Research papers and code for "Kin-Man Lam":
The constrained local model (CLM) proposes a paradigm that the locations of a set of local landmark detectors are constrained to lie in a subspace, spanned by a shape point distribution model (PDM). Fitting the model to an object involves two steps. A response map, which represents the likelihood of the location of a landmark, is first computed for each landmark using local-texture detectors. Then, an optimal PDM is determined by jointly maximizing all the response maps simultaneously, with a global shape constraint. This global optimization can be considered as a Bayesian inference problem, where the posterior distribution of the shape parameters, as well as the pose parameters, can be inferred using maximum a posteriori (MAP). In this paper, we present a cascaded face-alignment approach, which employs random-forest regressors to estimate the positions of each landmark, as a likelihood term, efficiently in the CLM model. Interpretation from CLM framework, this algorithm is named as an efficient likelihood Bayesian constrained local model (elBCLM). Furthermore, in each stage of the regressors, the PDM non-rigid parameters of previous stage can work as shape clues for training each stage regressors. Experimental results on benchmarks show our approach achieve about 3 to 5 times speed-up compared with CLM models and improve around 10% on fitting quality compare with the same setting regression models.

* 6 pages, for submitting to ICME-2017
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For image recognition, an extensive number of methods have been proposed to overcome the high-dimensionality problem of feature vectors being used. These methods vary from unsupervised to supervised, and from statistics to graph-theory based. In this paper, the most popular and the state-of-the-art methods for dimensionality reduction are firstly reviewed, and then a new and more efficient manifold-learning method, named Soft Locality Preserving Map (SLPM), is presented. Furthermore, feature generation and sample selection are proposed to achieve better manifold learning. SLPM is a graph-based subspace-learning method, with the use of k-neighbourhood information and the class information. The key feature of SLPM is that it aims to control the level of spread of the different classes, because the spread of the classes in the underlying manifold is closely connected to the generalizability of the learned subspace. Our proposed manifold-learning method can be applied to various pattern recognition applications, and we evaluate its performances on facial expression recognition. Experiments on databases, such as the Bahcesehir University Multilingual Affective Face Database (BAUM-2), the Extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) Database, the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, and the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (TFEID), show that SLPM can effectively reduce the dimensionality of the feature vectors and enhance the discriminative power of the extracted features for expression recognition. Furthermore, the proposed feature-generation method can improve the generalizability of the underlying manifolds for facial expression recognition.

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In this paper, we propose a novel random-forest scheme, namely Joint Maximum Purity Forest (JMPF), for classification, clustering, and regression tasks. In the JMPF scheme, the original feature space is transformed into a compactly pre-clustered feature space, via a trained rotation matrix. The rotation matrix is obtained through an iterative quantization process, where the input data belonging to different classes are clustered to the respective vertices of the new feature space with maximum purity. In the new feature space, orthogonal hyperplanes, which are employed at the split-nodes of decision trees in random forests, can tackle the clustering problems effectively. We evaluated our proposed method on public benchmark datasets for regression and classification tasks, and experiments showed that JMPF remarkably outperforms other state-of-the-art random-forest-based approaches. Furthermore, we applied JMPF to image super-resolution, because the transformed, compact features are more discriminative to the clustering-regression scheme. Experiment results on several public benchmark datasets also showed that the JMPF-based image super-resolution scheme is consistently superior to recent state-of-the-art image super-resolution algorithms.

* 18 pages, 7 figures
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Recent random-forest (RF)-based image super-resolution approaches inherit some properties from dictionary-learning-based algorithms, but the effectiveness of the properties in RF is overlooked in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel feature-augmented random forest (FARF) for image super-resolution, where the conventional gradient-based features are augmented with gradient magnitudes and different feature recipes are formulated on different stages in an RF. The advantages of our method are that, firstly, the dictionary-learning-based features are enhanced by adding gradient magnitudes, based on the observation that the non-linear gradient magnitude are with highly discriminative property. Secondly, generalized locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is used to replace principal component analysis (PCA) for feature dimensionality reduction and original high-dimensional features are employed, instead of the compressed ones, for the leaf-nodes' regressors, since regressors can benefit from higher dimensional features. This original-compressed coupled feature sets scheme unifies the unsupervised LSH evaluation on both image super-resolution and content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Finally, we present a generalized weighted ridge regression (GWRR) model for the leaf-nodes' regressors. Experiment results on several public benchmark datasets show that our FARF method can achieve an average gain of about 0.3 dB, compared to traditional RF-based methods. Furthermore, a fine-tuned FARF model can compare to or (in many cases) outperform some recent stateof-the-art deep-learning-based algorithms.

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A novel locally statistical active contour model (ACM) for image segmentation in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity is presented in this paper. The inhomogeneous objects are modeled as Gaussian distributions of different means and variances, and a moving window is used to map the original image into another domain, where the intensity distributions of inhomogeneous objects are still Gaussian but are better separated. The means of the Gaussian distributions in the transformed domain can be adaptively estimated by multiplying a bias field with the original signal within the window. A statistical energy functional is then defined for each local region, which combines the bias field, the level set function, and the constant approximating the true signal of the corresponding object. Experiments on both synthetic and real images demonstrate the superiority of our proposed algorithm to state-of-the-art and representative methods.

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In this paper, we present a random-forest based fast cascaded regression model for face alignment, via a novel local feature. Our proposed local lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature (IDF), is more discriminative than landmark pose-indexed feature, more efficient than histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental results show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when tested on the most challenging datasets. Compared with an LBF-based algorithm, our method can achieve about two times the speed-up and more than 20% improvement, in terms of alignment accuracy measurement, and save an order of magnitude of memory requirement.

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Fine-grained recognition is a challenging task due to the small intra-category variances. Most of top-performing fine-grained recognition methods leverage parts of objects for better performance. Therefore, part annotations which are extremely computationally expensive are required. In this paper, we propose a novel cascaded deep CNN detection framework for fine-grained recognition which is trained to detect the whole object without considering parts. Nevertheless, most of current top-performing detection networks use the N+1 class (N object categories plus background) softmax loss, and the background category with much more training samples dominates the feature learning progress so that the features are not good for object categories with fewer samples. To bridge this gap, we introduce a cascaded structure to eliminate background and exploit a one-vs-rest loss to capture more minute variances among different subordinate categories. Experiments show that our proposed recognition framework achieves comparable performance with state-of-the-art, part-free, fine-grained recognition methods on the CUB-200-2011 Bird dataset. Moreover, our method even outperforms most of part-based methods while does not need part annotations at the training stage and is free from any annotations at test stage.

* Part of authors has changed
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Most existing person re-identification (ReID) methods rely only on the spatial appearance information from either one or multiple person images, whilst ignore the space-time cues readily available in video or image-sequence data. Moreover, they often assume the availability of exhaustively labelled cross-view pairwise data for every camera pair, making them non-scalable to ReID applications in real-world large scale camera networks. In this work, we introduce a novel video based person ReID method capable of accurately matching people across views from arbitrary unaligned image-sequences without any labelled pairwise data. Specifically, we introduce a new space-time person representation by encoding multiple granularities of spatio-temporal dynamics in form of time series. Moreover, a Time Shift Dynamic Time Warping (TS-DTW) model is derived for performing automatically alignment whilst achieving data selection and matching between inherently inaccurate and incomplete sequences in a unified way. We further extend the TS-DTW model for accommodating multiple feature-sequences of an image-sequence in order to fuse information from different descriptions. Crucially, this model does not require pairwise labelled training data (i.e. unsupervised) therefore readily scalable to large scale camera networks of arbitrary camera pairs without the need for exhaustive data annotation for every camera pair. We show the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method by extensive comparisons with related state-of-the-art approaches using two benchmarking ReID datasets, PRID2011 and iLIDS-VID.

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