Classification Accuracy Score for Conditional Generative Models

May 26, 2019

Suman Ravuri, Oriol Vinyals

Deep generative models (DGMs) of images are now sufficiently mature that they produce nearly photorealistic samples and obtain scores similar to the data distribution on heuristics such as Frechet Inception Distance. These results, especially on large-scale datasets such as ImageNet, suggest that DGMs are learning the data distribution in a perceptually meaningful space, and can be used in downstream tasks. To test this latter hypothesis, we use class-conditional generative models from a number of model classes---variational autoencoder, autoregressive models, and generative adversarial networks---to infer the class labels of real data. We perform this inference by training the image classifier using only synthetic data, and using the classifier to predict labels on real data. The performance on this task, which we call Classification Accuracy Score (CAS), highlights some surprising results not captured by traditional metrics and comprise our contributions. First, when using a state-of-the-art GAN (BigGAN), Top-5 accuracy decreases by 41.6% compared to the original data and conditional generative models from other model classes, such as high-resolution VQ-VAE and Hierarchical Autoregressive Models, substantially outperform GANs on this benchmark. Second, CAS automatically surfaces particular classes for which generative models failed to capture the data distribution, and were previously unknown in the literature. Third, we find traditional GAN metrics such as Frechet Inception Distance neither predictive of CAS nor useful when evaluating non-GAN models. Finally, we introduce Naive Augmentation Score, a variant of CAS where the image classifier is trained on both real and synthetic data, to demonstrate that naive augmentation improves classification performance in limited circumstances. In order to facilitate better diagnoses of generative models, we open-source the proposed metric.
May 26, 2019

Suman Ravuri, Oriol Vinyals

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

The recent application of RNN encoder-decoder models has resulted in substantial progress in fully data-driven dialogue systems, but evaluation remains a challenge. An adversarial loss could be a way to directly evaluate the extent to which generated dialogue responses sound like they came from a human. This could reduce the need for human evaluation, while more directly evaluating on a generative task. In this work, we investigate this idea by training an RNN to discriminate a dialogue model's samples from human-generated samples. Although we find some evidence this setup could be viable, we also note that many issues remain in its practical application. We discuss both aspects and conclude that future work is warranted.

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Connecting Generative Adversarial Networks and Actor-Critic Methods

Jan 18, 2017

David Pfau, Oriol Vinyals

Both generative adversarial networks (GAN) in unsupervised learning and actor-critic methods in reinforcement learning (RL) have gained a reputation for being difficult to optimize. Practitioners in both fields have amassed a large number of strategies to mitigate these instabilities and improve training. Here we show that GANs can be viewed as actor-critic methods in an environment where the actor cannot affect the reward. We review the strategies for stabilizing training for each class of models, both those that generalize between the two and those that are particular to that model. We also review a number of extensions to GANs and RL algorithms with even more complicated information flow. We hope that by highlighting this formal connection we will encourage both GAN and RL communities to develop general, scalable, and stable algorithms for multilevel optimization with deep networks, and to draw inspiration across communities.
Jan 18, 2017

David Pfau, Oriol Vinyals

* Added comments on inverse reinforcement learning

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Conversational modeling is an important task in natural language understanding and machine intelligence. Although previous approaches exist, they are often restricted to specific domains (e.g., booking an airline ticket) and require hand-crafted rules. In this paper, we present a simple approach for this task which uses the recently proposed sequence to sequence framework. Our model converses by predicting the next sentence given the previous sentence or sentences in a conversation. The strength of our model is that it can be trained end-to-end and thus requires much fewer hand-crafted rules. We find that this straightforward model can generate simple conversations given a large conversational training dataset. Our preliminary results suggest that, despite optimizing the wrong objective function, the model is able to converse well. It is able extract knowledge from both a domain specific dataset, and from a large, noisy, and general domain dataset of movie subtitles. On a domain-specific IT helpdesk dataset, the model can find a solution to a technical problem via conversations. On a noisy open-domain movie transcript dataset, the model can perform simple forms of common sense reasoning. As expected, we also find that the lack of consistency is a common failure mode of our model.

* ICML Deep Learning Workshop 2015

* ICML Deep Learning Workshop 2015

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In this paper, we propose a second order optimization method to learn models where both the dimensionality of the parameter space and the number of training samples is high. In our method, we construct on each iteration a Krylov subspace formed by the gradient and an approximation to the Hessian matrix, and then use a subset of the training data samples to optimize over this subspace. As with the Hessian Free (HF) method of [7], the Hessian matrix is never explicitly constructed, and is computed using a subset of data. In practice, as in HF, we typically use a positive definite substitute for the Hessian matrix such as the Gauss-Newton matrix. We investigate the effectiveness of our proposed method on deep neural networks, and compare its performance to widely used methods such as stochastic gradient descent, conjugate gradient descent and L-BFGS, and also to HF. Our method leads to faster convergence than either L-BFGS or HF, and generally performs better than either of them in cross-validation accuracy. It is also simpler and more general than HF, as it does not require a positive semi-definite approximation of the Hessian matrix to work well nor the setting of a damping parameter. The chief drawback versus HF is the need for memory to store a basis for the Krylov subspace.

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In this work we explore a straightforward variational Bayes scheme for Recurrent Neural Networks. Firstly, we show that a simple adaptation of truncated backpropagation through time can yield good quality uncertainty estimates and superior regularisation at only a small extra computational cost during training, also reducing the amount of parameters by 80\%. Secondly, we demonstrate how a novel kind of posterior approximation yields further improvements to the performance of Bayesian RNNs. We incorporate local gradient information into the approximate posterior to sharpen it around the current batch statistics. We show how this technique is not exclusive to recurrent neural networks and can be applied more widely to train Bayesian neural networks. We also empirically demonstrate how Bayesian RNNs are superior to traditional RNNs on a language modelling benchmark and an image captioning task, as well as showing how each of these methods improve our model over a variety of other schemes for training them. We also introduce a new benchmark for studying uncertainty for language models so future methods can be easily compared.

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We introduce a new neural architecture to learn the conditional probability of an output sequence with elements that are discrete tokens corresponding to positions in an input sequence. Such problems cannot be trivially addressed by existent approaches such as sequence-to-sequence and Neural Turing Machines, because the number of target classes in each step of the output depends on the length of the input, which is variable. Problems such as sorting variable sized sequences, and various combinatorial optimization problems belong to this class. Our model solves the problem of variable size output dictionaries using a recently proposed mechanism of neural attention. It differs from the previous attention attempts in that, instead of using attention to blend hidden units of an encoder to a context vector at each decoder step, it uses attention as a pointer to select a member of the input sequence as the output. We call this architecture a Pointer Net (Ptr-Net). We show Ptr-Nets can be used to learn approximate solutions to three challenging geometric problems -- finding planar convex hulls, computing Delaunay triangulations, and the planar Travelling Salesman Problem -- using training examples alone. Ptr-Nets not only improve over sequence-to-sequence with input attention, but also allow us to generalize to variable size output dictionaries. We show that the learnt models generalize beyond the maximum lengths they were trained on. We hope our results on these tasks will encourage a broader exploration of neural learning for discrete problems.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Order Matters: Sequence to sequence for sets

Feb 23, 2016

Oriol Vinyals, Samy Bengio, Manjunath Kudlur

Sequences have become first class citizens in supervised learning thanks to the resurgence of recurrent neural networks. Many complex tasks that require mapping from or to a sequence of observations can now be formulated with the sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) framework which employs the chain rule to efficiently represent the joint probability of sequences. In many cases, however, variable sized inputs and/or outputs might not be naturally expressed as sequences. For instance, it is not clear how to input a set of numbers into a model where the task is to sort them; similarly, we do not know how to organize outputs when they correspond to random variables and the task is to model their unknown joint probability. In this paper, we first show using various examples that the order in which we organize input and/or output data matters significantly when learning an underlying model. We then discuss an extension of the seq2seq framework that goes beyond sequences and handles input sets in a principled way. In addition, we propose a loss which, by searching over possible orders during training, deals with the lack of structure of output sets. We show empirical evidence of our claims regarding ordering, and on the modifications to the seq2seq framework on benchmark language modeling and parsing tasks, as well as two artificial tasks -- sorting numbers and estimating the joint probability of unknown graphical models.
Feb 23, 2016

Oriol Vinyals, Samy Bengio, Manjunath Kudlur

* Accepted as a conference paper at ICLR 2015

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A very simple way to improve the performance of almost any machine learning algorithm is to train many different models on the same data and then to average their predictions. Unfortunately, making predictions using a whole ensemble of models is cumbersome and may be too computationally expensive to allow deployment to a large number of users, especially if the individual models are large neural nets. Caruana and his collaborators have shown that it is possible to compress the knowledge in an ensemble into a single model which is much easier to deploy and we develop this approach further using a different compression technique. We achieve some surprising results on MNIST and we show that we can significantly improve the acoustic model of a heavily used commercial system by distilling the knowledge in an ensemble of models into a single model. We also introduce a new type of ensemble composed of one or more full models and many specialist models which learn to distinguish fine-grained classes that the full models confuse. Unlike a mixture of experts, these specialist models can be trained rapidly and in parallel.

* NIPS 2014 Deep Learning Workshop

* NIPS 2014 Deep Learning Workshop

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Recurrent Neural Network Regularization

Feb 19, 2015

Wojciech Zaremba, Ilya Sutskever, Oriol Vinyals

We present a simple regularization technique for Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) units. Dropout, the most successful technique for regularizing neural networks, does not work well with RNNs and LSTMs. In this paper, we show how to correctly apply dropout to LSTMs, and show that it substantially reduces overfitting on a variety of tasks. These tasks include language modeling, speech recognition, image caption generation, and machine translation.
Feb 19, 2015

Wojciech Zaremba, Ilya Sutskever, Oriol Vinyals

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Why Size Matters: Feature Coding as Nystrom Sampling

Apr 16, 2013

Oriol Vinyals, Yangqing Jia, Trevor Darrell

Recently, the computer vision and machine learning community has been in favor of feature extraction pipelines that rely on a coding step followed by a linear classifier, due to their overall simplicity, well understood properties of linear classifiers, and their computational efficiency. In this paper we propose a novel view of this pipeline based on kernel methods and Nystrom sampling. In particular, we focus on the coding of a data point with a local representation based on a dictionary with fewer elements than the number of data points, and view it as an approximation to the actual function that would compute pair-wise similarity to all data points (often too many to compute in practice), followed by a Nystrom sampling step to select a subset of all data points. Furthermore, since bounds are known on the approximation power of Nystrom sampling as a function of how many samples (i.e. dictionary size) we consider, we can derive bounds on the approximation of the exact (but expensive to compute) kernel matrix, and use it as a proxy to predict accuracy as a function of the dictionary size, which has been observed to increase but also to saturate as we increase its size. This model may help explaining the positive effect of the codebook size and justifying the need to stack more layers (often referred to as deep learning), as flat models empirically saturate as we add more complexity.
Apr 16, 2013

Oriol Vinyals, Yangqing Jia, Trevor Darrell

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Unsupervised dictionary learning has been a key component in state-of-the-art computer vision recognition architectures. While highly effective methods exist for patch-based dictionary learning, these methods may learn redundant features after the pooling stage in a given early vision architecture. In this paper, we offer a novel dictionary learning scheme to efficiently take into account the invariance of learned features after the spatial pooling stage. The algorithm is built on simple clustering, and thus enjoys efficiency and scalability. We discuss the underlying mechanism that justifies the use of clustering algorithms, and empirically show that the algorithm finds better dictionaries than patch-based methods with the same dictionary size.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks

Dec 14, 2014

Ilya Sutskever, Oriol Vinyals, Quoc V. Le

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are powerful models that have achieved excellent performance on difficult learning tasks. Although DNNs work well whenever large labeled training sets are available, they cannot be used to map sequences to sequences. In this paper, we present a general end-to-end approach to sequence learning that makes minimal assumptions on the sequence structure. Our method uses a multilayered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to map the input sequence to a vector of a fixed dimensionality, and then another deep LSTM to decode the target sequence from the vector. Our main result is that on an English to French translation task from the WMT'14 dataset, the translations produced by the LSTM achieve a BLEU score of 34.8 on the entire test set, where the LSTM's BLEU score was penalized on out-of-vocabulary words. Additionally, the LSTM did not have difficulty on long sentences. For comparison, a phrase-based SMT system achieves a BLEU score of 33.3 on the same dataset. When we used the LSTM to rerank the 1000 hypotheses produced by the aforementioned SMT system, its BLEU score increases to 36.5, which is close to the previous best result on this task. The LSTM also learned sensible phrase and sentence representations that are sensitive to word order and are relatively invariant to the active and the passive voice. Finally, we found that reversing the order of the words in all source sentences (but not target sentences) improved the LSTM's performance markedly, because doing so introduced many short term dependencies between the source and the target sentence which made the optimization problem easier.
Dec 14, 2014

Ilya Sutskever, Oriol Vinyals, Quoc V. Le

* 9 pages

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Generating Diverse High-Fidelity Images with VQ-VAE-2

Jun 02, 2019

Ali Razavi, Aaron van den Oord, Oriol Vinyals

We explore the use of Vector Quantized Variational AutoEncoder (VQ-VAE) models for large scale image generation. To this end, we scale and enhance the autoregressive priors used in VQ-VAE to generate synthetic samples of much higher coherence and fidelity than possible before. We use simple feed-forward encoder and decoder networks, making our model an attractive candidate for applications where the encoding and/or decoding speed is critical. Additionally, VQ-VAE requires sampling an autoregressive model only in the compressed latent space, which is an order of magnitude faster than sampling in the pixel space, especially for large images. We demonstrate that a multi-scale hierarchical organization of VQ-VAE, augmented with powerful priors over the latent codes, is able to generate samples with quality that rivals that of state of the art Generative Adversarial Networks on multifaceted datasets such as ImageNet, while not suffering from GAN's known shortcomings such as mode collapse and lack of diversity.
Jun 02, 2019

Ali Razavi, Aaron van den Oord, Oriol Vinyals

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Representation Learning with Contrastive Predictive Coding

Jul 10, 2018

Aaron van den Oord, Yazhe Li, Oriol Vinyals

While supervised learning has enabled great progress in many applications, unsupervised learning has not seen such widespread adoption, and remains an important and challenging endeavor for artificial intelligence. In this work, we propose a universal unsupervised learning approach to extract useful representations from high-dimensional data, which we call Contrastive Predictive Coding. The key insight of our model is to learn such representations by predicting the future in latent space by using powerful autoregressive models. We use a probabilistic contrastive loss which induces the latent space to capture information that is maximally useful to predict future samples. It also makes the model tractable by using negative sampling. While most prior work has focused on evaluating representations for a particular modality, we demonstrate that our approach is able to learn useful representations achieving strong performance on four distinct domains: speech, images, text and reinforcement learning in 3D environments.
Jul 10, 2018

Aaron van den Oord, Yazhe Li, Oriol Vinyals

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Learning Implicit Generative Models with the Method of Learned Moments

Jun 28, 2018

Suman Ravuri, Shakir Mohamed, Mihaela Rosca, Oriol Vinyals

We propose a method of moments (MoM) algorithm for training large-scale implicit generative models. Moment estimation in this setting encounters two problems: it is often difficult to define the millions of moments needed to learn the model parameters, and it is hard to determine which properties are useful when specifying moments. To address the first issue, we introduce a moment network, and define the moments as the network's hidden units and the gradient of the network's output with the respect to its parameters. To tackle the second problem, we use asymptotic theory to highlight desiderata for moments -- namely they should minimize the asymptotic variance of estimated model parameters -- and introduce an objective to learn better moments. The sequence of objectives created by this Method of Learned Moments (MoLM) can train high-quality neural image samplers. On CIFAR-10, we demonstrate that MoLM-trained generators achieve significantly higher Inception Scores and lower Frechet Inception Distances than those trained with gradient penalty-regularized and spectrally-normalized adversarial objectives. These generators also achieve nearly perfect Multi-Scale Structural Similarity Scores on CelebA, and can create high-quality samples of 128x128 images.
Jun 28, 2018

Suman Ravuri, Shakir Mohamed, Mihaela Rosca, Oriol Vinyals

* ICML 2018, 6 figures, 17 pages

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Neural Discrete Representation Learning

May 30, 2018

Aaron van den Oord, Oriol Vinyals, Koray Kavukcuoglu

Learning useful representations without supervision remains a key challenge in machine learning. In this paper, we propose a simple yet powerful generative model that learns such discrete representations. Our model, the Vector Quantised-Variational AutoEncoder (VQ-VAE), differs from VAEs in two key ways: the encoder network outputs discrete, rather than continuous, codes; and the prior is learnt rather than static. In order to learn a discrete latent representation, we incorporate ideas from vector quantisation (VQ). Using the VQ method allows the model to circumvent issues of "posterior collapse" -- where the latents are ignored when they are paired with a powerful autoregressive decoder -- typically observed in the VAE framework. Pairing these representations with an autoregressive prior, the model can generate high quality images, videos, and speech as well as doing high quality speaker conversion and unsupervised learning of phonemes, providing further evidence of the utility of the learnt representations.
May 30, 2018

Aaron van den Oord, Oriol Vinyals, Koray Kavukcuoglu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

A Study on Overfitting in Deep Reinforcement Learning

Apr 20, 2018

Chiyuan Zhang, Oriol Vinyals, Remi Munos, Samy Bengio

Recent years have witnessed significant progresses in deep Reinforcement Learning (RL). Empowered with large scale neural networks, carefully designed architectures, novel training algorithms and massively parallel computing devices, researchers are able to attack many challenging RL problems. However, in machine learning, more training power comes with a potential risk of more overfitting. As deep RL techniques are being applied to critical problems such as healthcare and finance, it is important to understand the generalization behaviors of the trained agents. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of standard RL agents and find that they could overfit in various ways. Moreover, overfitting could happen "robustly": commonly used techniques in RL that add stochasticity do not necessarily prevent or detect overfitting. In particular, the same agents and learning algorithms could have drastically different test performance, even when all of them achieve optimal rewards during training. The observations call for more principled and careful evaluation protocols in RL. We conclude with a general discussion on overfitting in RL and a study of the generalization behaviors from the perspective of inductive bias.
Apr 20, 2018

Chiyuan Zhang, Oriol Vinyals, Remi Munos, Samy Bengio

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Lip Reading Sentences in the Wild

Jan 30, 2017

Joon Son Chung, Andrew Senior, Oriol Vinyals, Andrew Zisserman

The goal of this work is to recognise phrases and sentences being spoken by a talking face, with or without the audio. Unlike previous works that have focussed on recognising a limited number of words or phrases, we tackle lip reading as an open-world problem - unconstrained natural language sentences, and in the wild videos. Our key contributions are: (1) a 'Watch, Listen, Attend and Spell' (WLAS) network that learns to transcribe videos of mouth motion to characters; (2) a curriculum learning strategy to accelerate training and to reduce overfitting; (3) a 'Lip Reading Sentences' (LRS) dataset for visual speech recognition, consisting of over 100,000 natural sentences from British television. The WLAS model trained on the LRS dataset surpasses the performance of all previous work on standard lip reading benchmark datasets, often by a significant margin. This lip reading performance beats a professional lip reader on videos from BBC television, and we also demonstrate that visual information helps to improve speech recognition performance even when the audio is available.
Jan 30, 2017

Joon Son Chung, Andrew Senior, Oriol Vinyals, Andrew Zisserman

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Show and Tell: Lessons learned from the 2015 MSCOCO Image Captioning Challenge

Sep 21, 2016

Oriol Vinyals, Alexander Toshev, Samy Bengio, Dumitru Erhan

Automatically describing the content of an image is a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence that connects computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we present a generative model based on a deep recurrent architecture that combines recent advances in computer vision and machine translation and that can be used to generate natural sentences describing an image. The model is trained to maximize the likelihood of the target description sentence given the training image. Experiments on several datasets show the accuracy of the model and the fluency of the language it learns solely from image descriptions. Our model is often quite accurate, which we verify both qualitatively and quantitatively. Finally, given the recent surge of interest in this task, a competition was organized in 2015 using the newly released COCO dataset. We describe and analyze the various improvements we applied to our own baseline and show the resulting performance in the competition, which we won ex-aequo with a team from Microsoft Research, and provide an open source implementation in TensorFlow.
Sep 21, 2016

Oriol Vinyals, Alexander Toshev, Samy Bengio, Dumitru Erhan

* IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence ( Volume: PP, Issue: 99 , July 2016 )

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1411.4555

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**