Models, code, and papers for "Qiang Ji":
The locations of the fiducial facial landmark points around facial components and facial contour capture the rigid and non-rigid facial deformations due to head movements and facial expressions. They are hence important for various facial analysis tasks. Many facial landmark detection algorithms have been developed to automatically detect those key points over the years, and in this paper, we perform an extensive review of them. We classify the facial landmark detection algorithms into three major categories: holistic methods, Constrained Local Model (CLM) methods, and the regression-based methods. They differ in the ways to utilize the facial appearance and shape information. The holistic methods explicitly build models to represent the global facial appearance and shape information. The CLMs explicitly leverage the global shape model but build the local appearance models. The regression-based methods implicitly capture facial shape and appearance information. For algorithms within each category, we discuss their underlying theories as well as their differences. We also compare their performances on both controlled and in the wild benchmark datasets, under varying facial expressions, head poses, and occlusion. Based on the evaluations, we point out their respective strengths and weaknesses. There is also a separate section to review the latest deep learning-based algorithms. The survey also includes a listing of the benchmark databases and existing software. Finally, we identify future research directions, including combining methods in different categories to leverage their respective strengths to solve landmark detection "in-the-wild".
Cascade regression framework has been shown to be effective for facial landmark detection. It starts from an initial face shape and gradually predicts the face shape update from the local appearance features to generate the facial landmark locations in the next iteration until convergence. In this paper, we improve upon the cascade regression framework and propose the Constrained Joint Cascade Regression Framework (CJCRF) for simultaneous facial action unit recognition and facial landmark detection, which are two related face analysis tasks, but are seldomly exploited together. In particular, we first learn the relationships among facial action units and face shapes as a constraint. Then, in the proposed constrained joint cascade regression framework, with the help from the constraint, we iteratively update the facial landmark locations and the action unit activation probabilities until convergence. Experimental results demonstrate that the intertwined relationships of facial action units and face shapes boost the performances of both facial action unit recognition and facial landmark detection. The experimental results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method comparing to the state-of-the-art works.
Feature learning with deep models has achieved impressive results for both data representation and classification for various vision tasks. Deep feature learning, however, typically requires a large amount of training data, which may not be feasible for some application domains. Transfer learning can be one of the approaches to alleviate this problem by transferring data from data-rich source domain to data-scarce target domain. Existing transfer learning methods typically perform one-shot transfer learning and often ignore the specific properties that the transferred data must satisfy. To address these issues, we introduce a constrained deep transfer feature learning method to perform simultaneous transfer learning and feature learning by performing transfer learning in a progressively improving feature space iteratively in order to better narrow the gap between the target domain and the source domain for effective transfer of the data from the source domain to target domain. Furthermore, we propose to exploit the target domain knowledge and incorporate such prior knowledge as a constraint during transfer learning to ensure that the transferred data satisfies certain properties of the target domain. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed constrained deep transfer feature learning method, we apply it to thermal feature learning for eye detection by transferring from the visible domain. We also applied the proposed method for cross-view facial expression recognition as a second application. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for both applications.
There have been tremendous improvements for facial landmark detection on general "in-the-wild" images. However, it is still challenging to detect the facial landmarks on images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses (e.g. profile face). In fact, the existing algorithms usually can only handle one of them. In this work, we propose a unified robust cascade regression framework that can handle both images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses. Specifically, the method iteratively predicts the landmark occlusions and the landmark locations. For occlusion estimation, instead of directly predicting the binary occlusion vectors, we introduce a supervised regression method that gradually updates the landmark visibility probabilities in each iteration to achieve robustness. In addition, we explicitly add occlusion pattern as a constraint to improve the performance of occlusion prediction. For landmark detection, we combine the landmark visibility probabilities, the local appearances, and the local shapes to iteratively update their positions. The experimental results show that the proposed method is significantly better than state-of-the-art works on images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses. It is also comparable to other methods on general "in-the-wild" images.
Deep directed generative models have attracted much attention recently due to their expressive representation power and the ability of ancestral sampling. One major difficulty of learning directed models with many latent variables is the intractable inference. To address this problem, most existing algorithms make assumptions to render the latent variables independent of each other, either by designing specific priors, or by approximating the true posterior using a factorized distribution. We believe the correlations among latent variables are crucial for faithful data representation. Driven by this idea, we propose an inference method based on the conditional pseudo-likelihood that preserves the dependencies among the latent variables. For learning, we propose to employ the hard Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, which avoids the intractability of the traditional EM by max-out instead of sum-out to compute the data likelihood. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of our model against state of the art deep models on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in data representation and reconstruction.
Developing high-performance entity normalization algorithms that can alleviate the term variation problem is of great interest to the biomedical community. Although deep learning-based methods have been successfully applied to biomedical entity normalization, they often depend on traditional context-independent word embeddings. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), BERT for Biomedical Text Mining (BioBERT) and BERT for Clinical Text Mining (ClinicalBERT) were recently introduced to pre-train contextualized word representation models using bidirectional Transformers, advancing the state-of-the-art for many natural language processing tasks. In this study, we proposed an entity normalization architecture by fine-tuning the pre-trained BERT / BioBERT / ClinicalBERT models and conducted extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the pre-trained models for biomedical entity normalization using three different types of datasets. Our experimental results show that the best fine-tuned models consistently outperformed previous methods and advanced the state-of-the-art for biomedical entity normalization, with up to 1.17% increase in accuracy.
Many computer vision applications involve modeling complex spatio-temporal patterns in high-dimensional motion data. Recently, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) have been widely used to capture and represent spatial patterns in a single image or temporal patterns in several time slices. To model global dynamics and local spatial interactions, we propose to theoretically extend the conventional RBMs by introducing another term in the energy function to explicitly model the local spatial interactions in the input data. A learning method is then proposed to perform efficient learning for the proposed model. We further introduce a new method for multi-class classification that can effectively estimate the infeasible partition functions of different RBMs such that RBM is treated as a generative model for classification purpose. The improved RBM model is evaluated on two computer vision applications: facial expression recognition and human action recognition. Experimental results on benchmark databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Deep directed generative models have attracted much attention recently due to their generative modeling nature and powerful data representation ability. In this paper, we review different structures of deep directed generative models and the learning and inference algorithms associated with the structures. We focus on a specific structure that consists of layers of Bayesian Networks due to the property of capturing inherent and rich dependencies among latent variables. The major difficulty of learning and inference with deep directed models with many latent variables is the intractable inference due to the dependencies among the latent variables and the exponential number of latent variable configurations. Current solutions use variational methods often through an auxiliary network to approximate the posterior probability inference. In contrast, inference can also be performed directly without using any auxiliary network to maximally preserve the dependencies among the latent variables. Specifically, by exploiting the sparse representation with the latent space, max-max instead of max-sum operation can be used to overcome the exponential number of latent configurations. Furthermore, the max-max operation and augmented coordinate ascent are applied to both supervised and unsupervised learning as well as to various inference. Quantitative evaluations on benchmark datasets of different models are given for both data representation and feature learning tasks.
Facial landmark detection, head pose estimation, and facial deformation analysis are typical facial behavior analysis tasks in computer vision. The existing methods usually perform each task independently and sequentially, ignoring their interactions. To tackle this problem, we propose a unified framework for simultaneous facial landmark detection, head pose estimation, and facial deformation analysis, and the proposed model is robust to facial occlusion. Following a cascade procedure augmented with model-based head pose estimation, we iteratively update the facial landmark locations, facial occlusion, head pose and facial de- formation until convergence. The experimental results on benchmark databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for simultaneous facial landmark detection, head pose and facial deformation estimation, even if the images are under facial occlusion.
Facial feature detection from facial images has attracted great attention in the field of computer vision. It is a nontrivial task since the appearance and shape of the face tend to change under different conditions. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical probabilistic model that could infer the true locations of facial features given the image measurements even if the face is with significant facial expression and pose. The hierarchical model implicitly captures the lower level shape variations of facial components using the mixture model. Furthermore, in the higher level, it also learns the joint relationship among facial components, the facial expression, and the pose information through automatic structure learning and parameter estimation of the probabilistic model. Experimental results on benchmark databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical probabilistic model.
Facial feature tracking is an active area in computer vision due to its relevance to many applications. It is a nontrivial task, since faces may have varying facial expressions, poses or occlusions. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a face shape prior model that is constructed based on the Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) and their variants. Specifically, we first construct a model based on Deep Belief Networks to capture the face shape variations due to varying facial expressions for near-frontal view. To handle pose variations, the frontal face shape prior model is incorporated into a 3-way RBM model that could capture the relationship between frontal face shapes and non-frontal face shapes. Finally, we introduce methods to systematically combine the face shape prior models with image measurements of facial feature points. Experiments on benchmark databases show that with the proposed method, facial feature points can be tracked robustly and accurately even if faces have significant facial expressions and poses.
This paper describes a new algorithm to solve the decision making problem in Influence Diagrams based on algorithms for credal networks. Decision nodes are associated to imprecise probability distributions and a reformulation is introduced that finds the global maximum strategy with respect to the expected utility. We work with Limited Memory Influence Diagrams, which generalize most Influence Diagram proposals and handle simultaneous decisions. Besides the global optimum method, we explore an anytime approximate solution with a guaranteed maximum error and show that imprecise probabilities are handled in a straightforward way. Complexity issues and experiments with random diagrams and an effects-based military planning problem are discussed.
This work presents novel algorithms for learning Bayesian network structures with bounded treewidth. Both exact and approximate methods are developed. The exact method combines mixed-integer linear programming formulations for structure learning and treewidth computation. The approximate method consists in uniformly sampling $k$-trees (maximal graphs of treewidth $k$), and subsequently selecting, exactly or approximately, the best structure whose moral graph is a subgraph of that $k$-tree. Some properties of these methods are discussed and proven. The approaches are empirically compared to each other and to a state-of-the-art method for learning bounded treewidth structures on a collection of public data sets with up to 100 variables. The experiments show that our exact algorithm outperforms the state of the art, and that the approximate approach is fairly accurate.
Text simplification (TS) can be viewed as monolingual translation task, translating between text variations within a single language. Recent neural TS models draw on insights from neural machine translation to learn lexical simplification and content reduction using encoder-decoder model. But different from neural machine translation, we cannot obtain enough ordinary and simplified sentence pairs for TS, which are expensive and time-consuming to build. Target-side simplified sentences plays an important role in boosting fluency for statistical TS, and we investigate the use of simplified sentences to train, with no changes to the network architecture. We propose to pair simple training sentence with a synthetic ordinary sentence via back-translation, and treating this synthetic data as additional training data. We train encoder-decoder model using synthetic sentence pairs and original sentence pairs, which can obtain substantial improvements on the available WikiLarge data and WikiSmall data compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
Deep learning has been applied to camera relocalization, in particular, PoseNet and its extended work are the convolutional neural networks which regress the camera pose from a single image. However there are many problems, one of them is expensive parameter selection. In this paper, we directly explore the three Euler angles as the orientation representation in the camera pose regressor. There is no need to select the parameter, which is not tolerant in the previous works. Experimental results on the 7 Scenes datasets and the King's College dataset demonstrate that it has competitive performances.
Machine learning relies on the availability of a vast amount of data for training. However, in reality, most data are scattered across different organizations and cannot be easily integrated under many legal and practical constraints. In this paper, we introduce a new technique and framework, known as federated transfer learning (FTL), to improve statistical models under a data federation. The federation allows knowledge to be shared without compromising user privacy, and enables complimentary knowledge to be transferred in the network. As a result, a target-domain party can build more flexible and powerful models by leveraging rich labels from a source-domain party. A secure transfer cross validation approach is also proposed to guard the FTL performance under the federation. The framework requires minimal modifications to the existing model structure and provides the same level of accuracy as the non-privacy-preserving approach. This framework is very flexible and can be effectively adapted to various secure multi-party machine learning tasks.
We developed a convolution neural network (CNN) on semi-regular triangulated meshes whose vertices have 6 neighbours. The key blocks of the proposed CNN, including convolution and down-sampling, are directly defined in a vertex domain. By exploiting the ordering property of semi-regular meshes, the convolution is defined on a vertex domain with strong motivation from the spatial definition of classic convolution. Moreover, the down-sampling of a semi-regular mesh embedded in a 3D Euclidean space can achieve a down-sampling rate of 4, 16, 64, etc. We demonstrated the use of this vertex-based graph CNN for the classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on 3169 MRI scans of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We compared the performance of the vertex-based graph CNN with that of the spectral graph CNN.
With cross-disciplinary academic interests increasing and academic advising resources over capacity, the importance of exploring data-assisted methods to support student decision making has never been higher. We build on the findings and methodologies of a quickly developing literature around prediction and recommendation in higher education and develop a novel recurrent neural network-based recommendation system for suggesting courses to help students prepare for target courses of interest, personalized to their estimated prior knowledge background and zone of proximal development. We validate the model using tests of grade prediction and the ability to recover prerequisite relationships articulated by the university. In the third validation, we run the fully personalized recommendation for students the semester before taking a historically difficult course and observe differential overlap with our would-be suggestions. While not proof of causal effectiveness, these three evaluation perspectives on the performance of the goal-based model build confidence and bring us one step closer to deployment of this personalized course preparation affordance in the wild.
Reproducing an all-in-focus image from an image with defocus regions is of practical value in many applications, eg, digital photography, and robotics. Using the output of some existing defocus map estimator, existing approaches first segment a de-focused image into multiple regions blurred by Gaussian kernels with different variance each, and then de-blur each region using the corresponding Gaussian kernel. In this paper, we proposed a blind deconvolution method specifically designed for removing defocus blurring from an image, by providing effective solutions to two critical problems: 1) suppressing the artifacts caused by segmentation error by introducing an additional variable regularized by weighted $\ell_0$-norm; and 2) more accurate defocus kernel estimation using non-parametric symmetry and low-rank based constraints on the kernel. The experiments on real datasets showed the advantages of the proposed method over existing ones, thanks to the effective treatments of the two important issues mentioned above during deconvolution.
Deep reinforcement learning algorithms, including policy gradient methods and Q-learning, have been widely applied to a variety of decision-making problems. Their success has relied heavily on having very well designed dense reward signals, and therefore, they often perform badly on the sparse or episodic reward settings. Trajectory-based policy optimization methods, such as cross-entropy method and evolution strategies, do not take into consideration the temporal nature of the problem and often suffer from high sample complexity. Scaling up the efficiency of RL algorithms to real-world problems with sparse or episodic rewards is therefore a pressing need. In this work, we present a new perspective of policy optimization and introduce a self-imitation learning algorithm that exploits and explores well in the sparse and episodic reward settings. First, we view each policy as a state-action visitation distribution and formulate policy optimization as a divergence minimization problem. Then, we show that, with Jensen-Shannon divergence, this divergence minimization problem can be reduced into a policy-gradient algorithm with dense reward learned from experience replays. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm works comparable to existing algorithms in the dense reward setting, and significantly better in the sparse and episodic settings. To encourage exploration, we further apply the Stein variational policy gradient descent with the Jensen-Shannon kernel to learn multiple diverse policies and demonstrate its effectiveness on a number of challenging tasks.