Models, code, and papers for "S L Happy":
Facial expression analysis is one of the popular fields of research in human computer interaction (HCI). It has several applications in next generation user interfaces, human emotion analysis, behavior and cognitive modeling. In this paper, a facial expression classification algorithm is proposed which uses Haar classifier for face detection purpose, Local Binary Patterns (LBP) histogram of different block sizes of a face image as feature vectors and classifies various facial expressions using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The algorithm is implemented in real time for expression classification since the computational complexity of the algorithm is small. A customizable approach is proposed for facial expression analysis, since the various expressions and intensity of expressions vary from person to person. The system uses grayscale frontal face images of a person to classify six basic emotions namely happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise and anger.
Emotions are best way of communicating information; and sometimes it carry more information than words. Recently, there has been a huge interest in automatic recognition of human emotion because of its wide spread application in security, surveillance, marketing, advertisement, and human-computer interaction. To communicate with a computer in a natural way, it will be desirable to use more natural modes of human communication based on voice, gestures and facial expressions. In this paper, a holistic approach for facial expression recognition is proposed which captures the variation in facial features in temporal domain and classifies the sequence of images in different emotions. The proposed method uses Haar-like features to detect face in an image. The dimensionality of the eigenspace is reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). By projecting the subsequent face images into principal eigen directions, the variation pattern of the obtained weight vector is modeled to classify it into different emotions. Owing to the variations of expressions for different people and its intensity, a person specific method for emotion recognition is followed. Using the gray scale images of the frontal face, the system is able to classify four basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, surprise, and anger.
Facial expression recognition has many potential applications which has attracted the attention of researchers in the last decade. Feature extraction is one important step in expression analysis which contributes toward fast and accurate expression recognition. This paper represents an approach of combining the shape and appearance features to form a hybrid feature vector. We have extracted Pyramid of Histogram of Gradients (PHOG) as shape descriptors and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) as appearance features. The proposed framework involves a novel approach of extracting hybrid features from active facial patches. The active facial patches are located on the face regions which undergo a major change during different expressions. After detection of facial landmarks, the active patches are localized and hybrid features are calculated from these patches. The use of small parts of face instead of the whole face for extracting features reduces the computational cost and prevents the over-fitting of the features for classification. By using linear discriminant analysis, the dimensionality of the feature is reduced which is further classified by using the support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results on two publicly available databases show promising accuracy in recognizing all expression classes.
Extraction of discriminative features from salient facial patches plays a vital role in effective facial expression recognition. The accurate detection of facial landmarks improves the localization of the salient patches on face images. This paper proposes a novel framework for expression recognition by using appearance features of selected facial patches. A few prominent facial patches, depending on the position of facial landmarks, are extracted which are active during emotion elicitation. These active patches are further processed to obtain the salient patches which contain discriminative features for classification of each pair of expressions, thereby selecting different facial patches as salient for different pair of expression classes. One-against-one classification method is adopted using these features. In addition, an automated learning-free facial landmark detection technique has been proposed, which achieves similar performances as that of other state-of-art landmark detection methods, yet requires significantly less execution time. The proposed method is found to perform well consistently in different resolutions, hence, providing a solution for expression recognition in low resolution images. Experiments on CK+ and JAFFE facial expression databases show the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Dimensionality reduction (DR) methods have attracted extensive attention to provide discriminative information and reduce the computational burden of the hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. However, the DR methods face many challenges due to limited training samples with high dimensional spectra. To address this issue, a graph-based spatial and spectral regularized local scaling cut (SSRLSC) for DR of HSI data is proposed. The underlying idea of the proposed method is to utilize the information from both the spectral and spatial domains to achieve better classification accuracy than its spectral domain counterpart. In SSRLSC, a guided filter is initially used to smoothen and homogenize the pixels of the HSI data in order to preserve the pixel consistency. This is followed by generation of between-class and within-class dissimilarity matrices in both spectral and spatial domains by regularized local scaling cut (RLSC) and neighboring pixel local scaling cut (NPLSC) respectively. Finally, we obtain the projection matrix by optimizing the updated spatial-spectral between-class and total-class dissimilarity. The effectiveness of the proposed DR algorithm is illustrated with two popular real-world HSI datasets.
The lack of proper class discrimination among the Hyperspectral (HS) data points poses a potential challenge in HS classification. To address this issue, this paper proposes an optimal geometry-aware transformation for enhancing the classification accuracy. The underlying idea of this method is to obtain a linear projection matrix by solving a nonlinear objective function based on the intrinsic geometrical structure of the data. The objective function is constructed to quantify the discrimination between the points from dissimilar classes on the projected data space. Then the obtained projection matrix is used to linearly map the data to more discriminative space. The effectiveness of the proposed transformation is illustrated with three benchmark real-world HS data sets. The experiments reveal that the classification and dimensionality reduction methods on the projected discriminative space outperform their counterpart in the original space.
In this paper, we propose an L1 normalized graph based dimensionality reduction method for Hyperspectral images, called as L1-Scaling Cut (L1-SC). The underlying idea of this method is to generate the optimal projection matrix by retaining the original distribution of the data. Though L2-norm is generally preferred for computation, it is sensitive to noise and outliers. However, L1-norm is robust to them. Therefore, we obtain the optimal projection matrix by maximizing the ratio of between-class dispersion to within-class dispersion using L1-norm. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is described to solve the optimization problem. The experimental results of the HSI classification confirm the effectiveness of the proposed L1-SC method on both noisy and noiseless data.
Feature selection has been studied widely in the literature. However, the efficacy of the selection criteria for low sample size applications is neglected in most cases. Most of the existing feature selection criteria are based on the sample similarity. However, the distance measures become insignificant for high dimensional low sample size (HDLSS) data. Moreover, the variance of a feature with a few samples is pointless unless it represents the data distribution efficiently. Instead of looking at the samples in groups, we evaluate their efficiency based on pairwise fashion. In our investigation, we noticed that considering a pair of samples at a time and selecting the features that bring them closer or put them far away is a better choice for feature selection. Experimental results on benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method with low sample size, which outperforms many other state-of-the-art feature selection methods.
In the context of education technology, empathic interaction with the user and feedback by the learning system using multiple inputs such as video, voice and text inputs is an important area of research. In this paper, a nonintrusive, standalone model for intelligent assessment of alertness and emotional state as well as generation of appropriate feedback has been proposed. Using the non-intrusive visual cues, the system classifies emotion and alertness state of the user, and provides appropriate feedback according to the detected cognitive state using facial expressions, ocular parameters, postures, and gestures. Assessment of alertness level using ocular parameters such as PERCLOS and saccadic parameters, emotional state from facial expression analysis, and detection of both relevant cognitive and emotional states from upper body gestures and postures has been proposed. Integration of such a system in e-learning environment is expected to enhance students performance through interaction, feedback, and positive mood induction.
Overlapping of cervical cells and poor contrast of cell cytoplasm are the major issues in accurate detection and segmentation of cervical cells. An unsupervised cell segmentation approach is presented here. Cell clump segmentation was carried out using the extended depth of field (EDF) image created from the images of different focal planes. A modified Otsu method with prior class weights is proposed for accurate segmentation of nuclei from the cell clumps. The cell cytoplasm was further segmented from cell clump depending upon the number of nucleus detected in that cell clump. Level set model was used for cytoplasm segmentation.
Due to the various reasons such as atmospheric effects and differences in acquisition, it is often the case that there exists a large difference between spectral bands of satellite images collected from different geographic locations. The large shift between spectral distributions of training and test data causes the current state of the art supervised learning approaches to output poor maps. We present a novel end to end semantic segmentation framework that is robust to such shift. The key component of the proposed framework is Color Mapping Generative Adversarial Networks (ColorMapGAN), which can generate fake training images that are semantically exactly the same as training images, but whose spectral distribution is similar to the distribution of the test images. We then use the fake images and the ground-truth for the training images to fine-tune the already trained classifier. Contrary to the existing Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), the generator in ColorMapGAN does not have any convolutional or pooling layers. It learns to transform the colors of the training data to the colors of the test data by performing only one element-wise matrix multiplication and one matrix addition operations. Thanks to the architecturally simple but powerful design of ColorMapGAN, the proposed framework outperforms the existing approaches with a large margin in terms of both accuracy and computational complexity.
This work proposes an adaptive trace lasso regularized L1-norm based graph cut method for dimensionality reduction of Hyperspectral images, called as `Trace Lasso-L1 Graph Cut' (TL-L1GC). The underlying idea of this method is to generate the optimal projection matrix by considering both the sparsity as well as the correlation of the data samples. The conventional L2-norm used in the objective function is sensitive to noise and outliers. Therefore, in this work L1-norm is utilized as a robust alternative to L2-norm. Besides, for further improvement of the results, we use a penalty function of trace lasso with the L1GC method. It adaptively balances the L2-norm and L1-norm simultaneously by considering the data correlation along with the sparsity. We obtain the optimal projection matrix by maximizing the ratio of between-class dispersion to within-class dispersion using L1-norm with trace lasso as the penalty. Furthermore, an iterative procedure for this TL-L1GC method is proposed to solve the optimization function. The effectiveness of this proposed method is evaluated on two benchmark HSI datasets.
Automatic recognition of spontaneous facial expressions is a major challenge in the field of affective computing. Head rotation, face pose, illumination variation, occlusion etc. are the attributes that increase the complexity of recognition of spontaneous expressions in practical applications. Effective recognition of expressions depends significantly on the quality of the database used. Most well-known facial expression databases consist of posed expressions. However, currently there is a huge demand for spontaneous expression databases for the pragmatic implementation of the facial expression recognition algorithms. In this paper, we propose and establish a new facial expression database containing spontaneous expressions of both male and female participants of Indian origin. The database consists of 428 segmented video clips of the spontaneous facial expressions of 50 participants. In our experiment, emotions were induced among the participants by using emotional videos and simultaneously their self-ratings were collected for each experienced emotion. Facial expression clips were annotated carefully by four trained decoders, which were further validated by the nature of stimuli used and self-report of emotions. An extensive analysis was carried out on the database using several machine learning algorithms and the results are provided for future reference. Such a spontaneous database will help in the development and validation of algorithms for recognition of spontaneous expressions.
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is an evolving area of research for coherent communication between computers and human beings. Some of the important applications of HCI as reported in literature are face detection, face pose estimation, face tracking and eye gaze estimation. Development of algorithms for these applications is an active field of research. However, availability of standard database to validate such algorithms is insufficient. This paper discusses the creation of such a database created under Near Infra-Red (NIR) illumination. NIR illumination has gained its popularity for night mode applications since prolonged exposure to Infra-Red (IR) lighting may lead to many health issues. The database contains NIR videos of 60 subjects in different head orientations and with different facial expressions, facial occlusions and illumination variation. This new database can be a very valuable resource for development and evaluation of algorithms on face detection, eye detection, head tracking, eye gaze tracking etc. in NIR lighting.
On board monitoring of the alertness level of an automotive driver has been a challenging research in transportation safety and management. In this paper, we propose a robust real time embedded platform to monitor the loss of attention of the driver during day as well as night driving conditions. The PERcentage of eye CLOSure (PERCLOS) has been used as the indicator of the alertness level. In this approach, the face is detected using Haar like features and tracked using a Kalman Filter. The Eyes are detected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) during day time and the block Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features during night. Finally the eye state is classified as open or closed using Support Vector Machines(SVM). In plane and off plane rotations of the drivers face have been compensated using Affine and Perspective Transformation respectively. Compensation in illumination variation is carried out using Bi Histogram Equalization (BHE). The algorithm has been cross validated using brain signals and finally been implemented on a Single Board Computer (SBC) having Intel Atom processor, 1 GB RAM, 1.66 GHz clock, x86 architecture, Windows Embedded XP operating system. The system is found to be robust under actual driving conditions.
The poor contrast and the overlapping of cervical cell cytoplasm are the major issues in the accurate segmentation of cervical cell cytoplasm. This paper presents an automated unsupervised cytoplasm segmentation approach which can effectively find the cytoplasm boundaries in overlapping cells. The proposed approach first segments the cell clumps from the cervical smear image and detects the nuclei in each cell clump. A modified Otsu method with prior class probability is proposed for accurate segmentation of nuclei from the cell clumps. Using distance regularized level set evolution, the contour around each nucleus is evolved until it reaches the cytoplasm boundaries. Promising results were obtained by experimenting on ISBI 2015 challenge dataset.
In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations' performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. The Challenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with information system all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the information system itself but in difference's view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do their transaction as a fun things.
In this paper, an approach to the problem of automatic facial feature extraction from a still frontal posed image and classification and recognition of facial expression and hence emotion and mood of a person is presented. Feed forward back propagation neural network is used as a classifier for classifying the expressions of supplied face into seven basic categories like surprise, neutral, sad, disgust, fear, happy and angry. For face portion segmentation and localization, morphological image processing operations are used. Permanent facial features like eyebrows, eyes, mouth and nose are extracted using SUSAN edge detection operator, facial geometry, edge projection analysis. Experiments are carried out on JAFFE facial expression database and gives better performance in terms of 100% accuracy for training set and 95.26% accuracy for test set.
The muscular activities caused the activation of certain AUs for every facial expression at the certain duration of time throughout the facial expression. This paper presents the methods to recognise facial Action Unit (AU) using facial distance of the facial features which activates the muscles. The seven facial action units involved are AU1, AU4, AU6, AU12, AU15, AU17 and AU25 that characterises happy and sad expression. The recognition is performed on each AU according to rules defined based on the distance of each facial points. The facial distances chosen are extracted from twelve facial features. Then the facial distances are trained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network (NN). Classification result using SVM is presented with several different SVM kernels while result using NN is presented for each training, validation and testing phase.
Hyperspectral images (HSI) contain a wealth of information over hundreds of contiguous spectral bands, making it possible to classify materials through subtle spectral discrepancies. However, the classification of this rich spectral information is accompanied by the challenges like high dimensionality, singularity, limited training samples, lack of labeled data samples, heteroscedasticity and nonlinearity. To address these challenges, we propose a semi-supervised graph based dimensionality reduction method named `semi-supervised spatial spectral regularized manifold local scaling cut' (S3RMLSC). The underlying idea of the proposed method is to exploit the limited labeled information from both the spectral and spatial domains along with the abundant unlabeled samples to facilitate the classification task by retaining the original distribution of the data. In S3RMLSC, a hierarchical guided filter (HGF) is initially used to smoothen the pixels of the HSI data to preserve the spatial pixel consistency. This step is followed by the construction of linear patches from the nonlinear manifold by using the maximal linear patch (MLP) criterion. Then the inter-patch and intra-patch dissimilarity matrices are constructed in both spectral and spatial domains by regularized manifold local scaling cut (RMLSC) and neighboring pixel manifold local scaling cut (NPMLSC) respectively. Finally, we obtain the projection matrix by optimizing the updated semi-supervised spatial-spectral between-patch and total-patch dissimilarity. The effectiveness of the proposed DR algorithm is illustrated with publicly available real-world HSI datasets.