Models, code, and papers for "Marisa Vasconcelos":

Modeling Epistemological Principles for Bias Mitigation in AI Systems: An Illustration in Hiring Decisions

Nov 20, 2017
Marisa Vasconcelos, Carlos Cardonha, Bernardo Gonçalves

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been used extensively in automatic decision making in a broad variety of scenarios, ranging from credit ratings for loans to recommendations of movies. Traditional design guidelines for AI models focus essentially on accuracy maximization, but recent work has shown that economically irrational and socially unacceptable scenarios of discrimination and unfairness are likely to arise unless these issues are explicitly addressed. This undesirable behavior has several possible sources, such as biased datasets used for training that may not be detected in black-box models. After pointing out connections between such bias of AI and the problem of induction, we focus on Popper's contributions after Hume's, which offer a logical theory of preferences. An AI model can be preferred over others on purely rational grounds after one or more attempts at refutation based on accuracy and fairness. Inspired by such epistemological principles, this paper proposes a structured approach to mitigate discrimination and unfairness caused by bias in AI systems. In the proposed computational framework, models are selected and enhanced after attempts at refutation. To illustrate our discussion, we focus on hiring decision scenarios where an AI system filters in which job applicants should go to the interview phase.

* 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society 

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Combining Textual Content and Structure to Improve Dialog Similarity

Feb 20, 2018
Ana Paula Appel, Paulo Rodrigo Cavalin, Marisa Affonso Vasconcelos, Claudio Santos Pinhanez

Chatbots, taking advantage of the success of the messaging apps and recent advances in Artificial Intelligence, have become very popular, from helping business to improve customer services to chatting to users for the sake of conversation and engagement (celebrity or personal bots). However, developing and improving a chatbot requires understanding their data generated by its users. Dialog data has a different nature of a simple question and answering interaction, in which context and temporal properties (turn order) creates a different understanding of such data. In this paper, we propose a novelty metric to compute dialogs' similarity based not only on the text content but also on the information related to the dialog structure. Our experimental results performed over the Switchboard dataset show that using evidence from both textual content and the dialog structure leads to more accurate results than using each measure in isolation.

* 5 pages 

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Different but Equal: Comparing User Collaboration with Digital Personal Assistants vs. Teams of Expert Agents

Aug 24, 2018
Claudio S. Pinhanez, Heloisa Candello, Mauro C. Pichiliani, Marisa Vasconcelos, Melina Guerra, Maíra G. de Bayser, Paulo Cavalin

This work compares user collaboration with conversational personal assistants vs. teams of expert chatbots. Two studies were performed to investigate whether each approach affects accomplishment of tasks and collaboration costs. Participants interacted with two equivalent financial advice chatbot systems, one composed of a single conversational adviser and the other based on a team of four experts chatbots. Results indicated that users had different forms of experiences but were equally able to achieve their goals. Contrary to the expected, there were evidences that in the teamwork situation that users were more able to predict agent behavior better and did not have an overhead to maintain common ground, indicating similar collaboration costs. The results point towards the feasibility of either of the two approaches for user collaboration with conversational agents.


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