Models, code, and papers for "Shankar Kumar":

Multilingual Open Relation Extraction Using Cross-lingual Projection

Jun 05, 2015
Manaal Faruqui, Shankar Kumar

Open domain relation extraction systems identify relation and argument phrases in a sentence without relying on any underlying schema. However, current state-of-the-art relation extraction systems are available only for English because of their heavy reliance on linguistic tools such as part-of-speech taggers and dependency parsers. We present a cross-lingual annotation projection method for language independent relation extraction. We evaluate our method on a manually annotated test set and present results on three typologically different languages. We release these manual annotations and extracted relations in 61 languages from Wikipedia.

* Proceedings of NAACL 2015 

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Neural Language Modeling with Visual Features

Mar 07, 2019
Antonios Anastasopoulos, Shankar Kumar, Hank Liao

Multimodal language models attempt to incorporate non-linguistic features for the language modeling task. In this work, we extend a standard recurrent neural network (RNN) language model with features derived from videos. We train our models on data that is two orders-of-magnitude bigger than datasets used in prior work. We perform a thorough exploration of model architectures for combining visual and text features. Our experiments on two corpora (YouCookII and 20bn-something-something-v2) show that the best performing architecture consists of middle fusion of visual and text features, yielding over 25% relative improvement in perplexity. We report analysis that provides insights into why our multimodal language model improves upon a standard RNN language model.


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Hardening Quantum Machine Learning Against Adversaries

Nov 17, 2017
Nathan Wiebe, Ram Shankar Siva Kumar

Security for machine learning has begun to become a serious issue for present day applications. An important question remaining is whether emerging quantum technologies will help or hinder the security of machine learning. Here we discuss a number of ways that quantum information can be used to help make quantum classifiers more secure or private. In particular, we demonstrate a form of robust principal component analysis that, under some circumstances, can provide an exponential speedup relative to robust methods used at present. To demonstrate this approach we introduce a linear combinations of unitaries Hamiltonian simulation method that we show functions when given an imprecise Hamiltonian oracle, which may be of independent interest. We also introduce a new quantum approach for bagging and boosting that can use quantum superposition over the classifiers or splits of the training set to aggregate over many more models than would be possible classically. Finally, we provide a private form of $k$--means clustering that can be used to prevent an all powerful adversary from learning more than a small fraction of a bit from any user. These examples show the role that quantum technologies can play in the security of ML and vice versa. This illustrates that quantum computing can provide useful advantages to machine learning apart from speedups.


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RaD-VIO: Rangefinder-aided Downward Visual-Inertial Odometry

Oct 19, 2018
Bo Fu, Kumar Shaurya Shankar, Nathan Michael

State-of-the-art forward facing monocular visual-inertial odometry algorithms are often brittle in practice, especially whilst dealing with initialisation and motion in directions that render the state unobservable. In such cases having a reliable complementary odometry algorithm enables robust and resilient flight. Using the common local planarity assumption, we present a fast, dense, and direct frame-to-frame visual-inertial odometry algorithm for downward facing cameras that minimises a joint cost function involving a homography based photometric cost and an IMU regularisation term. Via extensive evaluation in a variety of scenarios we demonstrate superior performance than existing state-of-the-art downward facing odometry algorithms for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs).

* Submitted to ICRA 2019 

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Fast Monte-Carlo Localization on Aerial Vehicles using Approximate Continuous Belief Representations

Mar 29, 2018
Aditya Dhawale, Kumar Shaurya Shankar, Nathan Michael

Size, weight, and power constrained platforms impose constraints on computational resources that introduce unique challenges in implementing localization algorithms. We present a framework to perform fast localization on such platforms enabled by the compressive capabilities of Gaussian Mixture Model representations of point cloud data. Given raw structural data from a depth sensor and pitch and roll estimates from an on-board attitude reference system, a multi-hypothesis particle filter localizes the vehicle by exploiting the likelihood of the data originating from the mixture model. We demonstrate analysis of this likelihood in the vicinity of the ground truth pose and detail its utilization in a particle filter-based vehicle localization strategy, and later present results of real-time implementations on a desktop system and an off-the-shelf embedded platform that outperform localization results from running a state-of-the-art algorithm on the same environment.


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Practical Machine Learning for Cloud Intrusion Detection: Challenges and the Way Forward

Sep 20, 2017
Ram Shankar Siva Kumar, Andrew Wicker, Matt Swann

Operationalizing machine learning based security detections is extremely challenging, especially in a continuously evolving cloud environment. Conventional anomaly detection does not produce satisfactory results for analysts that are investigating security incidents in the cloud. Model evaluation alone presents its own set of problems due to a lack of benchmark datasets. When deploying these detections, we must deal with model compliance, localization, and data silo issues, among many others. We pose the problem of "attack disruption" as a way forward in the security data science space. In this paper, we describe the framework, challenges, and open questions surrounding the successful operationalization of machine learning based security detections in a cloud environment and provide some insights on how we have addressed them.

* 10 pages, 9 figures 

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NN-grams: Unifying neural network and n-gram language models for Speech Recognition

Jun 23, 2016
Babak Damavandi, Shankar Kumar, Noam Shazeer, Antoine Bruguier

We present NN-grams, a novel, hybrid language model integrating n-grams and neural networks (NN) for speech recognition. The model takes as input both word histories as well as n-gram counts. Thus, it combines the memorization capacity and scalability of an n-gram model with the generalization ability of neural networks. We report experiments where the model is trained on 26B words. NN-grams are efficient at run-time since they do not include an output soft-max layer. The model is trained using noise contrastive estimation (NCE), an approach that transforms the estimation problem of neural networks into one of binary classification between data samples and noise samples. We present results with noise samples derived from either an n-gram distribution or from speech recognition lattices. NN-grams outperforms an n-gram model on an Italian speech recognition dictation task.

* To be published in the proceedings of INTERSPEECH 2016 

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Weakly Supervised Grammatical Error Correction using Iterative Decoding

Oct 31, 2018
Jared Lichtarge, Christopher Alberti, Shankar Kumar, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar

We describe an approach to Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) that is effective at making use of models trained on large amounts of weakly supervised bitext. We train the Transformer sequence-to-sequence model on 4B tokens of Wikipedia revisions and employ an iterative decoding strategy that is tailored to the loosely-supervised nature of the Wikipedia training corpus. Finetuning on the Lang-8 corpus and ensembling yields an F0.5 of 58.3 on the CoNLL'14 benchmark and a GLEU of 62.4 on JFLEG. The combination of weakly supervised training and iterative decoding obtains an F0.5 of 48.2 on CoNLL'14 even without using any labeled GEC data.


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Large Scale Language Modeling in Automatic Speech Recognition

Oct 31, 2012
Ciprian Chelba, Dan Bikel, Maria Shugrina, Patrick Nguyen, Shankar Kumar

Large language models have been proven quite beneficial for a variety of automatic speech recognition tasks in Google. We summarize results on Voice Search and a few YouTube speech transcription tasks to highlight the impact that one can expect from increasing both the amount of training data, and the size of the language model estimated from such data. Depending on the task, availability and amount of training data used, language model size and amount of work and care put into integrating them in the lattice rescoring step we observe reductions in word error rate between 6% and 10% relative, for systems on a wide range of operating points between 17% and 52% word error rate.


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Law and Adversarial Machine Learning

Oct 26, 2018
Ram Shankar Siva Kumar, David R. O'Brien, Kendra Albert, Salome Vilojen

When machine learning systems fail because of adversarial manipulation, how should society expect the law to respond? Through scenarios grounded in adversarial ML literature, we explore how some aspects of computer crime, copyright, and tort law interface with perturbation, poisoning, model stealing and model inversion attacks to show how some attacks are more likely to result in liability than others. We end with a call for action to ML researchers to invest in transparent benchmarks of attacks and defenses; architect ML systems with forensics in mind and finally, think more about adversarial machine learning in the context of civil liberties. The paper is targeted towards ML researchers who have no legal background.

* Corrected typos, Added references. 4 pages, submitted to NIPS 2018 Workshop on Security in Machine Learning 

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Corpora Generation for Grammatical Error Correction

Apr 10, 2019
Jared Lichtarge, Chris Alberti, Shankar Kumar, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Simon Tong

Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) has been recently modeled using the sequence-to-sequence framework. However, unlike sequence transduction problems such as machine translation, GEC suffers from the lack of plentiful parallel data. We describe two approaches for generating large parallel datasets for GEC using publicly available Wikipedia data. The first method extracts source-target pairs from Wikipedia edit histories with minimal filtration heuristics, while the second method introduces noise into Wikipedia sentences via round-trip translation through bridge languages. Both strategies yield similar sized parallel corpora containing around 4B tokens. We employ an iterative decoding strategy that is tailored to the loosely supervised nature of our constructed corpora. We demonstrate that neural GEC models trained using either type of corpora give similar performance. Fine-tuning these models on the Lang-8 corpus and ensembling allows us to surpass the state of the art on both the CoNLL-2014 benchmark and the JFLEG task. We provide systematic analysis that compares the two approaches to data generation and highlights the effectiveness of ensembling.

* Accepted at NAACL 2019. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1811.01710 

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Lattice Rescoring Strategies for Long Short Term Memory Language Models in Speech Recognition

Nov 15, 2017
Shankar Kumar, Michael Nirschl, Daniel Holtmann-Rice, Hank Liao, Ananda Theertha Suresh, Felix Yu

Recurrent neural network (RNN) language models (LMs) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) LMs, a variant of RNN LMs, have been shown to outperform traditional N-gram LMs on speech recognition tasks. However, these models are computationally more expensive than N-gram LMs for decoding, and thus, challenging to integrate into speech recognizers. Recent research has proposed the use of lattice-rescoring algorithms using RNNLMs and LSTMLMs as an efficient strategy to integrate these models into a speech recognition system. In this paper, we evaluate existing lattice rescoring algorithms along with new variants on a YouTube speech recognition task. Lattice rescoring using LSTMLMs reduces the word error rate (WER) for this task by 8\% relative to the WER obtained using an N-gram LM.

* Proceedings of ASRU 2017 
* Accepted at ASRU 2017 

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LipReading with 3D-2D-CNN BLSTM-HMM and word-CTC models

Jun 25, 2019
Dilip Kumar Margam, Rohith Aralikatti, Tanay Sharma, Abhinav Thanda, Pujitha A K, Sharad Roy, Shankar M Venkatesan

In recent years, deep learning based machine lipreading has gained prominence. To this end, several architectures such as LipNet, LCANet and others have been proposed which perform extremely well compared to traditional lipreading DNN-HMM hybrid systems trained on DCT features. In this work, we propose a simpler architecture of 3D-2D-CNN-BLSTM network with a bottleneck layer. We also present analysis of two different approaches for lipreading on this architecture. In the first approach, 3D-2D-CNN-BLSTM network is trained with CTC loss on characters (ch-CTC). Then BLSTM-HMM model is trained on bottleneck lip features (extracted from 3D-2D-CNN-BLSTM ch-CTC network) in a traditional ASR training pipeline. In the second approach, same 3D-2D-CNN-BLSTM network is trained with CTC loss on word labels (w-CTC). The first approach shows that bottleneck features perform better compared to DCT features. Using the second approach on Grid corpus' seen speaker test set, we report $1.3\%$ WER - a $55\%$ improvement relative to LCANet. On unseen speaker test set we report $8.6\%$ WER which is $24.5\%$ improvement relative to LipNet. We also verify the method on a second dataset of $81$ speakers which we collected. Finally, we also discuss the effect of feature duplication on BLSTM-HMM model performance.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2019 

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Learning Monocular Reactive UAV Control in Cluttered Natural Environments

Nov 07, 2012
Stephane Ross, Narek Melik-Barkhudarov, Kumar Shaurya Shankar, Andreas Wendel, Debadeepta Dey, J. Andrew Bagnell, Martial Hebert

Autonomous navigation for large Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is fairly straight-forward, as expensive sensors and monitoring devices can be employed. In contrast, obstacle avoidance remains a challenging task for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) which operate at low altitude in cluttered environments. Unlike large vehicles, MAVs can only carry very light sensors, such as cameras, making autonomous navigation through obstacles much more challenging. In this paper, we describe a system that navigates a small quadrotor helicopter autonomously at low altitude through natural forest environments. Using only a single cheap camera to perceive the environment, we are able to maintain a constant velocity of up to 1.5m/s. Given a small set of human pilot demonstrations, we use recent state-of-the-art imitation learning techniques to train a controller that can avoid trees by adapting the MAVs heading. We demonstrate the performance of our system in a more controlled environment indoors, and in real natural forest environments outdoors.

* 8 pages, 10 figures 

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Vision and Learning for Deliberative Monocular Cluttered Flight

Nov 24, 2014
Debadeepta Dey, Kumar Shaurya Shankar, Sam Zeng, Rupesh Mehta, M. Talha Agcayazi, Christopher Eriksen, Shreyansh Daftry, Martial Hebert, J. Andrew Bagnell

Cameras provide a rich source of information while being passive, cheap and lightweight for small and medium Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this work we present the first implementation of receding horizon control, which is widely used in ground vehicles, with monocular vision as the only sensing mode for autonomous UAV flight in dense clutter. We make it feasible on UAVs via a number of contributions: novel coupling of perception and control via relevant and diverse, multiple interpretations of the scene around the robot, leveraging recent advances in machine learning to showcase anytime budgeted cost-sensitive feature selection, and fast non-linear regression for monocular depth prediction. We empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our novel pipeline via real world experiments of more than 2 kms through dense trees with a quadrotor built from off-the-shelf parts. Moreover our pipeline is designed to combine information from other modalities like stereo and lidar as well if available.


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No Need for a Lexicon? Evaluating the Value of the Pronunciation Lexica in End-to-End Models

Dec 05, 2017
Tara N. Sainath, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Shankar Kumar, Seungji Lee, Anjuli Kannan, David Rybach, Vlad Schogol, Patrick Nguyen, Bo Li, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, Chung-Cheng Chiu

For decades, context-dependent phonemes have been the dominant sub-word unit for conventional acoustic modeling systems. This status quo has begun to be challenged recently by end-to-end models which seek to combine acoustic, pronunciation, and language model components into a single neural network. Such systems, which typically predict graphemes or words, simplify the recognition process since they remove the need for a separate expert-curated pronunciation lexicon to map from phoneme-based units to words. However, there has been little previous work comparing phoneme-based versus grapheme-based sub-word units in the end-to-end modeling framework, to determine whether the gains from such approaches are primarily due to the new probabilistic model, or from the joint learning of the various components with grapheme-based units. In this work, we conduct detailed experiments which are aimed at quantifying the value of phoneme-based pronunciation lexica in the context of end-to-end models. We examine phoneme-based end-to-end models, which are contrasted against grapheme-based ones on a large vocabulary English Voice-search task, where we find that graphemes do indeed outperform phonemes. We also compare grapheme and phoneme-based approaches on a multi-dialect English task, which once again confirm the superiority of graphemes, greatly simplifying the system for recognizing multiple dialects.


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Lingvo: a Modular and Scalable Framework for Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling

Feb 21, 2019
Jonathan Shen, Patrick Nguyen, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, Mia X. Chen, Ye Jia, Anjuli Kannan, Tara Sainath, Yuan Cao, Chung-Cheng Chiu, Yanzhang He, Jan Chorowski, Smit Hinsu, Stella Laurenzo, James Qin, Orhan Firat, Wolfgang Macherey, Suyog Gupta, Ankur Bapna, Shuyuan Zhang, Ruoming Pang, Ron J. Weiss, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Qiao Liang, Benoit Jacob, Bowen Liang, HyoukJoong Lee, Ciprian Chelba, Sébastien Jean, Bo Li, Melvin Johnson, Rohan Anil, Rajat Tibrewal, Xiaobing Liu, Akiko Eriguchi, Navdeep Jaitly, Naveen Ari, Colin Cherry, Parisa Haghani, Otavio Good, Youlong Cheng, Raziel Alvarez, Isaac Caswell, Wei-Ning Hsu, Zongheng Yang, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Ekaterina Gonina, Katrin Tomanek, Ben Vanik, Zelin Wu, Llion Jones, Mike Schuster, Yanping Huang, Dehao Chen, Kazuki Irie, George Foster, John Richardson, Klaus Macherey, Antoine Bruguier, Heiga Zen, Colin Raffel, Shankar Kumar, Kanishka Rao, David Rybach, Matthew Murray, Vijayaditya Peddinti, Maxim Krikun, Michiel A. U. Bacchiani, Thomas B. Jablin, Rob Suderman, Ian Williams, Benjamin Lee, Deepti Bhatia, Justin Carlson, Semih Yavuz, Yu Zhang, Ian McGraw, Max Galkin, Qi Ge, Golan Pundak, Chad Whipkey, Todd Wang, Uri Alon, Dmitry Lepikhin, Ye Tian, Sara Sabour, William Chan, Shubham Toshniwal, Baohua Liao, Michael Nirschl, Pat Rondon

Lingvo is a Tensorflow framework offering a complete solution for collaborative deep learning research, with a particular focus towards sequence-to-sequence models. Lingvo models are composed of modular building blocks that are flexible and easily extensible, and experiment configurations are centralized and highly customizable. Distributed training and quantized inference are supported directly within the framework, and it contains existing implementations of a large number of utilities, helper functions, and the newest research ideas. Lingvo has been used in collaboration by dozens of researchers in more than 20 papers over the last two years. This document outlines the underlying design of Lingvo and serves as an introduction to the various pieces of the framework, while also offering examples of advanced features that showcase the capabilities of the framework.


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Detection of Microcalcification in Mammograms Using Wavelet Transform and Fuzzy Shell Clustering

Feb 10, 2010
T. Balakumaran, I. L. A. Vennila, C. Gowri Shankar

Microcalcifications in mammogram have been mainly targeted as a reliable earliest sign of breast cancer and their early detection is vital to improve its prognosis. Since their size is very small and may be easily overlooked by the examining radiologist, computer-based detection output can assist the radiologist to improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for detecting microcalcification in mammogram. The proposed microcalcification detection algorithm involves mammogram quality enhancement using multirresolution analysis based on the dyadic wavelet transform and microcalcification detection by fuzzy shell clustering. It may be possible to detect nodular components such as microcalcification accurately by introducing shape information. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for microcalcification detection is confirmed by experimental results.

* International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 121-125, January 2010, USA 
* IEEE format, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS January 2010, ISSN 1947 5500, http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ 

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The Fast Haar Wavelet Transform for Signal & Image Processing

Feb 10, 2010
V. Ashok, T. Balakumaran, C. Gowrishankar, I. L. A. Vennila, A. Nirmal kumar

A method for the design of Fast Haar wavelet for signal processing and image processing has been proposed. In the proposed work, the analysis bank and synthesis bank of Haar wavelet is modified by using polyphase structure. Finally, the Fast Haar wavelet was designed and it satisfies alias free and perfect reconstruction condition. Computational time and computational complexity is reduced in Fast Haar wavelet transform.

* International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 126-130, January 2010, USA 
* IEEE format, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS January 2010, ISSN 1947 5500, http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ 

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The Reach-Avoid Problem for Constant-Rate Multi-Mode Systems

Jul 12, 2017
Shankara Narayanan Krishna, Aviral Kumar, Fabio Somenzi, Behrouz Touri, Ashutosh Trivedi

A constant-rate multi-mode system is a hybrid system that can switch freely among a finite set of modes, and whose dynamics is specified by a finite number of real-valued variables with mode-dependent constant rates. Alur, Wojtczak, and Trivedi have shown that reachability problems for constant-rate multi-mode systems for open and convex safety sets can be solved in polynomial time. In this paper, we study the reachability problem for non-convex state spaces and show that this problem is in general undecidable. We recover decidability by making certain assumptions about the safety set. We present a new algorithm to solve this problem and compare its performance with the popular sampling based algorithm rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) as implemented in the Open Motion Planning Library (OMPL).

* 26 pages 

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