Research papers and code for "Liang Wang":
This paper presents a novel method to segment/decode DNA sequences based on n-grams statistical language model. Firstly, we find the length of most DNA 'words' is 12 to 15 bps by analyzing the genomes of 12 model species. Then we design an unsupervised probability based approach to segment the DNA sequences. The benchmark of segmenting method is also proposed.

* 12 pages,2 figures
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
This paper presents a novel adaptively connected neural network (ACNet) to improve the traditional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) {in} two aspects. First, ACNet employs a flexible way to switch global and local inference in processing the internal feature representations by adaptively determining the connection status among the feature nodes (e.g., pixels of the feature maps) \footnote{In a computer vision domain, a node refers to a pixel of a feature map{, while} in {the} graph domain, a node denotes a graph node.}. We can show that existing CNNs, the classical multilayer perceptron (MLP), and the recently proposed non-local network (NLN) \cite{nonlocalnn17} are all special cases of ACNet. Second, ACNet is also capable of handling non-Euclidean data. Extensive experimental analyses on {a variety of benchmarks (i.e.,} ImageNet-1k classification, COCO 2017 detection and segmentation, CUHK03 person re-identification, CIFAR analysis, and Cora document categorization) demonstrate that {ACNet} cannot only achieve state-of-the-art performance but also overcome the limitation of the conventional MLP and CNN \footnote{Corresponding author: Liang Lin (linliang@ieee.org)}. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/wanggrun/Adaptively-Connected-Neural-Networks}.

* Accepted by CVPR 2019
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Recently, skeleton based action recognition gains more popularity due to cost-effective depth sensors coupled with real-time skeleton estimation algorithms. Traditional approaches based on handcrafted features are limited to represent the complexity of motion patterns. Recent methods that use Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to handle raw skeletons only focus on the contextual dependency in the temporal domain and neglect the spatial configurations of articulated skeletons. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stream RNN architecture to model both temporal dynamics and spatial configurations for skeleton based action recognition. We explore two different structures for the temporal stream: stacked RNN and hierarchical RNN. Hierarchical RNN is designed according to human body kinematics. We also propose two effective methods to model the spatial structure by converting the spatial graph into a sequence of joints. To improve generalization of our model, we further exploit 3D transformation based data augmentation techniques including rotation and scaling transformation to transform the 3D coordinates of skeletons during training. Experiments on 3D action recognition benchmark datasets show that our method brings a considerable improvement for a variety of actions, i.e., generic actions, interaction activities and gestures.

* Accepted to IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2017
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
In urban theory, urban form is related to social and economic status. This paper explores to uncover zip-code level income through urban form by analyzing figure-ground map, a simple, prevailing and precise representation of urban form in the field of urban study. Deep learning in computer vision enables such representation maps to be studied at a large scale. We propose to train a DCNN model to identify and uncover the internal bridge between social class and urban form. Further, using hand-crafted informative visual features related with urban form properties (building size, building density, etc.), we apply a random forest classifier to interpret how morphological properties are related with social class.

* Publishing as conference proceeding of 16th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Deep neural networks generally involve some layers with mil- lions of parameters, making them difficult to be deployed and updated on devices with limited resources such as mobile phones and other smart embedded systems. In this paper, we propose a scalable representation of the network parameters, so that different applications can select the most suitable bit rate of the network based on their own storage constraints. Moreover, when a device needs to upgrade to a high-rate network, the existing low-rate network can be reused, and only some incremental data are needed to be downloaded. We first hierarchically quantize the weights of a pre-trained deep neural network to enforce weight sharing. Next, we adaptively select the bits assigned to each layer given the total bit budget. After that, we retrain the network to fine-tune the quantized centroids. Experimental results show that our method can achieve scalable compression with graceful degradation in the performance.

* 5 pages, 4 figures, ACM Multimedia 2016
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
This paper studies a novel discriminative part-based model to represent and recognize object shapes with an "And-Or graph". We define this model consisting of three layers: the leaf-nodes with collaborative edges for localizing local parts, the or-nodes specifying the switch of leaf-nodes, and the root-node encoding the global verification. A discriminative learning algorithm, extended from the CCCP [23], is proposed to train the model in a dynamical manner: the model structure (e.g., the configuration of the leaf-nodes associated with the or-nodes) is automatically determined with optimizing the multi-layer parameters during the iteration. The advantages of our method are two-fold. (i) The And-Or graph model enables us to handle well large intra-class variance and background clutters for object shape detection from images. (ii) The proposed learning algorithm is able to obtain the And-Or graph representation without requiring elaborate supervision and initialization. We validate the proposed method on several challenging databases (e.g., INRIA-Horse, ETHZ-Shape, and UIUC-People), and it outperforms the state-of-the-arts approaches.

* Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (pp. 242-250), 2014
* 9 pages, 4 figures, NIPS 2012
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Many machine learning problems can be reduced to learning a low-rank positive semidefinite matrix (denoted as $Z$), which encounters semidefinite program (SDP). Existing SDP solvers are often expensive for large-scale learning. To avoid directly solving SDP, some works convert SDP into a nonconvex program by factorizing $Z$ as $XX^\top$. However, this would bring higher-order nonlinearity, resulting in scarcity of structure in subsequent optimization. In this paper, we propose a novel surrogate for SDP-related learning, in which the structure of subproblem is exploited. More specifically, we surrogate unconstrained SDP by a biconvex problem, through factorizing $Z$ as $XY^\top$ and using a Courant penalty to penalize the difference of $X$ and $Y$, in which the resultant subproblems are convex. Furthermore, we provide a theoretical bound for the associated penalty parameter under the assumption that the objective function is Lipschitz-smooth, such that the proposed surrogate will solve the original SDP when the penalty parameter is larger than this bound. Experiments on two SDP-related machine learning applications demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is as accurate as the state-of-the-art, but is faster on large-scale learning.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Feature fusion is a commonly used strategy in image retrieval tasks, which aggregates the matching responses of multiple visual features. Feasible sets of features can be either descriptors (SIFT, HSV) for an entire image or the same descriptor for different local parts (face, body). Ideally, the to-be-fused heterogeneous features are pre-assumed to be discriminative and complementary to each other. However, the effectiveness of different features varies dramatically according to different queries. That is to say, for some queries, a feature may be neither discriminative nor complementary to existing ones, while for other queries, the feature suffices. As a result, it is important to estimate the effectiveness of features in a query-adaptive manner. To this end, this article proposes a new late fusion scheme at the score level. We base our method on the observation that the sorted score curves contain patterns that describe their effectiveness. For example, an "L"-shaped curve indicates that the feature is discriminative while a gradually descending curve suggests a bad feature. As such, this paper introduces a query-adaptive late fusion pipeline. In the hand-crafted version, it can be an unsupervised approach to tasks like particular object retrieval. In the learning version, it can also be applied to supervised tasks like person recognition and pedestrian retrieval, based on a trainable neural module. Extensive experiments are conducted on two object retrieval datasets and one person recognition dataset. We show that our method is able to highlight the good features and suppress the bad ones, is resilient to distractor features, and achieves very competitive retrieval accuracy compared with the state of the art. In an additional person re-identification dataset, the application scope and limitation of the proposed method are studied.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Convolutional kernels are basic and vital components of deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). In this paper, we equip convolutional kernels with shape attributes to generate the deep Irregular Convolutional Neural Networks (ICNN). Compared to traditional CNN applying regular convolutional kernels like ${3\times3}$, our approach trains irregular kernel shapes to better fit the geometric variations of input features. In other words, shapes are learnable parameters in addition to weights. The kernel shapes and weights are learned simultaneously during end-to-end training with the standard back-propagation algorithm. Experiments for semantic segmentation are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our proposed ICNN.

* 7 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Effective image and sentence matching depends on how to well measure their global visual-semantic similarity. Based on the observation that such a global similarity arises from a complex aggregation of multiple local similarities between pairwise instances of image (objects) and sentence (words), we propose a selective multimodal Long Short-Term Memory network (sm-LSTM) for instance-aware image and sentence matching. The sm-LSTM includes a multimodal context-modulated attention scheme at each timestep that can selectively attend to a pair of instances of image and sentence, by predicting pairwise instance-aware saliency maps for image and sentence. For selected pairwise instances, their representations are obtained based on the predicted saliency maps, and then compared to measure their local similarity. By similarly measuring multiple local similarities within a few timesteps, the sm-LSTM sequentially aggregates them with hidden states to obtain a final matching score as the desired global similarity. Extensive experiments show that our model can well match image and sentence with complex content, and achieve the state-of-the-art results on two public benchmark datasets.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Current methods for skeleton-based human action recognition usually work with completely observed skeletons. However, in real scenarios, it is prone to capture incomplete and noisy skeletons, which will deteriorate the performance of traditional models. To enhance the robustness of action recognition models to incomplete skeletons, we propose a multi-stream graph convolutional network (GCN) for exploring sufficient discriminative features distributed over all skeleton joints. Here, each stream of the network is only responsible for learning features from currently unactivated joints, which are distinguished by the class activation maps (CAM) obtained by preceding streams, so that the activated joints of the proposed method are obviously more than traditional methods. Thus, the proposed method is termed richly activated GCN (RA-GCN), where the richly discovered features will improve the robustness of the model. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods, the RA-GCN achieves comparable performance on the NTU RGB+D dataset. Moreover, on a synthetic occlusion dataset, the performance deterioration can be alleviated by the RA-GCN significantly.

* Accepted by ICIP 2019, 5 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Given the collection of timestamped web documents related to the evolving topic, timeline summarization (TS) highlights its most important events in the form of relevant summaries to represent the development of a topic over time. Most of the previous work focuses on fully-observable ranking models and depends on hand-designed features or complex mechanisms that may not generalize well. We present a novel dynamic framework for evolutionary timeline generation leveraging distributed representations, which dynamically finds the most likely sequence of evolutionary summaries in the timeline, called the Viterbi timeline, and reduces the impact of events that irrelevant or repeated to the topic. The assumptions of the coherence and the global view run through our model. We explore adjacent relevance to constrain timeline coherence and make sure the events evolve on the same topic with a global view. Experimental results demonstrate that our framework is feasible to extract summaries for timeline generation, outperforms various competitive baselines, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance as an unsupervised approach.

* 4 pages, next version will be submitted to a conference
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Offline handwritten mathematical expression recognition is a challenging task, because handwritten mathematical expressions mainly have two problems in the process of recognition. On one hand, it is how to correctly recognize different mathematical symbols. On the other hand, it is how to correctly recognize the two-dimensional structure existing in mathematical expressions. Inspired by recent work in deep learning, a new neural network model that combines a Multi-Scale convolutional neural network (CNN) with an Attention recurrent neural network (RNN) is proposed to identify two-dimensional handwritten mathematical expressions as one-dimensional LaTeX sequences. As a result, the model proposed in the present work has achieved a WER error of 25.715% and ExpRate of 28.216%.

* 11 pages, 16 figures
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
This paper introduces a novel approach for 3D semantic instance segmentation on point clouds. A 3D convolutional neural network called submanifold sparse convolutional network is used to generate semantic predictions and instance embeddings simultaneously. To obtain discriminative embeddings for each 3D instance, a structure-aware loss function is proposed which considers both the structure information and the embedding information. To get more consistent embeddings for each 3D instance, attention-based k nearest neighbour (KNN) is proposed to assign different weights for different neighbours. Based on the attention-based KNN, we add a graph convolutional network after the sparse convolutional network to get refined embeddings. Our network can be trained end-to-end. A simple mean-shift algorithm is utilized to cluster refined embeddings to get final instance predictions. As a result, our framework can output both the semantic prediction and the instance prediction. Experiments show that our approach outperforms all state-of-art methods on ScanNet benchmark and NYUv2 dataset.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
We raise the problem of regularizing Wasserstein means and propose several terms tailored to tackle different problems. Our formulation is based on variational transportation to distribute a sparse discrete measure into the target domain without mass splitting. The resulting sparse representation well captures the desired property of the domain while maintaining a small reconstruction error. We demonstrate the scalability and robustness of our method with examples of domain adaptation and skeleton layout.

* Comments are welcomed
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Deep neural networks have been demonstrated to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, where small perturbations intentionally added to the original inputs can fool the classifier. In this paper, we propose a defense method, Featurized Bidirectional Generative Adversarial Networks (FBGAN), to extract the semantic features of the input and filter the non-semantic perturbation. FBGAN is pre-trained on the clean dataset in an unsupervised manner, adversarially learning a bidirectional mapping between the high-dimensional data space and the low-dimensional semantic space; also mutual information is applied to disentangle the semantically meaningful features. After the bidirectional mapping, the adversarial data can be reconstructed to denoised data, which could be fed into any pre-trained classifier. We empirically show the quality of reconstruction images and the effectiveness of defense.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Cubic-regularized Newton's method (CR) is a popular algorithm that guarantees to produce a second-order stationary solution for solving nonconvex optimization problems. However, existing understandings of the convergence rate of CR are conditioned on special types of geometrical properties of the objective function. In this paper, we explore the asymptotic convergence rate of CR by exploiting the ubiquitous Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz (KL) property of nonconvex objective functions. In specific, we characterize the asymptotic convergence rate of various types of optimality measures for CR including function value gap, variable distance gap, gradient norm and least eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix. Our results fully characterize the diverse convergence behaviors of these optimality measures in the full parameter regime of the KL property. Moreover, we show that the obtained asymptotic convergence rates of CR are order-wise faster than those of first-order gradient descent algorithms under the KL property.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Sponsored search in E-commerce platforms such as Amazon, Taobao and Tmall provides sellers an effective way to reach potential buyers with most relevant purpose. In this paper, we study the auction mechanism optimization problem in sponsored search on Alibaba's mobile E-commerce platform. Besides generating revenue, we are supposed to maintain an efficient marketplace with plenty of quality users, guarantee a reasonable return on investment (ROI) for advertisers, and meanwhile, facilitate a pleasant shopping experience for the users. These requirements essentially pose a constrained optimization problem. Directly optimizing over auction parameters yields a discontinuous, non-convex problem that denies effective solutions. One of our major contribution is a practical convex optimization formulation of the original problem. We devise a novel re-parametrization of auction mechanism with discrete sets of representative instances. To construct the optimization problem, we build an auction simulation system which estimates the resulted business indicators of the selected parameters by replaying the auctions recorded from real online requests. We summarized the experiments on real search traffics to analyze the effects of fidelity of auction simulation, the efficacy under various constraint targets and the influence of regularization. The experiment results show that with proper entropy regularization, we are able to maximize revenue while constraining other business indicators within given ranges.

* 6 pages, 1 figure
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Global path planning is the key technology in the design of unmanned surface vehicles. This paper establishes global environment modelling based on electronic charts and hexagonal grids which are proved to be better than square grids in validity, safety and rapidity. Besides, we introduce Cube coordinate system to simplify hexagonal algorithms. Furthermore, we propose an improved A* algorithm to realize the path planning between two points. Based on that, we build the global path planning modelling for multiple task points and present an improved ant colony optimization to realize it accurately. The simulation results show that the global path planning system can plan an optimal path to tour multiple task points safely and quickly, which is superior to traditional methods in safety, rapidity and path length. Besides, the planned path can directly apply to actual applications of USVs.

* Int. J. Vehicle Autonomous Systems, Vol.14, No.1, pp.82-105 (2018)
* 28 pages, 15 figures
Click to Read Paper and Get Code
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling is effective 'bridge' to search the reliable relationship related bioactivity to molecular structure. A QSAR classification model contains a lager number of redundant, noisy and irrelevant descriptors. To address this problem, various of methods have been proposed for descriptor selection. Generally, they can be grouped into three categories: filters, wrappers, and embedded methods. Regularization method is an important embedded technology, which can be used for continuous shrinkage and automatic descriptors selection. In recent years, the interest of researchers in the application of regularization techniques is increasing in descriptors selection , such as, logistic regression(LR) with $L_1$ penalty. In this paper, we proposed a novel descriptor selection method based on self-paced learning(SPL) with Logsum penalized LR for predicting the bioactivity of molecular structure. SPL inspired by the learning process of humans and animals that gradually learns from easy samples(smaller losses) to hard samples(bigger losses) samples into training and Logsum regularization has capacity to select few meaningful and significant molecular descriptors, respectively. Experimental results on simulation and three public QSAR datasets show that our proposed SPL-Logsum method outperforms other commonly used sparse methods in terms of classification performance and model interpretation.

Click to Read Paper and Get Code