Models, code, and papers for "Ming-Yu Liu":
Boundary and edge cues are highly beneficial in improving a wide variety of vision tasks such as semantic segmentation, object recognition, stereo, and object proposal generation. Recently, the problem of edge detection has been revisited and significant progress has been made with deep learning. While classical edge detection is a challenging binary problem in itself, the category-aware semantic edge detection by nature is an even more challenging multi-label problem. We model the problem such that each edge pixel can be associated with more than one class as they appear in contours or junctions belonging to two or more semantic classes. To this end, we propose a novel end-to-end deep semantic edge learning architecture based on ResNet and a new skip-layer architecture where category-wise edge activations at the top convolution layer share and are fused with the same set of bottom layer features. We then propose a multi-label loss function to supervise the fused activations. We show that our proposed architecture benefits this problem with better performance, and we outperform the current state-of-the-art semantic edge detection methods by a large margin on standard data sets such as SBD and Cityscapes.
Photorealistic image stylization concerns transferring style of a reference photo to a content photo with the constraint that the stylized photo should remain photorealistic. While several photorealistic image stylization methods exist, they tend to generate spatially inconsistent stylizations with noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a method to address these issues. The proposed method consists of a stylization step and a smoothing step. While the stylization step transfers the style of the reference photo to the content photo, the smoothing step ensures spatially consistent stylizations. Each of the steps has a closed-form solution and can be computed efficiently. We conduct extensive experimental validations. The results show that the proposed method generates photorealistic stylization outputs that are more preferred by human subjects as compared to those by the competing methods while running much faster. Source code and additional results are available at https://github.com/NVIDIA/FastPhotoStyle .
Superpixels provide an efficient low/mid-level representation of image data, which greatly reduces the number of image primitives for subsequent vision tasks. Existing superpixel algorithms are not differentiable, making them difficult to integrate into otherwise end-to-end trainable deep neural networks. We develop a new differentiable model for superpixel sampling that leverages deep networks for learning superpixel segmentation. The resulting "Superpixel Sampling Network" (SSN) is end-to-end trainable, which allows learning task-specific superpixels with flexible loss functions and has fast runtime. Extensive experimental analysis indicates that SSNs not only outperform existing superpixel algorithms on traditional segmentation benchmarks, but can also learn superpixels for other tasks. In addition, SSNs can be easily integrated into downstream deep networks resulting in performance improvements.
Learning to insert an object instance into an image in a semantically coherent manner is a challenging and interesting problem. Solving it requires (a) determining a location to place an object in the scene and (b) determining its appearance at the location. Such an object insertion model can potentially facilitate numerous image editing and scene parsing applications. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end trainable neural network for the task of inserting an object instance mask of a specified class into the semantic label map of an image. Our network consists of two generative modules where one determines where the inserted object mask should be (i.e., location and scale) and the other determines what the object mask shape (and pose) should look like. The two modules are connected together via a spatial transformation network and jointly trained. We devise a learning procedure that leverage both supervised and unsupervised data and show our model can insert an object at diverse locations with various appearances. We conduct extensive experimental validations with comparisons to strong baselines to verify the effectiveness of the proposed network.
We study domain-specific video streaming. Specifically, we target a streaming setting where the videos to be streamed from a server to a client are all in the same domain and they have to be compressed to a small size for low-latency transmission. Several popular video streaming services, such as the video game streaming services of GeForce Now and Twitch, fall in this category. While conventional video compression standards such as H.264 are commonly used for this task, we hypothesize that one can leverage the property that the videos are all in the same domain to achieve better video quality. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a novel video compression pipeline. Specifically, we first apply H.264 to compress domain-specific videos. We then train a novel binary autoencoder to encode the leftover domain-specific residual information frame-by-frame into binary representations. These binary representations are then compressed and sent to the client together with the H.264 stream. In our experiments, we show that our pipeline yields consistent gains over standard H.264 compression across several benchmark datasets while using the same channel bandwidth.
We propose coupled generative adversarial network (CoGAN) for learning a joint distribution of multi-domain images. In contrast to the existing approaches, which require tuples of corresponding images in different domains in the training set, CoGAN can learn a joint distribution without any tuple of corresponding images. It can learn a joint distribution with just samples drawn from the marginal distributions. This is achieved by enforcing a weight-sharing constraint that limits the network capacity and favors a joint distribution solution over a product of marginal distributions one. We apply CoGAN to several joint distribution learning tasks, including learning a joint distribution of color and depth images, and learning a joint distribution of face images with different attributes. For each task it successfully learns the joint distribution without any tuple of corresponding images. We also demonstrate its applications to domain adaptation and image transformation.
Unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at learning a joint distribution of images in different domains by using images from the marginal distributions in individual domains. Since there exists an infinite set of joint distributions that can arrive the given marginal distributions, one could infer nothing about the joint distribution from the marginal distributions without additional assumptions. To address the problem, we make a shared-latent space assumption and propose an unsupervised image-to-image translation framework based on Coupled GANs. We compare the proposed framework with competing approaches and present high quality image translation results on various challenging unsupervised image translation tasks, including street scene image translation, animal image translation, and face image translation. We also apply the proposed framework to domain adaptation and achieve state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets. Code and additional results are available in https://github.com/mingyuliutw/unit .
Range images captured by Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras are corrupted with multipath distortions due to interaction between modulated light signals and scenes. The interaction is often complicated, which makes a model-based solution elusive. We propose a learning-based approach for removing the multipath distortions for a ToF camera in a robotic arm setup. Our approach is based on deep learning. We use the robotic arm to automatically collect a large amount of ToF range images containing various multipath distortions. The training images are automatically labeled by leveraging a high precision structured light sensor available only in the training time. In the test time, we apply the learned model to remove the multipath distortions. This allows our robotic arm setup to enjoy the speed and compact form of the ToF camera without compromising with its range measurement errors. We conduct extensive experimental validations and compare the proposed method to several baseline algorithms. The experiment results show that our method achieves 55% error reduction in range estimation and largely outperforms the baseline algorithms.
We propose a novel deep network architecture for image\\ denoising based on a Gaussian Conditional Random Field (GCRF) model. In contrast to the existing discriminative denoising methods that train a separate model for each noise level, the proposed deep network explicitly models the input noise variance and hence is capable of handling a range of noise levels. Our deep network, which we refer to as deep GCRF network, consists of two sub-networks: (i) a parameter generation network that generates the pairwise potential parameters based on the noisy input image, and (ii) an inference network whose layers perform the computations involved in an iterative GCRF inference procedure.\ We train the entire deep GCRF network (both parameter generation and inference networks) discriminatively in an end-to-end fashion by maximizing the peak signal-to-noise ratio measure. Experiments on Berkeley segmentation and PASCALVOC datasets show that the proposed deep GCRF network outperforms state-of-the-art image denoising approaches for several noise levels.
We investigate two crucial and closely related aspects of CNNs for optical flow estimation: models and training. First, we design a compact but effective CNN model, called PWC-Net, according to simple and well-established principles: pyramidal processing, warping, and cost volume processing. PWC-Net is 17 times smaller in size, 2 times faster in inference, and 11\% more accurate on Sintel final than the recent FlowNet2 model. It is the winning entry in the optical flow competition of the robust vision challenge. Next, we experimentally analyze the sources of our performance gains. In particular, we use the same training procedure of PWC-Net to retrain FlowNetC, a sub-network of FlowNet2. The retrained FlowNetC is 56\% more accurate on Sintel final than the previously trained one and even 5\% more accurate than the FlowNet2 model. We further improve the training procedure and increase the accuracy of PWC-Net on Sintel by 10\% and on KITTI 2012 and 2015 by 20\%. Our newly trained model parameters and training protocols will be available on https://github.com/NVlabs/PWC-Net
Unsupervised image-to-image translation is an important and challenging problem in computer vision. Given an image in the source domain, the goal is to learn the conditional distribution of corresponding images in the target domain, without seeing any pairs of corresponding images. While this conditional distribution is inherently multimodal, existing approaches make an overly simplified assumption, modeling it as a deterministic one-to-one mapping. As a result, they fail to generate diverse outputs from a given source domain image. To address this limitation, we propose a Multimodal Unsupervised Image-to-image Translation (MUNIT) framework. We assume that the image representation can be decomposed into a content code that is domain-invariant, and a style code that captures domain-specific properties. To translate an image to another domain, we recombine its content code with a random style code sampled from the style space of the target domain. We analyze the proposed framework and establish several theoretical results. Extensive experiments with comparisons to the state-of-the-art approaches further demonstrates the advantage of the proposed framework. Moreover, our framework allows users to control the style of translation outputs by providing an example style image. Code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/nvlabs/MUNIT
We present a compact but effective CNN model for optical flow, called PWC-Net. PWC-Net has been designed according to simple and well-established principles: pyramidal processing, warping, and the use of a cost volume. Cast in a learnable feature pyramid, PWC-Net uses the cur- rent optical flow estimate to warp the CNN features of the second image. It then uses the warped features and features of the first image to construct a cost volume, which is processed by a CNN to estimate the optical flow. PWC-Net is 17 times smaller in size and easier to train than the recent FlowNet2 model. Moreover, it outperforms all published optical flow methods on the MPI Sintel final pass and KITTI 2015 benchmarks, running at about 35 fps on Sintel resolution (1024x436) images. Our models are available on https://github.com/NVlabs/PWC-Net.
Visual signals in a video can be divided into content and motion. While content specifies which objects are in the video, motion describes their dynamics. Based on this prior, we propose the Motion and Content decomposed Generative Adversarial Network (MoCoGAN) framework for video generation. The proposed framework generates a video by mapping a sequence of random vectors to a sequence of video frames. Each random vector consists of a content part and a motion part. While the content part is kept fixed, the motion part is realized as a stochastic process. To learn motion and content decomposition in an unsupervised manner, we introduce a novel adversarial learning scheme utilizing both image and video discriminators. Extensive experimental results on several challenging datasets with qualitative and quantitative comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches, verify effectiveness of the proposed framework. In addition, we show that MoCoGAN allows one to generate videos with same content but different motion as well as videos with different content and same motion.
We propose a layered street view model to encode both depth and semantic information on street view images for autonomous driving. Recently, stixels, stix-mantics, and tiered scene labeling methods have been proposed to model street view images. We propose a 4-layer street view model, a compact representation over the recently proposed stix-mantics model. Our layers encode semantic classes like ground, pedestrians, vehicles, buildings, and sky in addition to the depths. The only input to our algorithm is a pair of stereo images. We use a deep neural network to extract the appearance features for semantic classes. We use a simple and an efficient inference algorithm to jointly estimate both semantic classes and layered depth values. Our method outperforms other competing approaches in Daimler urban scene segmentation dataset. Our algorithm is massively parallelizable, allowing a GPU implementation with a processing speed about 9 fps.
We propose augmenting deep neural networks with an attention mechanism for the visual object detection task. As perceiving a scene, humans have the capability of multiple fixation points, each attended to scene content at different locations and scales. However, such a mechanism is missing in the current state-of-the-art visual object detection methods. Inspired by the human vision system, we propose a novel deep network architecture that imitates this attention mechanism. As detecting objects in an image, the network adaptively places a sequence of glimpses of different shapes at different locations in the image. Evidences of the presence of an object and its location are extracted from these glimpses, which are then fused for estimating the object class and bounding box coordinates. Due to lacks of ground truth annotations of the visual attention mechanism, we train our network using a reinforcement learning algorithm with policy gradients. Experiment results on standard object detection benchmarks show that the proposed network consistently outperforms the baseline networks that does not model the attention mechanism.
Over the years, computer vision researchers have spent an immense amount of effort on designing image features for the visual object recognition task. We propose to incorporate this valuable experience to guide the task of training deep neural networks. Our idea is to pretrain the network through the task of replicating the process of hand-designed feature extraction. By learning to replicate the process, the neural network integrates previous research knowledge and learns to model visual objects in a way similar to the hand-designed features. In the succeeding finetuning step, it further learns object-specific representations from labeled data and this boosts its classification power. We pretrain two convolutional neural networks where one replicates the process of histogram of oriented gradients feature extraction, and the other replicates the process of region covariance feature extraction. After finetuning, we achieve substantially better performance than the baseline methods.
We propose spatially-adaptive normalization, a simple but effective layer for synthesizing photorealistic images given an input semantic layout. Previous methods directly feed the semantic layout as input to the deep network, which is then processed through stacks of convolution, normalization, and nonlinearity layers. We show that this is suboptimal as the normalization layers tend to ``wash away'' semantic information. To address the issue, we propose using the input layout for modulating the activations in normalization layers through a spatially-adaptive, learned transformation. Experiments on several challenging datasets demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over existing approaches, regarding both visual fidelity and alignment with input layouts. Finally, our model allows user control over both semantic and style as synthesizing images. Code will be available at https://github.com/NVlabs/SPADE .
Most of the existing works on image description focus on generating expressive descriptions. The only few works that are dedicated to generating stylish (e.g., romantic, lyric, etc.) descriptions suffer from limited style variation and content digression. To address these limitations, we propose a controllable stylish image description generation model. It can learn to generate stylish image descriptions that are more related to image content and can be trained with the arbitrary monolingual corpus without collecting new paired image and stylish descriptions. Moreover, it enables users to generate various stylish descriptions by plugging in style-specific parameters to include new styles into the existing model. We achieve this capability via a novel layer normalization layer design, which we will refer to as the Domain Layer Norm (DLN). Extensive experimental validation and user study on various stylish image description generation tasks are conducted to show the competitive advantages of the proposed model.
Active learning - a class of algorithms that iteratively searches for the most informative samples to include in a training dataset - has been shown to be effective at annotating data for image classification. However, the use of active learning for object detection is still largely unexplored as determining informativeness of an object-location hypothesis is more difficult. In this paper, we address this issue and present two metrics for measuring the informativeness of an object hypothesis, which allow us to leverage active learning to reduce the amount of annotated data needed to achieve a target object detection performance. Our first metric measures 'localization tightness' of an object hypothesis, which is based on the overlapping ratio between the region proposal and the final prediction. Our second metric measures 'localization stability' of an object hypothesis, which is based on the variation of predicted object locations when input images are corrupted by noise. Our experimental results show that by augmenting a conventional active-learning algorithm designed for classification with the proposed metrics, the amount of labeled training data required can be reduced up to 25%. Moreover, on PASCAL 2007 and 2012 datasets our localization-stability method has an average relative improvement of 96.5% and 81.9% over the baseline method using classification only.
Deep reinforcement learning has shown promising results in learning control policies for complex sequential decision-making tasks. However, these neural network-based policies are known to be vulnerable to adversarial examples. This vulnerability poses a potentially serious threat to safety-critical systems such as autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose a defense mechanism to defend reinforcement learning agents from adversarial attacks by leveraging an action-conditioned frame prediction module. Our core idea is that the adversarial examples targeting at a neural network-based policy are not effective for the frame prediction model. By comparing the action distribution produced by a policy from processing the current observed frame to the action distribution produced by the same policy from processing the predicted frame from the action-conditioned frame prediction module, we can detect the presence of adversarial examples. Beyond detecting the presence of adversarial examples, our method allows the agent to continue performing the task using the predicted frame when the agent is under attack. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm using five games in Atari 2600. Our results demonstrate that the proposed defense mechanism achieves favorable performance against baseline algorithms in detecting adversarial examples and in earning rewards when the agents are under attack.