence especially deep learning, many data-driven decision support systems have been implemented to facilitate medical doctors in delivering personalized care. We focus on the deep reinforcement learning (DRL) models in this paper. DRL models have demonstrated human-level or even superior performance in the tasks of computer vision and game playings, such as Go and Atari game. However, the adoption of deep reinforcement learning techniques in clinical decision optimization is still rare. We present the first survey that summarizes reinforcement learning algorithms with Deep Neural Networks (DNN) on clinical decision support. We also discuss some case studies, where different DRL algorithms were applied to address various clinical challenges. We further compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of various DRL algorithms and present a preliminary guide on how to choose the appropriate DRL algorithm for particular clinical applications.

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In critical care, intensivists are required to continuously monitor high dimensional vital signs and lab measurements to detect and diagnose acute patient conditions. This has always been a challenging task. In this study, we propose a novel self-correcting deep learning prediction approach to address this challenge. We focus on an example of the prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI). Compared with the existing models, our method has a number of distinct features: we utilized the accumulative data of patients in ICU; we developed a self-correcting mechanism that feeds errors from the previous predictions back into the network; we also proposed a regularization method that takes into account not only the model's prediction error on the label but also its estimation errors on the input data. This mechanism is applied in both regression and classification tasks. We compared the performance of our proposed method with the conventional deep learning models on two real-world clinical datasets and demonstrated that our proposed model constantly outperforms these baseline models. In particular, the proposed model achieved area under ROC curve at 0.893 on the MIMIC III dataset, and 0.871 on the Philips eICU dataset.

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Embeddings of medical concepts such as medication, procedure and diagnosis codes in Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are central to healthcare analytics. Previous work on medical concept embedding takes medical concepts and EMRs as words and documents respectively. Nevertheless, such models miss out the temporal nature of EMR data. On the one hand, two consecutive medical concepts do not indicate they are temporally close, but the correlations between them can be revealed by the time gap. On the other hand, the temporal scopes of medical concepts often vary greatly (e.g., \textit{common cold} and \textit{diabetes}). In this paper, we propose to incorporate the temporal information to embed medical codes. Based on the Continuous Bag-of-Words model, we employ the attention mechanism to learn a "soft" time-aware context window for each medical concept. Experiments on public and proprietary datasets through clustering and nearest neighbour search tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, showing that it outperforms five state-of-the-art baselines.

* 7 pages. IJCAI-ECAI-2018
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