Models, code, and papers for "Shengyu Zhang":

Online Clustering of Contextual Cascading Bandits

Nov 23, 2017
Shuai Li, Shengyu Zhang

We consider a new setting of online clustering of contextual cascading bandits, an online learning problem where the underlying cluster structure over users is unknown and needs to be learned from a random prefix feedback. More precisely, a learning agent recommends an ordered list of items to a user, who checks the list and stops at the first satisfactory item, if any. We propose an algorithm of CLUB-cascade for this setting and prove an $n$-step regret bound of order $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$. Previous work corresponds to the degenerate case of only one cluster, and our general regret bound in this special case also significantly improves theirs. We conduct experiments on both synthetic and real data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm and the advantage of incorporating online clustering method.


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Networked Fairness in Cake Cutting

Jul 07, 2017
Xiaohui Bei, Youming Qiao, Shengyu Zhang

We introduce a graphical framework for fair division in cake cutting, where comparisons between agents are limited by an underlying network structure. We generalize the classical fairness notions of envy-freeness and proportionality to this graphical setting. Given a simple undirected graph G, an allocation is envy-free on G if no agent envies any of her neighbor's share, and is proportional on G if every agent values her own share no less than the average among her neighbors, with respect to her own measure. These generalizations open new research directions in developing simple and efficient algorithms that can produce fair allocations under specific graph structures. On the algorithmic frontier, we first propose a moving-knife algorithm that outputs an envy-free allocation on trees. The algorithm is significantly simpler than the discrete and bounded envy-free algorithm recently designed by Aziz and Mackenzie for complete graphs. Next, we give a discrete and bounded algorithm for computing a proportional allocation on descendant graphs, a class of graphs by taking a rooted tree and connecting all its ancestor-descendant pairs.

* A preliminary version of this paper appears at IJCAI 2017 

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On the Complexity of Trial and Error

Apr 18, 2013
Xiaohui Bei, Ning Chen, Shengyu Zhang

Motivated by certain applications from physics, biochemistry, economics, and computer science, in which the objects under investigation are not accessible because of various limitations, we propose a trial-and-error model to examine algorithmic issues in such situations. Given a search problem with a hidden input, we are asked to find a valid solution, to find which we can propose candidate solutions (trials), and use observed violations (errors), to prepare future proposals. In accordance with our motivating applications, we consider the fairly broad class of constraint satisfaction problems, and assume that errors are signaled by a verification oracle in the format of the index of a violated constraint (with the content of the constraint still hidden). Our discoveries are summarized as follows. On one hand, despite the seemingly very little information provided by the verification oracle, efficient algorithms do exist for a number of important problems. For the Nash, Core, Stable Matching, and SAT problems, the unknown-input versions are as hard as the corresponding known-input versions, up to a factor of polynomial. We further give almost tight bounds on the latter two problems' trial complexities. On the other hand, there are problems whose complexities are substantially increased in the unknown-input model. In particular, no time-efficient algorithms exist (under standard hardness assumptions) for Graph Isomorphism and Group Isomorphism problems. The tools used to achieve these results include order theory, strong ellipsoid method, and some non-standard reductions. Our model investigates the value of information, and our results demonstrate that the lack of input information can introduce various levels of extra difficulty. The model exhibits intimate connections with (and we hope can also serve as a useful supplement to) certain existing learning and complexity theories.


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A Meta Approach to Defend Noisy Labels by the Manifold Regularizer PSDR

Jun 13, 2019
Pengfei Chen, Benben Liao, Guangyong Chen, Shengyu Zhang

Noisy labels are ubiquitous in real-world datasets, which poses a challenge for robustly training deep neural networks (DNNs) since DNNs can easily overfit to the noisy labels. Most recent efforts have been devoted to defending noisy labels by discarding noisy samples from the training set or assigning weights to training samples, where the weight associated with a noisy sample is expected to be small. Thereby, these previous efforts result in a waste of samples, especially those assigned with small weights. The input $x$ is always useful regardless of whether its observed label $y$ is clean. To make full use of all samples, we introduce a manifold regularizer, named as Paired Softmax Divergence Regularization (PSDR), to penalize the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between softmax outputs of similar inputs. In particular, similar inputs can be effectively generated by data augmentation. PSDR can be easily implemented on any type of DNNs to improve the robustness against noisy labels. As empirically demonstrated on benchmark datasets, our PSDR impressively improve state-of-the-art results by a significant margin.

* Correspondence to: Guangyong Chen <gycchen@tencent.com> 

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Understanding and Utilizing Deep Neural Networks Trained with Noisy Labels

May 13, 2019
Pengfei Chen, Benben Liao, Guangyong Chen, Shengyu Zhang

Noisy labels are ubiquitous in real-world datasets, which poses a challenge for robustly training deep neural networks (DNNs) as DNNs usually have the high capacity to memorize the noisy labels. In this paper, we find that the test accuracy can be quantitatively characterized in terms of the noise ratio in datasets. In particular, the test accuracy is a quadratic function of the noise ratio in the case of symmetric noise, which explains the experimental findings previously published. Based on our analysis, we apply cross-validation to randomly split noisy datasets, which identifies most samples that have correct labels. Then we adopt the Co-teaching strategy which takes full advantage of the identified samples to train DNNs robustly against noisy labels. Compared with extensive state-of-the-art methods, our strategy consistently improves the generalization performance of DNNs under both synthetic and real-world training noise.

* Correspondence to: Guangyong Chen <gycchen@tencent.com> 

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Quantum algorithms for feedforward neural networks

Dec 07, 2018
Jonathan Allcock, Chang-Yu Hsieh, Iordanis Kerenidis, Shengyu Zhang

Quantum machine learning has the potential for broad industrial applications, and the development of quantum algorithms for improving the performance of neural networks is of particular interest given the central role they play in machine learning today. In this paper we present quantum algorithms for training and evaluating feedforward neural networks based on the canonical classical feedforward and backpropagation algorithms. Our algorithms rely on an efficient quantum subroutine for approximating the inner products between vectors, and on storing intermediate values in quantum random access memory for fast retrieval at later stages. The running times of our algorithms can be quadratically faster than their classical counterparts, since they depend linearly on the number of neurons in the network, as opposed to the number of edges as in the classical case. This makes our algorithms suited for large-scale, highly-connected networks where the number of edges in the network dominates the classical algorithmic running time.

* 18 pages, 2 figures 

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Utilizing Edge Features in Graph Neural Networks via Variational Information Maximization

Jun 13, 2019
Pengfei Chen, Weiwen Liu, Chang-Yu Hsieh, Guangyong Chen, Shengyu Zhang

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) achieve an impressive performance on structured graphs by recursively updating the representation vector of each node based on its neighbors, during which parameterized transformation matrices should be learned for the node feature updating. However, existing propagation schemes are far from being optimal since they do not fully utilize the relational information between nodes. We propose the information maximizing graph neural networks (IGNN), which maximizes the mutual information between edge states and transform parameters. We reformulate the mutual information as a differentiable objective via a variational approach. We compare our model against several recent variants of GNNs and show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on multiple tasks including quantum chemistry regression on QM9 dataset, generalization capability from QM9 to larger molecular graphs, and prediction of molecular bioactivities relevant for drug discovery. The IGNN model is based on an elegant and fundamental idea in information theory as explained in the main text, and it could be easily generalized beyond the contexts of molecular graphs considered in this work. To encourage more future work in this area, all datasets and codes used in this paper will be released for public access.

* 1. Pengfei Chen and Weiwen Liu have equal contribution. 2. Correspondence to: Guangyong Chen <gycchen@tencent.com> 

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Rethinking the Usage of Batch Normalization and Dropout in the Training of Deep Neural Networks

May 15, 2019
Guangyong Chen, Pengfei Chen, Yujun Shi, Chang-Yu Hsieh, Benben Liao, Shengyu Zhang

In this work, we propose a novel technique to boost training efficiency of a neural network. Our work is based on an excellent idea that whitening the inputs of neural networks can achieve a fast convergence speed. Given the well-known fact that independent components must be whitened, we introduce a novel Independent-Component (IC) layer before each weight layer, whose inputs would be made more independent. However, determining independent components is a computationally intensive task. To overcome this challenge, we propose to implement an IC layer by combining two popular techniques, Batch Normalization and Dropout, in a new manner that we can rigorously prove that Dropout can quadratically reduce the mutual information and linearly reduce the correlation between any pair of neurons with respect to the dropout layer parameter $p$. As demonstrated experimentally, the IC layer consistently outperforms the baseline approaches with more stable training process, faster convergence speed and better convergence limit on CIFAR10/100 and ILSVRC2012 datasets. The implementation of our IC layer makes us rethink the common practices in the design of neural networks. For example, we should not place Batch Normalization before ReLU since the non-negative responses of ReLU will make the weight layer updated in a suboptimal way, and we can achieve better performance by combining Batch Normalization and Dropout together as an IC layer.

* Correspondence to:Benben Liao <bliao@tencent.com> 

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Alchemy: A Quantum Chemistry Dataset for Benchmarking AI Models

Jun 22, 2019
Guangyong Chen, Pengfei Chen, Chang-Yu Hsieh, Chee-Kong Lee, Benben Liao, Renjie Liao, Weiwen Liu, Jiezhong Qiu, Qiming Sun, Jie Tang, Richard Zemel, Shengyu Zhang

We introduce a new molecular dataset, named Alchemy, for developing machine learning models useful in chemistry and material science. As of June 20th 2019, the dataset comprises of 12 quantum mechanical properties of 119,487 organic molecules with up to 14 heavy atoms, sampled from the GDB MedChem database. The Alchemy dataset expands the volume and diversity of existing molecular datasets. Our extensive benchmarks of the state-of-the-art graph neural network models on Alchemy clearly manifest the usefulness of new data in validating and developing machine learning models for chemistry and material science. We further launch a contest to attract attentions from researchers in the related fields. More details can be found on the contest website \footnote{https://alchemy.tencent.com}. At the time of benchamrking experiment, we have generated 119,487 molecules in our Alchemy dataset. More molecular samples are generated since then. Hence, we provide a list of molecules used in the reported benchmarks.

* Authors are listed in alphabetical order 

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BENCHIP: Benchmarking Intelligence Processors

Nov 25, 2017
Jinhua Tao, Zidong Du, Qi Guo, Huiying Lan, Lei Zhang, Shengyuan Zhou, Lingjie Xu, Cong Liu, Haifeng Liu, Shan Tang, Allen Rush, Willian Chen, Shaoli Liu, Yunji Chen, Tianshi Chen

The increasing attention on deep learning has tremendously spurred the design of intelligence processing hardware. The variety of emerging intelligence processors requires standard benchmarks for fair comparison and system optimization (in both software and hardware). However, existing benchmarks are unsuitable for benchmarking intelligence processors due to their non-diversity and nonrepresentativeness. Also, the lack of a standard benchmarking methodology further exacerbates this problem. In this paper, we propose BENCHIP, a benchmark suite and benchmarking methodology for intelligence processors. The benchmark suite in BENCHIP consists of two sets of benchmarks: microbenchmarks and macrobenchmarks. The microbenchmarks consist of single-layer networks. They are mainly designed for bottleneck analysis and system optimization. The macrobenchmarks contain state-of-the-art industrial networks, so as to offer a realistic comparison of different platforms. We also propose a standard benchmarking methodology built upon an industrial software stack and evaluation metrics that comprehensively reflect the various characteristics of the evaluated intelligence processors. BENCHIP is utilized for evaluating various hardware platforms, including CPUs, GPUs, and accelerators. BENCHIP will be open-sourced soon.

* 37pages, 14 figures 

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