Models, code, and papers for "Renato A. Krohling":
Skin cancer is a major public health problem around the world. Its early detection is very important to increase patient prognostics. However, the lack of qualified professionals and medical instruments are significant issues in this field. In this context, over the past few years, deep learning models applied to automated skin cancer detection have become a trend. In this paper, we present an overview of the recent advances reported in this field as well as a discussion about the challenges and opportunities for improvement in the current models. In addition, we also present some important aspects regarding the use of these models in smartphones and indicate future directions we believe the field will take.
Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer around the world. For this reason, over the past years, different approaches have been proposed to assist detect it. Nonetheless, most of them are based only on dermoscopy images and do not take into account the patient clinical information. In this work, first, we present a new dataset that contains clinical images, acquired from smartphones, and patient clinical information of the skin lesions. Next, we introduce a straightforward approach to combine the clinical data and the images using different well-known deep learning models. These models are applied to the presented dataset using only the images and combining them with the patient clinical information. We present a comprehensive study to show the impact of the clinical data on the final predictions. The results obtained by combining both sets of information show a general improvement of around 7% in the balanced accuracy for all models. In addition, the statistical test indicates significant differences between the models with and without considering both data. The improvement achieved shows the potential of using patient clinical information in skin cancer detection and indicates that this piece of information is important to leverage skin cancer detection systems.
In classification problems when multiples algorithms are applied to different benchmarks a difficult issue arises, i.e., how can we rank the algorithms? In machine learning it is common run the algorithms several times and then a statistic is calculated in terms of means and standard deviations. In order to compare the performance of the algorithms, it is very common to employ statistical tests. However, these tests may also present limitations, since they consider only the means and not the standard deviations of the obtained results. In this paper, we present the so called A-TOPSIS, based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), to solve the problem of ranking and comparing classification algorithms in terms of means and standard deviations. We use two case studies to illustrate the A-TOPSIS for ranking classification algorithms and the results show the suitability of A-TOPSIS to rank the algorithms. The presented approach is general and can be applied to compare the performance of stochastic algorithms in machine learning. Finally, to encourage researchers to use the A-TOPSIS for ranking algorithms we also presented in this work an easy-to-use A-TOPSIS web framework.
Generally, the identification and classification of plant diseases and/or pests are performed by an expert . One of the problems facing coffee farmers in Brazil is crop infestation, particularly by leaf rust Hemileia vastatrix and leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella. The progression of the diseases and or pests occurs spatially and temporarily. So, it is very important to automatically identify the degree of severity. The main goal of this article consists on the development of a method and its i implementation as an App that allow the detection of the foliar damages from images of coffee leaf that are captured using a smartphone, and identify whether it is rust or leaf miner, and in turn the calculation of its severity degree. The method consists of identifying a leaf from the image and separates it from the background with the use of a segmentation algorithm. In the segmentation process, various types of backgrounds for the image using the HSV and YCbCr color spaces are tested. In the segmentation of foliar damages, the Otsu algorithm and the iterative threshold algorithm, in the YCgCr color space, have been used and compared to k-means. Next, features of the segmented foliar damages are calculated. For the classification, artificial neural network trained with extreme learning machine have been used. The results obtained shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach to identify and classify foliar damages, and the automatic calculation of the severity. The results obtained are very promising according to experts.
Techniques such as clusterization, neural networks and decision making usually rely on algorithms that are not well suited to deal with missing values. However, real world data frequently contains such cases. The simplest solution is to either substitute them by a best guess value or completely disregard the missing values. Unfortunately, both approaches can lead to biased results. In this paper, we propose a technique for dealing with missing values in heterogeneous data using imputation based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. It can handle real (which we refer to as crisp henceforward), interval and fuzzy data. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested on several datasets and the numerical results are promising.
Allocating of people in multiple projects is an important issue considering the efficiency of groups from the point of view of social interaction. In this paper, based on previous works, the Multiple Team Formation Problem (MTFP) based on sociometric techniques is formulated as an optimization problem taking into account the social interaction among team members. To solve the resulting optimization problem we propose a Genetic Algorithm due to the NP-hard nature of the problem. The social cohesion is an important issue that directly impacts the productivity of the work environment. So, maintaining an appropriate level of cohesion keeps a group together, which will bring positive impacts on the results of a project. The aim of the proposal is to ensure the best possible effectiveness from the point of view of social interaction. In this way, the presented algorithm serves as a decision-making tool for managers to build teams of people in multiple projects. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed method, computational experiments with benchmarks were performed and compared with the exhaustive method. The results are promising and show that the algorithm generally obtains near-optimal results within a short computational time.