Research papers and code for "Shu Liu":
Artificial neural network (ANN) provides superior accuracy for nonlinear alternating current (AC) state estimation (SE) in smart grid over traditional methods. However, research has discovered that ANN could be easily fooled by adversarial examples. In this paper, we initiate a new study of adversarial false data injection (FDI) attack against AC SE with ANN: by injecting a deliberate attack vector into measurements, the attacker can degrade the accuracy of ANN SE while remaining undetected. We propose a population-based algorithm and a gradient-based algorithm to generate attack vectors. The performance of these algorithms is evaluated through simulations on IEEE 9-bus, 14-bus and 30-bus systems under various attack scenarios. Simulation results show that DE is more effective than SLSQP on all simulation cases. The attack examples generated by DE algorithm successfully degrade the ANN SE accuracy with high probability.

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One key task of fine-grained sentiment analysis on reviews is to extract aspects or features that users have expressed opinions on. This paper focuses on supervised aspect extraction using a modified CNN called controlled CNN (Ctrl). The modified CNN has two types of control modules. Through asynchronous parameter updating, it prevents over-fitting and boosts CNN's performance significantly. This model achieves state-of-the-art results on standard aspect extraction datasets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to apply control modules to aspect extraction.

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In many applications of deep learning, particularly those in image restoration, it is either very difficult, prohibitively expensive, or outright impossible to obtain paired training data precisely as in the real world. In such cases, one is forced to use synthesized paired data to train the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN). However, due to the unavoidable generalization error in statistical learning, the synthetically trained DCNN often performs poorly on real world data. To overcome this problem, we propose a new general training method that can compensate for, to a large extent, the generalization errors of synthetically trained DCNNs.

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Taking photos of optoelectronic displays is a direct and spontaneous way of transferring data and keeping records, which is widely practiced. However, due to the analog signal interference between the pixel grids of the display screen and camera sensor array, objectionable moir\'e (alias) patterns appear in captured screen images. As the moir\'e patterns are structured and highly variant, they are difficult to be completely removed without affecting the underneath latent image. In this paper, we propose an approach of deep convolutional neural network for demoir\'eing screen photos. The proposed DCNN consists of a coarse-scale network and a fine-scale network. In the coarse-scale network, the input image is first downsampled and then processed by stacked residual blocks to remove the moir\'e artifacts. After that, the fine-scale network upsamples the demoir\'ed low-resolution image back to the original resolution. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed technique can efficiently remove the moir\'e patterns for camera acquired screen images; the new technique outperforms the existing ones.

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All existing image enhancement methods, such as HDR tone mapping, cannot recover A/D quantization losses due to insufficient or excessive lighting, (underflow and overflow problems). The loss of image details due to A/D quantization is complete and it cannot be recovered by traditional image processing methods, but the modern data-driven machine learning approach offers a much needed cure to the problem. In this work we propose a novel approach to restore and enhance images acquired in low and uneven lighting. First, the ill illumination is algorithmically compensated by emulating the effects of artificial supplementary lighting. Then a DCNN trained using only synthetic data recovers the missing detail caused by quantization.

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This paper concerns open-world classification, where the classifier not only needs to classify test examples into seen classes that have appeared in training but also reject examples from unseen or novel classes that have not appeared in training. Specifically, this paper focuses on discovering the hidden unseen classes of the rejected examples. Clearly, without prior knowledge this is difficult. However, we do have the data from the seen training classes, which can tell us what kind of similarity/difference is expected for examples from the same class or from different classes. It is reasonable to assume that this knowledge can be transferred to the rejected examples and used to discover the hidden unseen classes in them. This paper aims to solve this problem. It first proposes a joint open classification model with a sub-model for classifying whether a pair of examples belongs to the same or different classes. This sub-model can serve as a distance function for clustering to discover the hidden classes of the rejected examples. Experimental results show that the proposed model is highly promising.

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Traditional supervised learning makes the closed-world assumption that the classes appeared in the test data must have appeared in training. This also applies to text learning or text classification. As learning is used increasingly in dynamic open environments where some new/test documents may not belong to any of the training classes, identifying these novel documents during classification presents an important problem. This problem is called open-world classification or open classification. This paper proposes a novel deep learning based approach. It outperforms existing state-of-the-art techniques dramatically.

* accepted at EMNLP 2017
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This paper presents a generic pre-processor for expediting conventional template matching techniques. Instead of locating the best matched patch in the reference image to a query template via exhaustive search, the proposed algorithm rules out regions with no possible matches with minimum computational efforts. While working on simple patch features, such as mean, variance and gradient, the fast pre-screening is highly discriminative. Its computational efficiency is gained by using a novel octagonal-star-shaped template and the inclusion-exclusion principle to extract and compare patch features. Moreover, it can handle arbitrary rotation and scaling of reference images effectively. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm greatly reduces the search space while never missing the best match.

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This paper makes a focused contribution to supervised aspect extraction. It shows that if the system has performed aspect extraction from many past domains and retained their results as knowledge, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) can leverage this knowledge in a lifelong learning manner to extract in a new domain markedly better than the traditional CRF without using this prior knowledge. The key innovation is that even after CRF training, the model can still improve its extraction with experiences in its applications.

* Accepted at ACL 2017. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1612.07940
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Automatic evaluation of semantic rationality is an important yet challenging task, and current automatic techniques cannot well identify whether a sentence is semantically rational. The methods based on the language model do not measure the sentence by rationality but by commonness. The methods based on the similarity with human written sentences will fail if human-written references are not available. In this paper, we propose a novel model called Sememe-Word-Matching Neural Network (SWM-NN) to tackle semantic rationality evaluation by taking advantage of sememe knowledge base HowNet. The advantage is that our model can utilize a proper combination of sememes to represent the fine-grained semantic meanings of a word within the specific contexts. We use the fine-grained semantic representation to help the model learn the semantic dependency among words. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, we build a large-scale rationality evaluation dataset. Experimental results on this dataset show that the proposed model outperforms the competitive baselines with a 5.4\% improvement in accuracy.

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Dialogue management (DM) plays a key role in the quality of the interaction with the user in a task-oriented dialogue system. In most existing approaches, the agent predicts only one DM policy action per turn. This significantly limits the expressive power of the conversational agent and introduces unwanted turns of interactions that may challenge users' patience. Longer conversations also lead to more errors and the system needs to be more robust to handle them. In this paper, we compare the performance of several models on the task of predicting multiple acts for each turn. A novel policy model is proposed based on a recurrent cell called gated Continue-Act-Slots (gCAS) that overcomes the limitations of the existing models. Experimental results show that gCAS outperforms other approaches. The code is available at https://leishu02.github.io/

* 7
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We present a unified, efficient and effective framework for point-cloud based 3D object detection. Our two-stage approach utilizes both voxel representation and raw point cloud data to exploit respective advantages. The first stage network, with voxel representation as input, only consists of light convolutional operations, producing a small number of high-quality initial predictions. Coordinate and indexed convolutional feature of each point in initial prediction are effectively fused with the attention mechanism, preserving both accurate localization and context information. The second stage works on interior points with their fused feature for further refining the prediction. Our method is evaluated on KITTI dataset, in terms of both 3D and Bird's Eye View (BEV) detection, and achieves state-of-the-arts with a 15FPS detection rate.

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The increasing popularity and diversity of social media sites has encouraged more and more people to participate in multiple online social networks to enjoy their services. Each user may create a user identity to represent his or her unique public figure in every social network. User identity linkage across online social networks is an emerging task and has attracted increasing attention, which could potentially impact various domains such as recommendations and link predictions. The majority of existing work focuses on mining network proximity or user profile data for discovering user identity linkages. With the recent advancements in graph neural networks (GNNs), it provides great potential to advance user identity linkage since users are connected in social graphs, and learning latent factors of users and items is the key. However, predicting user identity linkages based on GNNs faces challenges. For example, the user social graphs encode both \textit{local} structure such as users' neighborhood signals, and \textit{global} structure with community properties. To address these challenges simultaneously, in this paper, we present a novel graph neural network framework ({\m}) for user identity linkage. In particular, we provide a principled approach to jointly capture local and global information in the user-user social graph and propose the framework {\m}, which jointly learning user representations for user identity linkage. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

* 7 pages, 3 figures
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Duplicate removal is a critical step to accomplish a reasonable amount of predictions in prevalent proposal-based object detection frameworks. Albeit simple and effective, most previous algorithms utilize a greedy process without making sufficient use of properties of input data. In this work, we design a new two-stage framework to effectively select the appropriate proposal candidate for each object. The first stage suppresses most of easy negative object proposals, while the second stage selects true positives in the reduced proposal set. These two stages share the same network structure, \ie, an encoder and a decoder formed as recurrent neural networks (RNN) with global attention and context gate. The encoder scans proposal candidates in a sequential manner to capture the global context information, which is then fed to the decoder to extract optimal proposals. In our extensive experiments, the proposed method outperforms other alternatives by a large margin.

* Accepted in NIPS 2018
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Most social media platforms are largely based on text, and users often write posts to describe where they are, what they are seeing, and how they are feeling. Because written text lacks the emotional cues of spoken and face-to-face dialogue, ambiguities are common in written language. This problem is exacerbated in the short, informal nature of many social media posts. To bypass this issue, a suite of special characters called "emojis," which are small pictograms, are embedded within the text. Many emojis are small depictions of facial expressions designed to help disambiguate the emotional meaning of the text. However, a new ambiguity arises in the way that emojis are rendered. Every platform (Windows, Mac, and Android, to name a few) renders emojis according to their own style. In fact, it has been shown that some emojis can be rendered so differently that they look "happy" on some platforms, and "sad" on others. In this work, we use real-world data to verify the existence of this problem. We verify that the usage of the same emoji can be significantly different across platforms, with some emojis exhibiting different sentiment polarities on different platforms. We propose a solution to identify the intended emoji based on the platform-specific nature of the emoji used by the author of a social media post. We apply our solution to sentiment analysis, a task that can benefit from the emoji calibration technique we use in this work. We conduct experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the mapping in this task.

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One of the key tasks of sentiment analysis of product reviews is to extract product aspects or features that users have expressed opinions on. In this work, we focus on using supervised sequence labeling as the base approach to performing the task. Although several extraction methods using sequence labeling methods such as Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) have been proposed, we show that this supervised approach can be significantly improved by exploiting the idea of concept sharing across multiple domains. For example, "screen" is an aspect in iPhone, but not only iPhone has a screen, many electronic devices have screens too. When "screen" appears in a review of a new domain (or product), it is likely to be an aspect too. Knowing this information enables us to do much better extraction in the new domain. This paper proposes a novel extraction method exploiting this idea in the context of supervised sequence labeling. Experimental results show that it produces markedly better results than without using the past information.

* 10 pages
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Recent works using artificial neural networks based on word distributed representation greatly boost the performance of various natural language learning tasks, especially question answering. Though, they also carry along with some attendant problems, such as corpus selection for embedding learning, dictionary transformation for different learning tasks, etc. In this paper, we propose to straightforwardly model sentences by means of character sequences, and then utilize convolutional neural networks to integrate character embedding learning together with point-wise answer selection training. Compared with deep models pre-trained on word embedding (WE) strategy, our character-sequential representation (CSR) based method shows a much simpler procedure and more stable performance across different benchmarks. Extensive experiments on two benchmark answer selection datasets exhibit the competitive performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

* to be accepted as CIKM2016 short paper
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Question-answering plays an important role in e-commerce as it allows potential customers to actively seek crucial information about products or services to help their purchase decision making. Inspired by the recent success of machine reading comprehension (MRC) on formal documents, this paper explores the potential of turning customer reviews into a large source of knowledge that can be exploited to answer user questions.~We call this problem Review Reading Comprehension (RRC). To the best of our knowledge, no existing work has been done on RRC. In this work, we first build an RRC dataset called ReviewRC based on a popular benchmark for aspect-based sentiment analysis. Since ReviewRC has limited training examples for RRC (and also for aspect-based sentiment analysis), we then explore a novel post-training approach on the popular language model BERT to enhance the performance of fine-tuning of BERT for RRC. To show the generality of the approach, the proposed post-training is also applied to some other review-based tasks such as aspect extraction and aspect sentiment classification in aspect-based sentiment analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed post-training is highly effective. The datasets and code are available at https://www.cs.uic.edu/~hxu/.

* accepted by NAACL 2019
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