Research papers and code for "Kyunghyun Cho":
This paper describes a builder entry, named "strawman", to the sentence-level sentiment analysis task of the "Build It, Break It" shared task of the First Workshop on Building Linguistically Generalizable NLP Systems. The goal of a builder is to provide an automated sentiment analyzer that would serve as a target for breakers whose goal is to find pairs of minimally-differing sentences that break the analyzer.

* A builder entry to the sentence-level sentiment analysis task of the "Build It, Break It" shared task of the First Workshop on Building Linguistically Generalizable NLP Systems
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Recent advances in conditional recurrent language modelling have mainly focused on network architectures (e.g., attention mechanism), learning algorithms (e.g., scheduled sampling and sequence-level training) and novel applications (e.g., image/video description generation, speech recognition, etc.) On the other hand, we notice that decoding algorithms/strategies have not been investigated as much, and it has become standard to use greedy or beam search. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding strategy motivated by an earlier observation that nonlinear hidden layers of a deep neural network stretch the data manifold. The proposed strategy is embarrassingly parallelizable without any communication overhead, while improving an existing decoding algorithm. We extensively evaluate it with attention-based neural machine translation on the task of En->Cz translation.

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This is a lecture note for the course DS-GA 3001 <Natural Language Understanding with Distributed Representation> at the Center for Data Science , New York University in Fall, 2015. As the name of the course suggests, this lecture note introduces readers to a neural network based approach to natural language understanding/processing. In order to make it as self-contained as possible, I spend much time on describing basics of machine learning and neural networks, only after which how they are used for natural languages is introduced. On the language front, I almost solely focus on language modelling and machine translation, two of which I personally find most fascinating and most fundamental to natural language understanding.

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In this paper, a simple, general method of adding auxiliary stochastic neurons to a multi-layer perceptron is proposed. It is shown that the proposed method is a generalization of recently successful methods of dropout (Hinton et al., 2012), explicit noise injection (Vincent et al., 2010; Bishop, 1995) and semantic hashing (Salakhutdinov & Hinton, 2009). Under the proposed framework, an extension of dropout which allows using separate dropping probabilities for different hidden neurons, or layers, is found to be available. The use of different dropping probabilities for hidden layers separately is empirically investigated.

* ICONIP 2013: Special Session in Deep Learning (v4)
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Image denoising based on a probabilistic model of local image patches has been employed by various researchers, and recently a deep (denoising) autoencoder has been proposed by Burger et al. [2012] and Xie et al. [2012] as a good model for this. In this paper, we propose that another popular family of models in the field of deep learning, called Boltzmann machines, can perform image denoising as well as, or in certain cases of high level of noise, better than denoising autoencoders. We empirically evaluate the two models on three different sets of images with different types and levels of noise. Throughout the experiments we also examine the effect of the depth of the models. The experiments confirmed our claim and revealed that the performance can be improved by adding more hidden layers, especially when the level of noise is high.

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We introduce a novel algorithm for the detection of possible sample corruption such as mislabeled samples in a training dataset given a small clean validation set. We use a set of inclusion variables which determine whether or not any element of the noisy training set should be included in the training of a network. We compute these inclusion variables by optimizing the performance of the network on the clean validation set via "gradient descent on gradient descent" based learning. The inclusion variables as well as the network trained in such a way form the basis of our methods, which we call Corruption Detection via Gradient Descent (CDGD). This algorithm can be applied to any supervised machine learning task and is not limited to classification problems. We provide a quantitative comparison of these methods on synthetic and real world datasets.

* 10 pages, 6 figures
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We show that BERT (Devlin et al., 2018) is a Markov random field language model. This formulation gives way to a natural procedure to sample sentences from BERT. We generate from BERT and find that it can produce high-quality, fluent generations. Compared to the generations of a traditional left-to-right language model, BERT generates sentences that are more diverse but of slightly worse quality.

* NeuralGen 2019; https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1MxKZGtQ9SSBjTK5ArsZ5LKhkztzg52RV
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Interest in larger-context neural machine translation, including document-level and multi-modal translation, has been growing. Multiple works have proposed new network architectures or evaluation schemes, but potentially helpful context is still sometimes ignored by larger-context translation models. In this paper, we propose a novel learning algorithm that explicitly encourages a neural translation model to take into account additional context using a multilevel pair-wise ranking loss. We evaluate the proposed learning algorithm with a transformer-based larger-context translation system on document-level translation. By comparing performance using actual and random contexts, we show that a model trained with the proposed algorithm is more sensitive to the additional context.

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Recently, neural models pretrained on a language modeling task, such as ELMo (Peters et al., 2017), OpenAI GPT (Radford et al., 2018), and BERT (Devlin et al., 2018), have achieved impressive results on various natural language processing tasks such as question-answering and natural language inference. In this paper, we describe a simple re-implementation of BERT for query-based passage re-ranking. Our system is the state of the art on the TREC-CAR dataset and the top entry in the leaderboard of the MS MARCO passage retrieval task, outperforming the previous state of the art by 27% (relative) in MRR@10. The code to reproduce our submission is available at https://github.com/nyu-dl/dl4marco-bert

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Although machine learning has been successfully used to propose novel molecules that satisfy desired properties, it is still challenging to explore a large chemical space efficiently. In this paper, we present a conditional molecular design method that facilitates generating new molecules with desired properties. The proposed model, which simultaneously performs both property prediction and molecule generation, is built as a semi-supervised variational autoencoder trained on a set of existing molecules with only a partial annotation. We generate new molecules with desired properties by sampling from the generative distribution estimated by the model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by evaluating it on drug-like molecules. The model improves the performance of property prediction by exploiting unlabeled molecules, and efficiently generates novel molecules fulfilling various target conditions.

* 25 pages, 6 figures
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We propose a retrieval-augmented convolutional network and propose to train it with local mixup, a novel variant of the recently proposed mixup algorithm. The proposed hybrid architecture combining a convolutional network and an off-the-shelf retrieval engine was designed to mitigate the adverse effect of off-manifold adversarial examples, while the proposed local mixup addresses on-manifold ones by explicitly encouraging the classifier to locally behave linearly on the data manifold. Our evaluation of the proposed approach against five readily-available adversarial attacks on three datasets--CIFAR-10, SVHN and ImageNet--demonstrate the improved robustness compared to the vanilla convolutional network.

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The goal of personalized history-based recommendation is to automatically output a distribution over all the items given a sequence of previous purchases of a user. In this work, we present a novel approach that uses a recurrent network for summarizing the history of purchases, continuous vectors representing items for scalability, and a novel attention-based recurrent mixture density network, which outputs each component in a mixture sequentially, for modelling a multi-modal conditional distribution. We evaluate the proposed approach on two publicly available datasets, MovieLens-20M and RecSys15. The experiments show that the proposed approach, which explicitly models the multi-modal nature of the predictive distribution, is able to improve the performance over various baselines in terms of precision, recall and nDCG.

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We introduce a recurrent neural network language model (RNN-LM) with long short-term memory (LSTM) units that utilizes both character-level and word-level inputs. Our model has a gate that adaptively finds the optimal mixture of the character-level and word-level inputs. The gate creates the final vector representation of a word by combining two distinct representations of the word. The character-level inputs are converted into vector representations of words using a bidirectional LSTM. The word-level inputs are projected into another high-dimensional space by a word lookup table. The final vector representations of words are used in the LSTM language model which predicts the next word given all the preceding words. Our model with the gating mechanism effectively utilizes the character-level inputs for rare and out-of-vocabulary words and outperforms word-level language models on several English corpora.

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We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segment is strongly conditioned on all the previous segments. This paper presents a first step toward building a full simultaneous translation system based on neural machine translation.

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One way to approach end-to-end autonomous driving is to learn a policy function that maps from a sensory input, such as an image frame from a front-facing camera, to a driving action, by imitating an expert driver, or a reference policy. This can be done by supervised learning, where a policy function is tuned to minimize the difference between the predicted and ground-truth actions. A policy function trained in this way however is known to suffer from unexpected behaviours due to the mismatch between the states reachable by the reference policy and trained policy functions. More advanced algorithms for imitation learning, such as DAgger, addresses this issue by iteratively collecting training examples from both reference and trained policies. These algorithms often requires a large number of queries to a reference policy, which is undesirable as the reference policy is often expensive. In this paper, we propose an extension of the DAgger, called SafeDAgger, that is query-efficient and more suitable for end-to-end autonomous driving. We evaluate the proposed SafeDAgger in a car racing simulator and show that it indeed requires less queries to a reference policy. We observe a significant speed up in convergence, which we conjecture to be due to the effect of automated curriculum learning.

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We propose a goal-driven web navigation as a benchmark task for evaluating an agent with abilities to understand natural language and plan on partially observed environments. In this challenging task, an agent navigates through a website, which is represented as a graph consisting of web pages as nodes and hyperlinks as directed edges, to find a web page in which a query appears. The agent is required to have sophisticated high-level reasoning based on natural languages and efficient sequential decision-making capability to succeed. We release a software tool, called WebNav, that automatically transforms a website into this goal-driven web navigation task, and as an example, we make WikiNav, a dataset constructed from the English Wikipedia. We extensively evaluate different variants of neural net based artificial agents on WikiNav and observe that the proposed goal-driven web navigation well reflects the advances in models, making it a suitable benchmark for evaluating future progress. Furthermore, we extend the WikiNav with question-answer pairs from Jeopardy! and test the proposed agent based on recurrent neural networks against strong inverted index based search engines. The artificial agents trained on WikiNav outperforms the engined based approaches, demonstrating the capability of the proposed goal-driven navigation as a good proxy for measuring the progress in real-world tasks such as focused crawling and question-answering.

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Document classification tasks were primarily tackled at word level. Recent research that works with character-level inputs shows several benefits over word-level approaches such as natural incorporation of morphemes and better handling of rare words. We propose a neural network architecture that utilizes both convolution and recurrent layers to efficiently encode character inputs. We validate the proposed model on eight large scale document classification tasks and compare with character-level convolution-only models. It achieves comparable performances with much less parameters.

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In this work, we propose a novel method to incorporate corpus-level discourse information into language modelling. We call this larger-context language model. We introduce a late fusion approach to a recurrent language model based on long short-term memory units (LSTM), which helps the LSTM unit keep intra-sentence dependencies and inter-sentence dependencies separate from each other. Through the evaluation on three corpora (IMDB, BBC, and PennTree Bank), we demon- strate that the proposed model improves perplexity significantly. In the experi- ments, we evaluate the proposed approach while varying the number of context sentences and observe that the proposed late fusion is superior to the usual way of incorporating additional inputs to the LSTM. By analyzing the trained larger- context language model, we discover that content words, including nouns, adjec- tives and verbs, benefit most from an increasing number of context sentences. This analysis suggests that larger-context language model improves the unconditional language model by capturing the theme of a document better and more easily.

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The gesture recognition using motion capture data and depth sensors has recently drawn more attention in vision recognition. Currently most systems only classify dataset with a couple of dozens different actions. Moreover, feature extraction from the data is often computational complex. In this paper, we propose a novel system to recognize the actions from skeleton data with simple, but effective, features using deep neural networks. Features are extracted for each frame based on the relative positions of joints (PO), temporal differences (TD), and normalized trajectories of motion (NT). Given these features a hybrid multi-layer perceptron is trained, which simultaneously classifies and reconstructs input data. We use deep autoencoder to visualize learnt features, and the experiments show that deep neural networks can capture more discriminative information than, for instance, principal component analysis can. We test our system on a public database with 65 classes and more than 2,000 motion sequences. We obtain an accuracy above 95% which is, to our knowledge, the state of the art result for such a large dataset.

* VISAPP 2014
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