Research papers and code for "Sang Hyun Park":
Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to communicate their emotions and intensions. Recognition of facial expression has many applications including human-computer interaction, cognitive science, human emotion analysis, personality development etc. In this paper, we propose a new method for the recognition of facial expressions from single image frame that uses combination of appearance and geometric features with support vector machines classification. In general, appearance features for the recognition of facial expressions are computed by dividing face region into regular grid (holistic representation). But, in this paper we extracted region specific appearance features by dividing the whole face region into domain specific local regions. Geometric features are also extracted from corresponding domain specific regions. In addition, important local regions are determined by using incremental search approach which results in the reduction of feature dimension and improvement in recognition accuracy. The results of facial expressions recognition using features from domain specific regions are also compared with the results obtained using holistic representation. The performance of the proposed facial expression recognition system has been validated on publicly available extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression data sets.

* Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp 1-19, Online: 16 March 2016
* Facial expressions, Local representation, Appearance features, Geometric features, Support vector machines
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Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) and artificial intelligence (AI) have opened up the possibility of an exciting frontier. The fast and label-free nature of QPI enables the rapid generation of large-scale and uniform-quality imaging data in two, three, and four dimensions. Subsequently, the AI-assisted interrogation of QPI data using data-driven machine learning techniques results in a variety of biomedical applications. Also, machine learning enhances QPI itself. Herein, we review the synergy between QPI and machine learning with a particular focus on deep learning. Further, we provide practical guidelines and perspectives for further development.

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Quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin is of key importance in many neurological research studies. Currently, measurements are often still obtained from manual segmentations on brain MR images, which is a laborious procedure. Automatic WMH segmentation methods exist, but a standardized comparison of the performance of such methods is lacking. We organized a scientific challenge, in which developers could evaluate their method on a standardized multi-center/-scanner image dataset, giving an objective comparison: the WMH Segmentation Challenge (https://wmh.isi.uu.nl/). Sixty T1+FLAIR images from three MR scanners were released with manual WMH segmentations for training. A test set of 110 images from five MR scanners was used for evaluation. Segmentation methods had to be containerized and submitted to the challenge organizers. Five evaluation metrics were used to rank the methods: (1) Dice similarity coefficient, (2) modified Hausdorff distance (95th percentile), (3) absolute log-transformed volume difference, (4) sensitivity for detecting individual lesions, and (5) F1-score for individual lesions. Additionally, methods were ranked on their inter-scanner robustness. Twenty participants submitted their method for evaluation. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the results. In brief, there is a cluster of four methods that rank significantly better than the other methods, with one clear winner. The inter-scanner robustness ranking shows that not all methods generalize to unseen scanners. The challenge remains open for future submissions and provides a public platform for method evaluation.

* Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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Nowadays deep learning is dominating the field of machine learning with state-of-the-art performance in various application areas. Recently, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have been attracting a great deal of attention, notably owning to their power efficiency, which can potentially allow us to implement a low-power deep learning engine suitable for real-time/mobile applications. However, implementing SNN-based deep learning remains challenging, especially gradient-based training of SNNs by error backpropagation. We cannot simply propagate errors through SNNs in conventional way because of the property of SNNs that process discrete data in the form of a series. Consequently, most of the previous studies employ a workaround technique, which first trains a conventional weighted-sum deep neural network and then maps the learning weights to the SNN under training, instead of training SNN parameters directly. In order to eliminate this workaround, recently proposed is a new class of SNN named deep spiking networks (DSNs), which can be trained directly (without a mapping from conventional deep networks) by error backpropagation with stochastic gradient descent. In this paper, we show that the initialization of the membrane potential on the backward path is an important step in DSN training, through diverse experiments performed under various conditions. Furthermore, we propose a simple and efficient method that can improve DSN training by controlling the initial membrane potential on the backward path. In our experiments, adopting the proposed approach allowed us to boost the performance of DSN training in terms of converging time and accuracy.

* 9 pages, 5 figures
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StarCraft, one of the most popular real-time strategy games, is a compelling environment for artificial intelligence research for both micro-level unit control and macro-level strategic decision making. In this study, we address an eminent problem concerning macro-level decision making, known as the 'fog-of-war', which rises naturally from the fact that information regarding the opponent's state is always provided in the incomplete form. For intelligent agents to play like human players, it is obvious that making accurate predictions of the opponent's status under incomplete information will increase its chance of winning. To reflect this fact, we propose a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture that predicts potential counts and locations of the opponent's units based on only partially visible and noisy information. To evaluate the performance of our proposed method, we train an additional classifier on the encoder-decoder output to predict the game outcome (win or lose). Finally, we designed an agent incorporating the proposed method and conducted simulation games against rule-based agents to demonstrate both effectiveness and practicality. All experiments were conducted on actual game replay data acquired from professional players.

* 7 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables
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We consider the problem of subspace clustering: given points that lie on or near the union of many low-dimensional linear subspaces, recover the subspaces. To this end, one first identifies sets of points close to the same subspace and uses the sets to estimate the subspaces. As the geometric structure of the clusters (linear subspaces) forbids proper performance of general distance based approaches such as K-means, many model-specific methods have been proposed. In this paper, we provide new simple and efficient algorithms for this problem. Our statistical analysis shows that the algorithms are guaranteed exact (perfect) clustering performance under certain conditions on the number of points and the affinity between subspaces. These conditions are weaker than those considered in the standard statistical literature. Experimental results on synthetic data generated from the standard unions of subspaces model demonstrate our theory. We also show that our algorithm performs competitively against state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world applications such as motion segmentation and face clustering, with much simpler implementation and lower computational cost.

* To appear in NIPS 2014
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We propose Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM), a simple yet effective attention module for feed-forward convolutional neural networks. Given an intermediate feature map, our module sequentially infers attention maps along two separate dimensions, channel and spatial, then the attention maps are multiplied to the input feature map for adaptive feature refinement. Because CBAM is a lightweight and general module, it can be integrated into any CNN architectures seamlessly with negligible overheads and is end-to-end trainable along with base CNNs. We validate our CBAM through extensive experiments on ImageNet-1K, MS~COCO detection, and VOC~2007 detection datasets. Our experiments show consistent improvements in classification and detection performances with various models, demonstrating the wide applicability of CBAM. The code and models will be publicly available.

* Accepted to ECCV 2018
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Recent advances in deep neural networks have been developed via architecture search for stronger representational power. In this work, we focus on the effect of attention in general deep neural networks. We propose a simple and effective attention module, named Bottleneck Attention Module (BAM), that can be integrated with any feed-forward convolutional neural networks. Our module infers an attention map along two separate pathways, channel and spatial. We place our module at each bottleneck of models where the downsampling of feature maps occurs. Our module constructs a hierarchical attention at bottlenecks with a number of parameters and it is trainable in an end-to-end manner jointly with any feed-forward models. We validate our BAM through extensive experiments on CIFAR-100, ImageNet-1K, VOC 2007 and MS COCO benchmarks. Our experiments show consistent improvement in classification and detection performances with various models, demonstrating the wide applicability of BAM. The code and models will be publicly available.

* Accepted to BMVC 2018 (oral)
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We present a unified framework to predict tumor proliferation scores from breast histopathology whole slide images. Our system offers a fully automated solution to predicting both a molecular data-based, and a mitosis counting-based tumor proliferation score. The framework integrates three modules, each fine-tuned to maximize the overall performance: An image processing component for handling whole slide images, a deep learning based mitosis detection network, and a proliferation scores prediction module. We have achieved 0.567 quadratic weighted Cohen's kappa in mitosis counting-based score prediction and 0.652 F1-score in mitosis detection. On Spearman's correlation coefficient, which evaluates predictive accuracy on the molecular data based score, the system obtained 0.6171. Our approach won first place in all of the three tasks in Tumor Proliferation Assessment Challenge 2016 which is MICCAI grand challenge.

* Accepted to the 3rd Workshop on Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis (DLMIA 2017), MICCAI 2017
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A rank-$r$ matrix $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$ can be written as a product $U V^\top$, where $U \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times r}$ and $V \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times r}$. One could exploit this observation in optimization: e.g., consider the minimization of a convex function $f(X)$ over rank-$r$ matrices, where the set of rank-$r$ matrices is modeled via the factorization $UV^\top$. Though such parameterization reduces the number of variables, and is more computationally efficient (of particular interest is the case $r \ll \min\{m, n\}$), it comes at a cost: $f(UV^\top)$ becomes a non-convex function w.r.t. $U$ and $V$. We study such parameterization for optimization of generic convex objectives $f$, and focus on first-order, gradient descent algorithmic solutions. We propose the Bi-Factored Gradient Descent (BFGD) algorithm, an efficient first-order method that operates on the $U, V$ factors. We show that when $f$ is (restricted) smooth, BFGD has local sublinear convergence, and linear convergence when $f$ is both (restricted) smooth and (restricted) strongly convex. For several key applications, we provide simple and efficient initialization schemes that provide approximate solutions good enough for the above convergence results to hold.

* 45 pages
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We consider the non-square matrix sensing problem, under restricted isometry property (RIP) assumptions. We focus on the non-convex formulation, where any rank-$r$ matrix $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$ is represented as $UV^\top$, where $U \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times r}$ and $V \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times r}$. In this paper, we complement recent findings on the non-convex geometry of the analogous PSD setting [5], and show that matrix factorization does not introduce any spurious local minima, under RIP.

* 14 pages, no figures
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We present a simple yet effective prediction module for a one-stage detector. The main process is conducted in a coarse-to-fine manner. First, the module roughly adjusts the default boxes to well capture the extent of target objects in an image. Second, given the adjusted boxes, the module aligns the receptive field of the convolution filters accordingly, not requiring any embedding layers. Both steps build a propose-and-attend mechanism, mimicking two-stage detectors in a highly efficient manner. To verify its effectiveness, we apply the proposed module to a basic one-stage detector SSD. Our final model achieves an accuracy comparable to that of state-of-the-art detectors while using a fraction of their model parameters and computational overheads. Moreover, we found that the proposed module has two strong applications. 1) The module can be successfully integrated into a lightweight backbone, further pushing the efficiency of the one-stage detector. 2) The module also allows train-from-scratch without relying on any sophisticated base networks as previous methods do.

* 8 pages, 2 figures, 7 tables
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We propose a novel feed-forward network for video inpainting. We use a set of sampled video frames as the reference to take visible contents to fill the hole of a target frame. Our video inpainting network consists of two stages. The first stage is an alignment module that uses computed homographies between the reference frames and the target frame. The visible patches are then aggregated based on the frame similarity to fill in the target holes roughly. The second stage is a non-local attention module that matches the generated patches with known reference patches (in space and time) to refine the previous global alignment stage. Both stages consist of large spatial-temporal window size for the reference and thus enable modeling long-range correlations between distant information and the hole regions. Therefore, even challenging scenes with large or slowly moving holes can be handled, which have been hardly modeled by existing flow-based approach. Our network is also designed with a recurrent propagation stream to encourage temporal consistency in video results. Experiments on video object removal demonstrate that our method inpaints the holes with globally and locally coherent contents.

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Energy and resource efficient training of DNNs will greatly extend the applications of deep learning. However, there are three major obstacles which mandate accurate calculation in high precision. In this paper, we tackle two of them related to the loss of gradients during parameter update and backpropagation through a softmax nonlinearity layer in low precision training. We implemented SGD with Kahan summation by employing an additional parameter to virtually extend the bit-width of the parameters for a reliable parameter update. We also proposed a simple guideline to help select the appropriate bit-width for the last FC layer followed by a softmax nonlinearity layer. It determines the lower bound of the required bit-width based on the class size of the dataset. Extensive experiments on various network architectures and benchmarks verifies the effectiveness of the proposed technique for low precision training.

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We study the projected gradient descent method on low-rank matrix problems with a strongly convex objective. We use the Burer-Monteiro factorization approach to implicitly enforce low-rankness; such factorization introduces non-convexity in the objective. We focus on constraint sets that include both positive semi-definite (PSD) constraints and specific matrix norm-constraints. Such criteria appear in quantum state tomography and phase retrieval applications. We show that non-convex projected gradient descent favors local linear convergence in the factored space. We build our theory on a novel descent lemma, that non-trivially extends recent results on the unconstrained problem. The resulting algorithm is Projected Factored Gradient Descent, abbreviated as ProjFGD, and shows superior performance compared to state of the art on quantum state tomography and sparse phase retrieval applications.

* 28 pages
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In this paper we consider the collaborative ranking setting: a pool of users each provides a small number of pairwise preferences between $d$ possible items; from these we need to predict preferences of the users for items they have not yet seen. We do so by fitting a rank $r$ score matrix to the pairwise data, and provide two main contributions: (a) we show that an algorithm based on convex optimization provides good generalization guarantees once each user provides as few as $O(r\log^2 d)$ pairwise comparisons -- essentially matching the sample complexity required in the related matrix completion setting (which uses actual numerical as opposed to pairwise information), and (b) we develop a large-scale non-convex implementation, which we call AltSVM, that trains a factored form of the matrix via alternating minimization (which we show reduces to alternating SVM problems), and scales and parallelizes very well to large problem settings. It also outperforms common baselines on many moderately large popular collaborative filtering datasets in both NDCG and in other measures of ranking performance.

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Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been emerging as a promising method for relational representation including recommender systems. However, various challenging issues of social graphs hinder the practical usage of GNNs for social recommendation, such as their complex noisy connections and high heterogeneity. The oversmoothing of GNNs is an obstacle of GNN-based social recommendation as well. Here we propose a new graph embedding method Heterogeneous Graph Propagation (HGP) to tackle these issues. HGP uses a group-user-item tripartite graph as input to reduce the number of edges and the complexity of paths in a social graph. To solve the oversmoothing issue, HGP embeds nodes under a personalized PageRank based propagation scheme, separately for group-user graph and user-item graph. Node embeddings from each graph are integrated using an attention mechanism. We evaluate our HGP on a large-scale real-world dataset consisting of 1,645,279 nodes and 4,711,208 edges. The experimental results show that HGP outperforms several baselines in terms of AUC and F1-score metrics.

* 6 pages, accepted for RecSys 2019 LBR Track
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Tumor proliferation is an important biomarker indicative of the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Assessment of tumor proliferation in a clinical setting is highly subjective and labor-intensive task. Previous efforts to automate tumor proliferation assessment by image analysis only focused on mitosis detection in predefined tumor regions. However, in a real-world scenario, automatic mitosis detection should be performed in whole-slide images (WSIs) and an automatic method should be able to produce a tumor proliferation score given a WSI as input. To address this, we organized the TUmor Proliferation Assessment Challenge 2016 (TUPAC16) on prediction of tumor proliferation scores from WSIs. The challenge dataset consisted of 500 training and 321 testing breast cancer histopathology WSIs. In order to ensure fair and independent evaluation, only the ground truth for the training dataset was provided to the challenge participants. The first task of the challenge was to predict mitotic scores, i.e., to reproduce the manual method of assessing tumor proliferation by a pathologist. The second task was to predict the gene expression based PAM50 proliferation scores from the WSI. The best performing automatic method for the first task achieved a quadratic-weighted Cohen's kappa score of $\kappa$ = 0.567, 95% CI [0.464, 0.671] between the predicted scores and the ground truth. For the second task, the predictions of the top method had a Spearman's correlation coefficient of r = 0.617, 95% CI [0.581 0.651] with the ground truth. This was the first study that investigated tumor proliferation assessment from WSIs. The achieved results are promising given the difficulty of the tasks and weakly-labelled nature of the ground truth. However, further research is needed to improve the practical utility of image analysis methods for this task.

* Overview paper of the TUPAC16 challenge: http://tupac.tue-image.nl/
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