Models, code, and papers for "Kexin Pei":

DeepTest: Automated Testing of Deep-Neural-Network-driven Autonomous Cars

Mar 20, 2018
Yuchi Tian, Kexin Pei, Suman Jana, Baishakhi Ray

Recent advances in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have led to the development of DNN-driven autonomous cars that, using sensors like camera, LiDAR, etc., can drive without any human intervention. Most major manufacturers including Tesla, GM, Ford, BMW, and Waymo/Google are working on building and testing different types of autonomous vehicles. The lawmakers of several US states including California, Texas, and New York have passed new legislation to fast-track the process of testing and deployment of autonomous vehicles on their roads. However, despite their spectacular progress, DNNs, just like traditional software, often demonstrate incorrect or unexpected corner case behaviors that can lead to potentially fatal collisions. Several such real-world accidents involving autonomous cars have already happened including one which resulted in a fatality. Most existing testing techniques for DNN-driven vehicles are heavily dependent on the manual collection of test data under different driving conditions which become prohibitively expensive as the number of test conditions increases. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate DeepTest, a systematic testing tool for automatically detecting erroneous behaviors of DNN-driven vehicles that can potentially lead to fatal crashes. First, our tool is designed to automatically generated test cases leveraging real-world changes in driving conditions like rain, fog, lighting conditions, etc. DeepTest systematically explores different parts of the DNN logic by generating test inputs that maximize the numbers of activated neurons. DeepTest found thousands of erroneous behaviors under different realistic driving conditions (e.g., blurring, rain, fog, etc.) many of which lead to potentially fatal crashes in three top performing DNNs in the Udacity self-driving car challenge.


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Towards Practical Verification of Machine Learning: The Case of Computer Vision Systems

Dec 16, 2017
Kexin Pei, Yinzhi Cao, Junfeng Yang, Suman Jana

Due to the increasing usage of machine learning (ML) techniques in security- and safety-critical domains, such as autonomous systems and medical diagnosis, ensuring correct behavior of ML systems, especially for different corner cases, is of growing importance. In this paper, we propose a generic framework for evaluating security and robustness of ML systems using different real-world safety properties. We further design, implement and evaluate VeriVis, a scalable methodology that can verify a diverse set of safety properties for state-of-the-art computer vision systems with only blackbox access. VeriVis leverage different input space reduction techniques for efficient verification of different safety properties. VeriVis is able to find thousands of safety violations in fifteen state-of-the-art computer vision systems including ten Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) such as Inception-v3 and Nvidia's Dave self-driving system with thousands of neurons as well as five commercial third-party vision APIs including Google vision and Clarifai for twelve different safety properties. Furthermore, VeriVis can successfully verify local safety properties, on average, for around 31.7% of the test images. VeriVis finds up to 64.8x more violations than existing gradient-based methods that, unlike VeriVis, cannot ensure non-existence of any violations. Finally, we show that retraining using the safety violations detected by VeriVis can reduce the average number of violations up to 60.2%.

* 16 pages, 11 tables, 11 figures 

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DeepXplore: Automated Whitebox Testing of Deep Learning Systems

Sep 24, 2017
Kexin Pei, Yinzhi Cao, Junfeng Yang, Suman Jana

Deep learning (DL) systems are increasingly deployed in safety- and security-critical domains including self-driving cars and malware detection, where the correctness and predictability of a system's behavior for corner case inputs are of great importance. Existing DL testing depends heavily on manually labeled data and therefore often fails to expose erroneous behaviors for rare inputs. We design, implement, and evaluate DeepXplore, the first whitebox framework for systematically testing real-world DL systems. First, we introduce neuron coverage for systematically measuring the parts of a DL system exercised by test inputs. Next, we leverage multiple DL systems with similar functionality as cross-referencing oracles to avoid manual checking. Finally, we demonstrate how finding inputs for DL systems that both trigger many differential behaviors and achieve high neuron coverage can be represented as a joint optimization problem and solved efficiently using gradient-based search techniques. DeepXplore efficiently finds thousands of incorrect corner case behaviors (e.g., self-driving cars crashing into guard rails and malware masquerading as benign software) in state-of-the-art DL models with thousands of neurons trained on five popular datasets including ImageNet and Udacity self-driving challenge data. For all tested DL models, on average, DeepXplore generated one test input demonstrating incorrect behavior within one second while running only on a commodity laptop. We further show that the test inputs generated by DeepXplore can also be used to retrain the corresponding DL model to improve the model's accuracy by up to 3%.

* To be published in SOSP'17 

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Efficient Formal Safety Analysis of Neural Networks

Oct 26, 2018
Shiqi Wang, Kexin Pei, Justin Whitehouse, Junfeng Yang, Suman Jana

Neural networks are increasingly deployed in real-world safety-critical domains such as autonomous driving, aircraft collision avoidance, and malware detection. However, these networks have been shown to often mispredict on inputs with minor adversarial or even accidental perturbations. Consequences of such errors can be disastrous and even potentially fatal as shown by the recent Tesla autopilot crash. Thus, there is an urgent need for formal analysis systems that can rigorously check neural networks for violations of different safety properties such as robustness against adversarial perturbations within a certain $L$-norm of a given image. An effective safety analysis system for a neural network must be able to either ensure that a safety property is satisfied by the network or find a counterexample, i.e., an input for which the network will violate the property. Unfortunately, most existing techniques for performing such analysis struggle to scale beyond very small networks and the ones that can scale to larger networks suffer from high false positives and cannot produce concrete counterexamples in case of a property violation. In this paper, we present a new efficient approach for rigorously checking different safety properties of neural networks that significantly outperforms existing approaches by multiple orders of magnitude. Our approach can check different safety properties and find concrete counterexamples for networks that are 10$\times$ larger than the ones supported by existing analysis techniques. We believe that our approach to estimating tight output bounds of a network for a given input range can also help improve the explainability of neural networks and guide the training process of more robust neural networks.

* Accepted to NIPS'18 

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Formal Security Analysis of Neural Networks using Symbolic Intervals

Jul 01, 2018
Shiqi Wang, Kexin Pei, Justin Whitehouse, Junfeng Yang, Suman Jana

Due to the increasing deployment of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in real-world security-critical domains including autonomous vehicles and collision avoidance systems, formally checking security properties of DNNs, especially under different attacker capabilities, is becoming crucial. Most existing security testing techniques for DNNs try to find adversarial examples without providing any formal security guarantees about the non-existence of such adversarial examples. Recently, several projects have used different types of Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solvers to formally check security properties of DNNs. However, all of these approaches are limited by the high overhead caused by the solver. In this paper, we present a new direction for formally checking security properties of DNNs without using SMT solvers. Instead, we leverage interval arithmetic to compute rigorous bounds on the DNN outputs. Our approach, unlike existing solver-based approaches, is easily parallelizable. We further present symbolic interval analysis along with several other optimizations to minimize overestimations of output bounds. We design, implement, and evaluate our approach as part of ReluVal, a system for formally checking security properties of Relu-based DNNs. Our extensive empirical results show that ReluVal outperforms Reluplex, a state-of-the-art solver-based system, by 200 times on average. On a single 8-core machine without GPUs, within 4 hours, ReluVal is able to verify a security property that Reluplex deemed inconclusive due to timeout after running for more than 5 days. Our experiments demonstrate that symbolic interval analysis is a promising new direction towards rigorously analyzing different security properties of DNNs.

* Accepted to USENIX Security 2018 

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NEUZZ: Efficient Fuzzing with NeuralProgram Smoothing

Nov 04, 2018
Dongdong She, Kexin Pei, Dave Epstein, Junfeng Yang, Baishakhi Ray, Suman Jana

Fuzzing has become the de facto standard technique for finding software vulnerabilities. However, even state-of-the-art fuzzers are not very efficient at finding hard-to-trigger software bugs. Most popular fuzzers use evolutionary guidance to generate inputs that can trigger different bugs. Such evolutionary algorithms, while fast and simple to implement, often get stuck in fruitless sequences of random mutations. Gradient-guided optimization presents a promising alternative to evolutionary guidance. Gradient-guided techniques have been shown to significantly outperform evolutionary algorithms at solving high-dimensional structured optimization problems in domains like machine learning by efficiently utilizing gradients or higher-order derivatives of the underlying function. However, gradient-guided approaches are not directly applicable to fuzzing as real-world program behaviors contain many discontinuities, plateaus, and ridges where the gradient-based methods often get stuck. We observe that this problem can be addressed by creating a smooth surrogate function approximating the discrete branching behavior of target program. In this paper, we propose a novel program smoothing technique using surrogate neural network models that can incrementally learn smooth approximations of a complex, real-world program's branching behaviors. We further demonstrate that such neural network models can be used together with gradient-guided input generation schemes to significantly improve the fuzzing efficiency. Our extensive evaluations demonstrate that NEUZZ significantly outperforms 10 state-of-the-art graybox fuzzers on 10 real-world programs both at finding new bugs and achieving higher edge coverage. NEUZZ found 31 unknown bugs that other fuzzers failed to find in 10 real world programs and achieved 3X more edge coverage than all of the tested graybox fuzzers for 24 hours running.


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