Research papers and code for "Seunghak Yu":
Dialog is an effective way to exchange information, but subtle details and nuances are extremely important. While significant progress has paved a path to address visual dialog with algorithms, details and nuances remain a challenge. Attention mechanisms have demonstrated compelling results to extract details in visual question answering and also provide a convincing framework for visual dialog due to their interpretability and effectiveness. However, the many data utilities that accompany visual dialog challenge existing attention techniques. We address this issue and develop a general attention mechanism for visual dialog which operates on any number of data utilities. To this end, we design a factor graph based attention mechanism which combines any number of utility representations. We illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the challenging and recently introduced VisDial datasets, outperforming recent state-of-the-art methods by 1.1% for VisDial0.9 and by 2% for VisDial1.0 on MRR. Our ensemble model improved the MRR score on VisDial1.0 by more than 6%.

* Accepted to CVPR 2019
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Language models for agglutinative languages have always been hindered in past due to myriad of agglutinations possible to any given word through various affixes. We propose a method to diminish the problem of out-of-vocabulary words by introducing an embedding derived from syllables and morphemes which leverages the agglutinative property. Our model outperforms character-level embedding in perplexity by 16.87 with 9.50M parameters. Proposed method achieves state of the art performance over existing input prediction methods in terms of Key Stroke Saving and has been commercialized.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2017 workshop on Subword and Character level models in NLP (SCLeM)
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Recent developments in deep learning with application to language modeling have led to success in tasks of text processing, summarizing and machine translation. However, deploying huge language models for mobile device such as on-device keyboards poses computation as a bottle-neck due to their puny computation capacities. In this work we propose an embedded deep learning based word prediction method that optimizes run-time memory and also provides a real time prediction environment. Our model size is 7.40MB and has average prediction time of 6.47 ms. We improve over the existing methods for word prediction in terms of key stroke savings and word prediction rate.

* 5 pages, 3 figures, EMNLP 2017 submitted
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Standard deep reinforcement learning methods such as Deep Q-Networks (DQN) for multiple tasks (domains) face scalability problems. We propose a method for multi-domain dialogue policy learning---termed NDQN, and apply it to an information-seeking spoken dialogue system in the domains of restaurants and hotels. Experimental results comparing DQN (baseline) versus NDQN (proposed) using simulations report that our proposed method exhibits better scalability and is promising for optimising the behaviour of multi-domain dialogue systems.

* NIPS Workshop on Deep Reinforcement Learning, 2016
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Trainable chatbots that exhibit fluent and human-like conversations remain a big challenge in artificial intelligence. Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is promising for addressing this challenge, but its successful application remains an open question. This article describes a novel ensemble-based approach applied to value-based DRL chatbots, which use finite action sets as a form of meaning representation. In our approach, while dialogue actions are derived from sentence clustering, the training datasets in our ensemble are derived from dialogue clustering. The latter aim to induce specialised agents that learn to interact in a particular style. In order to facilitate neural chatbot training using our proposed approach, we assume dialogue data in raw text only -- without any manually-labelled data. Experimental results using chitchat data reveal that (1) near human-like dialogue policies can be induced, (2) generalisation to unseen data is a difficult problem, and (3) training an ensemble of chatbot agents is essential for improved performance over using a single agent. In addition to evaluations using held-out data, our results are further supported by a human evaluation that rated dialogues in terms of fluency, engagingness and consistency -- which revealed that our proposed dialogue rewards strongly correlate with human judgements.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1908.10331
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What is a systematic way to efficiently apply a wide spectrum of advanced ML programs to industrial scale problems, using Big Models (up to 100s of billions of parameters) on Big Data (up to terabytes or petabytes)? Modern parallelization strategies employ fine-grained operations and scheduling beyond the classic bulk-synchronous processing paradigm popularized by MapReduce, or even specialized graph-based execution that relies on graph representations of ML programs. The variety of approaches tends to pull systems and algorithms design in different directions, and it remains difficult to find a universal platform applicable to a wide range of ML programs at scale. We propose a general-purpose framework that systematically addresses data- and model-parallel challenges in large-scale ML, by observing that many ML programs are fundamentally optimization-centric and admit error-tolerant, iterative-convergent algorithmic solutions. This presents unique opportunities for an integrative system design, such as bounded-error network synchronization and dynamic scheduling based on ML program structure. We demonstrate the efficacy of these system designs versus well-known implementations of modern ML algorithms, allowing ML programs to run in much less time and at considerably larger model sizes, even on modestly-sized compute clusters.

* 15 pages, 10 figures, final version in KDD 2015 under the same title
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Training large machine learning (ML) models with many variables or parameters can take a long time if one employs sequential procedures even with stochastic updates. A natural solution is to turn to distributed computing on a cluster; however, naive, unstructured parallelization of ML algorithms does not usually lead to a proportional speedup and can even result in divergence, because dependencies between model elements can attenuate the computational gains from parallelization and compromise correctness of inference. Recent efforts toward this issue have benefited from exploiting the static, a priori block structures residing in ML algorithms. In this paper, we take this path further by exploring the dynamic block structures and workloads therein present during ML program execution, which offers new opportunities for improving convergence, correctness, and load balancing in distributed ML. We propose and showcase a general-purpose scheduler, STRADS, for coordinating distributed updates in ML algorithms, which harnesses the aforementioned opportunities in a systematic way. We provide theoretical guarantees for our scheduler, and demonstrate its efficacy versus static block structures on Lasso and Matrix Factorization.

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When training large machine learning models with many variables or parameters, a single machine is often inadequate since the model may be too large to fit in memory, while training can take a long time even with stochastic updates. A natural recourse is to turn to distributed cluster computing, in order to harness additional memory and processors. However, naive, unstructured parallelization of ML algorithms can make inefficient use of distributed memory, while failing to obtain proportional convergence speedups - or can even result in divergence. We develop a framework of primitives for dynamic model-parallelism, STRADS, in order to explore partitioning and update scheduling of model variables in distributed ML algorithms - thus improving their memory efficiency while presenting new opportunities to speed up convergence without compromising inference correctness. We demonstrate the efficacy of model-parallel algorithms implemented in STRADS versus popular implementations for Topic Modeling, Matrix Factorization and Lasso.

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In this paper, we propose a unified end-to-end trainable multi-task network that jointly handles lane and road marking detection and recognition that is guided by a vanishing point under adverse weather conditions. We tackle rainy and low illumination conditions, which have not been extensively studied until now due to clear challenges. For example, images taken under rainy days are subject to low illumination, while wet roads cause light reflection and distort the appearance of lane and road markings. At night, color distortion occurs under limited illumination. As a result, no benchmark dataset exists and only a few developed algorithms work under poor weather conditions. To address this shortcoming, we build up a lane and road marking benchmark which consists of about 20,000 images with 17 lane and road marking classes under four different scenarios: no rain, rain, heavy rain, and night. We train and evaluate several versions of the proposed multi-task network and validate the importance of each task. The resulting approach, VPGNet, can detect and classify lanes and road markings, and predict a vanishing point with a single forward pass. Experimental results show that our approach achieves high accuracy and robustness under various conditions in real-time (20 fps). The benchmark and the VPGNet model will be publicly available.

* To appear on ICCV 2017
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This paper presents a vision system and a depth processing algorithm for DRC-HUBO+, the winner of the DRC finals 2015. Our system is designed to reliably capture 3D information of a scene and objects robust to challenging environment conditions. We also propose a depth-map upsampling method that produces an outliers-free depth map by explicitly handling depth outliers. Our system is suitable for an interactive robot with real-world that requires accurate object detection and pose estimation. We evaluate our depth processing algorithm over state-of-the-art algorithms on several synthetic and real-world datasets.

* submitted in ICRA 2016
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