Models, code, and papers for "Melvin Johnson":
To train neural machine translation models simultaneously on multiple tasks (languages), it is common to sample each task uniformly or in proportion to dataset sizes. As these methods offer little control over performance trade-offs, we explore different task scheduling approaches. We first consider existing non-adaptive techniques, then move on to adaptive schedules that over-sample tasks with poorer results compared to their respective baseline. As explicit schedules can be inefficient, especially if one task is highly over-sampled, we also consider implicit schedules, learning to scale learning rates or gradients of individual tasks instead. These techniques allow training multilingual models that perform better for low-resource language pairs (tasks with small amount of data), while minimizing negative effects on high-resource tasks.
Multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) enables training a single model that supports translation from multiple source languages into multiple target languages. In this paper, we push the limits of multilingual NMT in terms of number of languages being used. We perform extensive experiments in training massively multilingual NMT models, translating up to 102 languages to and from English within a single model. We explore different setups for training such models and analyze the trade-offs between translation quality and various modeling decisions. We report results on the publicly available TED talks multilingual corpus where we show that massively multilingual many-to-many models are effective in low resource settings, outperforming the previous state-of-the-art while supporting up to 59 languages. Our experiments on a large-scale dataset with 102 languages to and from English and up to one million examples per direction also show promising results, surpassing strong bilingual baselines and encouraging future work on massively multilingual NMT.
Transferring representations from large supervised tasks to downstream tasks has shown promising results in AI fields such as Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (NLP). In parallel, the recent progress in Machine Translation (MT) has enabled one to train multilingual Neural MT (NMT) systems that can translate between multiple languages and are also capable of performing zero-shot translation. However, little attention has been paid to leveraging representations learned by a multilingual NMT system to enable zero-shot multilinguality in other NLP tasks. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple framework, a multilingual Encoder-Classifier, for cross-lingual transfer learning by reusing the encoder from a multilingual NMT system and stitching it with a task-specific classifier component. Our proposed model achieves significant improvements in the English setup on three benchmark tasks - Amazon Reviews, SST and SNLI. Further, our system can perform classification in a new language for which no classification data was seen during training, showing that zero-shot classification is possible and remarkably competitive. In order to understand the underlying factors contributing to this finding, we conducted a series of analyses on the effect of the shared vocabulary, the training data type for NMT, classifier complexity, encoder representation power, and model generalization on zero-shot performance. Our results provide strong evidence that the representations learned from multilingual NMT systems are widely applicable across languages and tasks.
We propose a practical scheme to train a single multilingual sequence labeling model that yields state of the art results and is small and fast enough to run on a single CPU. Starting from a public multilingual BERT checkpoint, our final model is 6x smaller and 27x faster, and has higher accuracy than a state-of-the-art multilingual baseline. We show that our model especially outperforms on low-resource languages, and works on codemixed input text without being explicitly trained on codemixed examples. We showcase the effectiveness of our method by reporting on part-of-speech tagging and morphological prediction on 70 treebanks and 48 languages.
Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models are capable of translating between multiple source and target languages. Despite various approaches to train such models, they have difficulty with zero-shot translation: translating between language pairs that were not together seen during training. In this paper we first diagnose why state-of-the-art multilingual NMT models that rely purely on parameter sharing, fail to generalize to unseen language pairs. We then propose auxiliary losses on the NMT encoder that impose representational invariance across languages. Our simple approach vastly improves zero-shot translation quality without regressing on supervised directions. For the first time, on WMT14 English-FrenchGerman, we achieve zero-shot performance that is on par with pivoting. We also demonstrate the easy scalability of our approach to multiple languages on the IWSLT 2017 shared task.
We present an attention-based sequence-to-sequence neural network which can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language, without relying on an intermediate text representation. The network is trained end-to-end, learning to map speech spectrograms into target spectrograms in another language, corresponding to the translated content (in a different canonical voice). We further demonstrate the ability to synthesize translated speech using the voice of the source speaker. We conduct experiments on two Spanish-to-English speech translation datasets, and find that the proposed model slightly underperforms a baseline cascade of a direct speech-to-text translation model and a text-to-speech synthesis model, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach on this very challenging task.
The recently proposed massively multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) system has been shown to be capable of translating over 100 languages to and from English within a single model. Its improved translation performance on low resource languages hints at potential cross-lingual transfer capability for downstream tasks. In this paper, we evaluate the cross-lingual effectiveness of representations from the encoder of a massively multilingual NMT model on 5 downstream classification and sequence labeling tasks covering a diverse set of over 50 languages. We compare against a strong baseline, multilingual BERT (mBERT), in different cross-lingual transfer learning scenarios and show gains in zero-shot transfer in 4 out of these 5 tasks.
End-to-end Speech Translation (ST) models have many potential advantages when compared to the cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and text Machine Translation (MT) models, including lowered inference latency and the avoidance of error compounding. However, the quality of end-to-end ST is often limited by a paucity of training data, since it is difficult to collect large parallel corpora of speech and translated transcript pairs. Previous studies have proposed the use of pre-trained components and multi-task learning in order to benefit from weakly supervised training data, such as speech-to-transcript or text-to-foreign-text pairs. In this paper, we demonstrate that using pre-trained MT or text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis models to convert weakly supervised data into speech-to-translation pairs for ST training can be more effective than multi-task learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a high quality end-to-end ST model can be trained using only weakly supervised datasets, and that synthetic data sourced from unlabeled monolingual text or speech can be used to improve performance. Finally, we discuss methods for avoiding overfitting to synthetic speech with a quantitative ablation study.
The past year has witnessed rapid advances in sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) modeling for Machine Translation (MT). The classic RNN-based approaches to MT were first out-performed by the convolutional seq2seq model, which was then out-performed by the more recent Transformer model. Each of these new approaches consists of a fundamental architecture accompanied by a set of modeling and training techniques that are in principle applicable to other seq2seq architectures. In this paper, we tease apart the new architectures and their accompanying techniques in two ways. First, we identify several key modeling and training techniques, and apply them to the RNN architecture, yielding a new RNMT+ model that outperforms all of the three fundamental architectures on the benchmark WMT'14 English to French and English to German tasks. Second, we analyze the properties of each fundamental seq2seq architecture and devise new hybrid architectures intended to combine their strengths. Our hybrid models obtain further improvements, outperforming the RNMT+ model on both benchmark datasets.
We propose a simple solution to use a single Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model to translate between multiple languages. Our solution requires no change in the model architecture from our base system but instead introduces an artificial token at the beginning of the input sentence to specify the required target language. The rest of the model, which includes encoder, decoder and attention, remains unchanged and is shared across all languages. Using a shared wordpiece vocabulary, our approach enables Multilingual NMT using a single model without any increase in parameters, which is significantly simpler than previous proposals for Multilingual NMT. Our method often improves the translation quality of all involved language pairs, even while keeping the total number of model parameters constant. On the WMT'14 benchmarks, a single multilingual model achieves comparable performance for English$\rightarrow$French and surpasses state-of-the-art results for English$\rightarrow$German. Similarly, a single multilingual model surpasses state-of-the-art results for French$\rightarrow$English and German$\rightarrow$English on WMT'14 and WMT'15 benchmarks respectively. On production corpora, multilingual models of up to twelve language pairs allow for better translation of many individual pairs. In addition to improving the translation quality of language pairs that the model was trained with, our models can also learn to perform implicit bridging between language pairs never seen explicitly during training, showing that transfer learning and zero-shot translation is possible for neural translation. Finally, we show analyses that hints at a universal interlingua representation in our models and show some interesting examples when mixing languages.
We introduce our efforts towards building a universal neural machine translation (NMT) system capable of translating between any language pair. We set a milestone towards this goal by building a single massively multilingual NMT model handling 103 languages trained on over 25 billion examples. Our system demonstrates effective transfer learning ability, significantly improving translation quality of low-resource languages, while keeping high-resource language translation quality on-par with competitive bilingual baselines. We provide in-depth analysis of various aspects of model building that are crucial to achieving quality and practicality in universal NMT. While we prototype a high-quality universal translation system, our extensive empirical analysis exposes issues that need to be further addressed, and we suggest directions for future research.
Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is an end-to-end learning approach for automated translation, with the potential to overcome many of the weaknesses of conventional phrase-based translation systems. Unfortunately, NMT systems are known to be computationally expensive both in training and in translation inference. Also, most NMT systems have difficulty with rare words. These issues have hindered NMT's use in practical deployments and services, where both accuracy and speed are essential. In this work, we present GNMT, Google's Neural Machine Translation system, which attempts to address many of these issues. Our model consists of a deep LSTM network with 8 encoder and 8 decoder layers using attention and residual connections. To improve parallelism and therefore decrease training time, our attention mechanism connects the bottom layer of the decoder to the top layer of the encoder. To accelerate the final translation speed, we employ low-precision arithmetic during inference computations. To improve handling of rare words, we divide words into a limited set of common sub-word units ("wordpieces") for both input and output. This method provides a good balance between the flexibility of "character"-delimited models and the efficiency of "word"-delimited models, naturally handles translation of rare words, and ultimately improves the overall accuracy of the system. Our beam search technique employs a length-normalization procedure and uses a coverage penalty, which encourages generation of an output sentence that is most likely to cover all the words in the source sentence. On the WMT'14 English-to-French and English-to-German benchmarks, GNMT achieves competitive results to state-of-the-art. Using a human side-by-side evaluation on a set of isolated simple sentences, it reduces translation errors by an average of 60% compared to Google's phrase-based production system.
Lingvo is a Tensorflow framework offering a complete solution for collaborative deep learning research, with a particular focus towards sequence-to-sequence models. Lingvo models are composed of modular building blocks that are flexible and easily extensible, and experiment configurations are centralized and highly customizable. Distributed training and quantized inference are supported directly within the framework, and it contains existing implementations of a large number of utilities, helper functions, and the newest research ideas. Lingvo has been used in collaboration by dozens of researchers in more than 20 papers over the last two years. This document outlines the underlying design of Lingvo and serves as an introduction to the various pieces of the framework, while also offering examples of advanced features that showcase the capabilities of the framework.