Models, code, and papers for "Qiao Liang":

An Affinity Propagation Based method for Vector Quantization Codebook Design

Oct 11, 2007
Wu Jiang, Fei Ding, Qiao-liang Xiang

In this paper, we firstly modify a parameter in affinity propagation (AP) to improve its convergence ability, and then, we apply it to vector quantization (VQ) codebook design problem. In order to improve the quality of the resulted codebook, we combine the improved AP (IAP) with the conventional LBG algorithm to generate an effective algorithm call IAP-LBG. According to the experimental results, the proposed method not only enhances the convergence abilities but also is capable of providing higher-quality codebooks than conventional LBG method.

* In this version we make some explaination about the network-support similarity 

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Optimizing Speech Recognition For The Edge

Sep 26, 2019
Yuan Shangguan, Jian Li, Liang Qiao, Raziel Alvarez, Ian McGraw

While most deployed speech recognition systems today still run on servers, we are in the midst of a transition towards deployments on edge devices. This leap to the edge is powered by the progression from traditional speech recognition pipelines to end-to-end (E2E) neural architectures, and the parallel development of more efficient neural network topologies and optimization techniques. Thus, we are now able to create highly accurate speech recognizers that are both small and fast enough to execute on typical mobile devices. In this paper, we begin with a baseline RNN-Transducer architecture comprised of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) layers. We then experiment with a variety of more computationally efficient layer types, as well as apply optimization techniques like neural connection pruning and parameter quantization to construct a small, high quality, on-device speech recognizer that is an order of magnitude smaller than the baseline system without any optimizations.

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FOTS: Fast Oriented Text Spotting with a Unified Network

Jan 15, 2018
Xuebo Liu, Ding Liang, Shi Yan, Dagui Chen, Yu Qiao, Junjie Yan

Incidental scene text spotting is considered one of the most difficult and valuable challenges in the document analysis community. Most existing methods treat text detection and recognition as separate tasks. In this work, we propose a unified end-to-end trainable Fast Oriented Text Spotting (FOTS) network for simultaneous detection and recognition, sharing computation and visual information among the two complementary tasks. Specially, RoIRotate is introduced to share convolutional features between detection and recognition. Benefiting from convolution sharing strategy, our FOTS has little computation overhead compared to baseline text detection network, and the joint training method learns more generic features to make our method perform better than these two-stage methods. Experiments on ICDAR 2015, ICDAR 2017 MLT, and ICDAR 2013 datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods significantly, which further allows us to develop the first real-time oriented text spotting system which surpasses all previous state-of-the-art results by more than 5% on ICDAR 2015 text spotting task while keeping 22.6 fps.

* 10 pages, 6 figures 

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Image Prediction for Limited-angle Tomography via Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Network

Jul 29, 2016
Hanming Zhang, Liang Li, Kai Qiao, Linyuan Wang, Bin Yan, Lei Li, Guoen Hu

Limited angle problem is a challenging issue in x-ray computed tomography (CT) field. Iterative reconstruction methods that utilize the additional prior can suppress artifacts and improve image quality, but unfortunately require increased computation time. An interesting way is to restrain the artifacts in the images reconstructed from the practical filtered back projection (FBP) method. Frikel and Quinto have proved that the streak artifacts in FBP results could be characterized. It indicates that the artifacts created by FBP method have specific and similar characteristics in a stationary limited-angle scanning configuration. Based on this understanding, this work aims at developing a method to extract and suppress specific artifacts of FBP reconstructions for limited-angle tomography. A data-driven learning-based method is proposed based on a deep convolutional neural network. An end-to-end mapping between the FBP and artifact-free images is learned and the implicit features involving artifacts will be extracted and suppressed via nonlinear mapping. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations of experimental results indicate that the proposed method show a stable and prospective performance on artifacts reduction and detail recovery for limited angle tomography. The presented strategy provides a simple and efficient approach for improving image quality of the reconstruction results from limited projection data.

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NAMSG: An Efficient Method For Training Neural Networks

May 23, 2019
Yushu Chen, Hao Jing, Wenlai Zhao, Zhiqiang Liu, Liang Qiao, Wei Xue, Haohuan Fu, Guangwen Yang

We introduce NAMSG, an adaptive first-order algorithm for training neural networks. The method is efficient in computation and memory, and is straightforward to implement. It computes the gradients at configurable remote observation points, in order to expedite the convergence by adjusting the step size for directions with different curvatures in the stochastic setting. It also scales the updating vector elementwise by a nonincreasing preconditioner to take the advantages of AMSGRAD. We analyze the convergence properties for both convex and nonconvex problems by modeling the training process as a dynamic system, and provide a guideline to select the observation distance without grid search. A data-dependent regret bound is proposed to guarantee the convergence in the convex setting. Experiments demonstrate that NAMSG works well in practical problems and compares favorably to popular adaptive methods, such as ADAM, NADAM, and AMSGRAD.

* 10 pages, 3 figures 

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Learning for Disparity Estimation through Feature Constancy

Mar 28, 2018
Zhengfa Liang, Yiliu Feng, Yulan Guo, Hengzhu Liu, Wei Chen, Linbo Qiao, Li Zhou, Jianfeng Zhang

Stereo matching algorithms usually consist of four steps, including matching cost calculation, matching cost aggregation, disparity calculation, and disparity refinement. Existing CNN-based methods only adopt CNN to solve parts of the four steps, or use different networks to deal with different steps, making them difficult to obtain the overall optimal solution. In this paper, we propose a network architecture to incorporate all steps of stereo matching. The network consists of three parts. The first part calculates the multi-scale shared features. The second part performs matching cost calculation, matching cost aggregation and disparity calculation to estimate the initial disparity using shared features. The initial disparity and the shared features are used to calculate the feature constancy that measures correctness of the correspondence between two input images. The initial disparity and the feature constancy are then fed to a sub-network to refine the initial disparity. The proposed method has been evaluated on the Scene Flow and KITTI datasets. It achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the KITTI 2012 and KITTI 2015 benchmarks while maintaining a very fast running time.

* Accepted by CVPR 2018, 10 pages, 3 figures 

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A Leaf Recognition Algorithm for Plant Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network

Jul 29, 2007
Stephen Gang Wu, Forrest Sheng Bao, Eric You Xu, Yu-Xuan Wang, Yi-Fan Chang, Qiao-Liang Xiang

In this paper, we employ Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) with image and data processing techniques to implement a general purpose automated leaf recognition algorithm. 12 leaf features are extracted and orthogonalized into 5 principal variables which consist the input vector of the PNN. The PNN is trained by 1800 leaves to classify 32 kinds of plants with an accuracy greater than 90%. Compared with other approaches, our algorithm is an accurate artificial intelligence approach which is fast in execution and easy in implementation.

* 6 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables 

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To Know Where We Are: Vision-Based Positioning in Outdoor Environments

Jun 19, 2015
Kuan-Wen Chen, Chun-Hsin Wang, Xiao Wei, Qiao Liang, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Chu-Song Chen, Yi-Ping Hung

Augmented reality (AR) displays become more and more popular recently, because of its high intuitiveness for humans and high-quality head-mounted display have rapidly developed. To achieve such displays with augmented information, highly accurate image registration or ego-positioning are required, but little attention have been paid for out-door environments. This paper presents a method for ego-positioning in outdoor environments with low cost monocular cameras. To reduce the computational and memory requirements as well as the communication overheads, we formulate the model compression algorithm as a weighted k-cover problem for better preserving model structures. Specifically for real-world vision-based positioning applications, we consider the issues with large scene change and propose a model update algorithm to tackle these problems. A long- term positioning dataset with more than one month, 106 sessions, and 14,275 images is constructed. Based on both local and up-to-date models constructed in our approach, extensive experimental results show that high positioning accuracy (mean ~ 30.9cm, stdev. ~ 15.4cm) can be achieved, which outperforms existing vision-based algorithms.

* 11 pages, 14 figures 

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Two-Pass End-to-End Speech Recognition

Aug 29, 2019
Tara N. Sainath, Ruoming Pang, David Rybach, Yanzhang He, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Wei Li, Mirkó Visontai, Qiao Liang, Trevor Strohman, Yonghui Wu, Ian McGraw, Chung-Cheng Chiu

The requirements for many applications of state-of-the-art speech recognition systems include not only low word error rate (WER) but also low latency. Specifically, for many use-cases, the system must be able to decode utterances in a streaming fashion and faster than real-time. Recently, a streaming recurrent neural network transducer (RNN-T) end-to-end (E2E) model has shown to be a good candidate for on-device speech recognition, with improved WER and latency metrics compared to conventional on-device models [1]. However, this model still lags behind a large state-of-the-art conventional model in quality [2]. On the other hand, a non-streaming E2E Listen, Attend and Spell (LAS) model has shown comparable quality to large conventional models [3]. This work aims to bring the quality of an E2E streaming model closer to that of a conventional system by incorporating a LAS network as a second-pass component, while still abiding by latency constraints. Our proposed two-pass model achieves a 17%-22% relative reduction in WER compared to RNN-T alone and increases latency by a small fraction over RNN-T.

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Streaming End-to-end Speech Recognition For Mobile Devices

Nov 15, 2018
Yanzhang He, Tara N. Sainath, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Ian McGraw, Raziel Alvarez, Ding Zhao, David Rybach, Anjuli Kannan, Yonghui Wu, Ruoming Pang, Qiao Liang, Deepti Bhatia, Yuan Shangguan, Bo Li, Golan Pundak, Khe Chai Sim, Tom Bagby, Shuo-yiin Chang, Kanishka Rao, Alexander Gruenstein

End-to-end (E2E) models, which directly predict output character sequences given input speech, are good candidates for on-device speech recognition. E2E models, however, present numerous challenges: In order to be truly useful, such models must decode speech utterances in a streaming fashion, in real time; they must be robust to the long tail of use cases; they must be able to leverage user-specific context (e.g., contact lists); and above all, they must be extremely accurate. In this work, we describe our efforts at building an E2E speech recognizer using a recurrent neural network transducer. In experimental evaluations, we find that the proposed approach can outperform a conventional CTC-based model in terms of both latency and accuracy in a number of evaluation categories.

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PIRM Challenge on Perceptual Image Enhancement on Smartphones: Report

Oct 03, 2018
Andrey Ignatov, Radu Timofte, Thang Van Vu, Tung Minh Luu, Trung X Pham, Cao Van Nguyen, Yongwoo Kim, Jae-Seok Choi, Munchurl Kim, Jie Huang, Jiewen Ran, Chen Xing, Xingguang Zhou, Pengfei Zhu, Mingrui Geng, Yawei Li, Eirikur Agustsson, Shuhang Gu, Luc Van Gool, Etienne de Stoutz, Nikolay Kobyshev, Kehui Nie, Yan Zhao, Gen Li, Tong Tong, Qinquan Gao, Liu Hanwen, Pablo Navarrete Michelini, Zhu Dan, Hu Fengshuo, Zheng Hui, Xiumei Wang, Lirui Deng, Rang Meng, Jinghui Qin, Yukai Shi, Wushao Wen, Liang Lin, Ruicheng Feng, Shixiang Wu, Chao Dong, Yu Qiao, Subeesh Vasu, Nimisha Thekke Madam, Praveen Kandula, A. N. Rajagopalan, Jie Liu, Cheolkon Jung

This paper reviews the first challenge on efficient perceptual image enhancement with the focus on deploying deep learning models on smartphones. The challenge consisted of two tracks. In the first one, participants were solving the classical image super-resolution problem with a bicubic downscaling factor of 4. The second track was aimed at real-world photo enhancement, and the goal was to map low-quality photos from the iPhone 3GS device to the same photos captured with a DSLR camera. The target metric used in this challenge combined the runtime, PSNR scores and solutions' perceptual results measured in the user study. To ensure the efficiency of the submitted models, we additionally measured their runtime and memory requirements on Android smartphones. The proposed solutions significantly improved baseline results defining the state-of-the-art for image enhancement on smartphones.

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Lingvo: a Modular and Scalable Framework for Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling

Feb 21, 2019
Jonathan Shen, Patrick Nguyen, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, Mia X. Chen, Ye Jia, Anjuli Kannan, Tara Sainath, Yuan Cao, Chung-Cheng Chiu, Yanzhang He, Jan Chorowski, Smit Hinsu, Stella Laurenzo, James Qin, Orhan Firat, Wolfgang Macherey, Suyog Gupta, Ankur Bapna, Shuyuan Zhang, Ruoming Pang, Ron J. Weiss, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Qiao Liang, Benoit Jacob, Bowen Liang, HyoukJoong Lee, Ciprian Chelba, Sébastien Jean, Bo Li, Melvin Johnson, Rohan Anil, Rajat Tibrewal, Xiaobing Liu, Akiko Eriguchi, Navdeep Jaitly, Naveen Ari, Colin Cherry, Parisa Haghani, Otavio Good, Youlong Cheng, Raziel Alvarez, Isaac Caswell, Wei-Ning Hsu, Zongheng Yang, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Ekaterina Gonina, Katrin Tomanek, Ben Vanik, Zelin Wu, Llion Jones, Mike Schuster, Yanping Huang, Dehao Chen, Kazuki Irie, George Foster, John Richardson, Klaus Macherey, Antoine Bruguier, Heiga Zen, Colin Raffel, Shankar Kumar, Kanishka Rao, David Rybach, Matthew Murray, Vijayaditya Peddinti, Maxim Krikun, Michiel A. U. Bacchiani, Thomas B. Jablin, Rob Suderman, Ian Williams, Benjamin Lee, Deepti Bhatia, Justin Carlson, Semih Yavuz, Yu Zhang, Ian McGraw, Max Galkin, Qi Ge, Golan Pundak, Chad Whipkey, Todd Wang, Uri Alon, Dmitry Lepikhin, Ye Tian, Sara Sabour, William Chan, Shubham Toshniwal, Baohua Liao, Michael Nirschl, Pat Rondon

Lingvo is a Tensorflow framework offering a complete solution for collaborative deep learning research, with a particular focus towards sequence-to-sequence models. Lingvo models are composed of modular building blocks that are flexible and easily extensible, and experiment configurations are centralized and highly customizable. Distributed training and quantized inference are supported directly within the framework, and it contains existing implementations of a large number of utilities, helper functions, and the newest research ideas. Lingvo has been used in collaboration by dozens of researchers in more than 20 papers over the last two years. This document outlines the underlying design of Lingvo and serves as an introduction to the various pieces of the framework, while also offering examples of advanced features that showcase the capabilities of the framework.

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Large-scale Traffic Signal Control Using a Novel Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Aug 10, 2019
Xiaoqiang Wang, Liangjun Ke, Zhimin Qiao, Xinghua Chai

Finding the optimal signal timing strategy is a difficult task for the problem of large-scale traffic signal control (TSC). Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) is a promising method to solve this problem. However, there is still room for improvement in extending to large-scale problems and modeling the behaviors of other agents for each individual agent. In this paper, a new MARL, called Cooperative double Q-learning (Co-DQL), is proposed, which has several prominent features. It uses a highly scalable independent double Q-learning method based on double estimators and the UCB policy, which can eliminate the over-estimation problem existing in traditional independent Q-learning while ensuring exploration. It uses mean field approximation to model the interaction among agents, thereby making agents learn a better cooperative strategy. In order to improve the stability and robustness of the learning process, we introduce a new reward allocation mechanism and a local state sharing method. In addition, we analyze the convergence properties of the proposed algorithm. Co-DQL is applied on TSC and tested on a multi-traffic signal simulator. According to the results obtained on several traffic scenarios, Co- DQL outperforms several state-of-the-art decentralized MARL algorithms. It can effectively shorten the average waiting time of the vehicles in the whole road system.

* 11 pages, 12 figures 

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Semi-supervised Node Classification via Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Networks

Mar 05, 2019
Fenyu Hu, Yanqiao Zhu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have been successfully applied in node classification tasks of network mining. However, most of these models based on neighborhood aggregation are usually shallow and lack the "graph pooling" mechanism, which prevents the model from obtaining adequate global information. In order to increase the receptive field, we propose a novel deep Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (H-GCN) for semi-supervised node classification. H-GCN first repeatedly aggregates structurally similar nodes to hyper-nodes and then refines the coarsened graph to the original to restore the representation for each node. Instead of merely aggregating one- or two-hop neighborhood information, the proposed coarsening procedure enlarges the receptive field for each node, hence more global information can be learned. Comprehensive experiments conducted on public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method over the state-of-art methods. Notably, our model gains substantial improvements when only a few labeled samples are provided.

* 7 pages, 3 figures 

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Learning Incremental Triplet Margin for Person Re-identification

Dec 17, 2018
Yingying Zhang, Qiaoyong Zhong, Liang Ma, Di Xie, Shiliang Pu

Person re-identification (ReID) aims to match people across multiple non-overlapping video cameras deployed at different locations. To address this challenging problem, many metric learning approaches have been proposed, among which triplet loss is one of the state-of-the-arts. In this work, we explore the margin between positive and negative pairs of triplets and prove that large margin is beneficial. In particular, we propose a novel multi-stage training strategy which learns incremental triplet margin and improves triplet loss effectively. Multiple levels of feature maps are exploited to make the learned features more discriminative. Besides, we introduce global hard identity searching method to sample hard identities when generating a training batch. Extensive experiments on Market-1501, CUHK03, and DukeMTMCreID show that our approach yields a performance boost and outperforms most existing state-of-the-art methods.

* accepted by AAAI19 as spotlight 

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Predicting Head Movement in Panoramic Video: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach

Sep 21, 2018
Yuhang Song, Mai Xu, Minglang Qiao, Jianyi Wang, Liangyu Huo, Zulin Wang

Panoramic video provides immersive and interactive experience by enabling humans to control the field of view (FoV) through head movement (HM). Thus, HM plays a key role in modeling human attention on panoramic video. This paper establishes a database collecting subjects' HM in panoramic video sequences. From this database, we find that the HM data are highly consistent across subjects. Furthermore, we find that deep reinforcement learning (DRL) can be applied to predict HM positions, via maximizing the reward of imitating human HM scanpaths through the agent's actions. Based on our findings, we propose a DRL-based HM prediction (DHP) approach with offline and online versions, called offline-DHP and online-DHP. In offline-DHP, multiple DRL workflows are run to determine potential HM positions at each panoramic frame. Then, a heat map of the potential HM positions, named the HM map, is generated as the output of offline-DHP. In online-DHP, the next HM position of one subject is estimated given the currently observed HM position, which is achieved by developing a DRL algorithm upon the learned offline-DHP model. Finally, the experiments validate that our approach is effective in both offline and online prediction of HM positions for panoramic video, and that the learned offline-DHP model can improve the performance of online-DHP.

* EEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 2018 Jul 24 
* 15 pages, 10 figures, published on TPAMI 2018 

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Product Image Recognition with Guidance Learning and Noisy Supervision

Jul 26, 2019
Qing Li, Xiaojiang Peng, Liangliang Cao, Wenbin Du, Hao Xing, Yu Qiao

This paper considers recognizing products from daily photos, which is an important problem in real-world applications but also challenging due to background clutters, category diversities, noisy labels, etc. We address this problem by two contributions. First, we introduce a novel large-scale product image dataset, termed as Product-90. Instead of collecting product images by labor-and time-intensive image capturing, we take advantage of the web and download images from the reviews of several e-commerce websites where the images are casually captured by consumers. Labels are assigned automatically by the categories of e-commerce websites. Totally the Product-90 consists of more than 140K images with 90 categories. Due to the fact that consumers may upload unrelated images, it is inevitable that our Product-90 introduces noisy labels. As the second contribution, we develop a simple yet efficient \textit{guidance learning} (GL) method for training convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with noisy supervision. The GL method first trains an initial teacher network with the full noisy dataset, and then trains a target/student network with both large-scale noisy set and small manually-verified clean set in a multi-task manner. Specifically, in the stage of student network training, the large-scale noisy data is supervised by its guidance knowledge which is the combination of its given noisy label and the soften label from the teacher network. We conduct extensive experiments on our Products-90 and public datasets, namely Food101, Food-101N, and Clothing1M. Our guidance learning method achieves performance superior to state-of-the-art methods on these datasets.

* 10 pages 

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Session-based Recommendation with Graph Neural Networks

Nov 05, 2018
Shu Wu, Yuyuan Tang, Yanqiao Zhu, Liang Wang, Xing Xie, Tieniu Tan

The problem of session-based recommendation aims to predict users' actions based on anonymous sessions. Previous methods on the session-based recommendation most model a session as a sequence and capture users' preference to make recommendations. Though achieved promising results, they fail to consider the complex items transitions among all session sequences, and are insufficient to obtain accurate users' preference in the session. To better capture the structure of the user-click sessions and take complex transitions of items into account, we propose a novel method, i.e. Session-based Recommendation with Graph Neural Networks, SR-GNN for brevity. In the proposed method, session sequences are aggregated together and modeled as graph-structure data. Based on this graph, GNN can capture complex transitions of items, which are difficult to be revealed by the conventional sequential methods. Each session is then represented as the composition of the global preference and current interests of the session using an attention network. Extensive experiments conducted on two real datasets show that SR-GNN evidently outperforms the state-of-the-art session-based recommendation methods and always obtain stable performance with different connection schemes, session representations, and session lengths.

* 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted by AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-19) 

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