We introduce a new algorithm named WGAN, an alternative to traditional GAN training. In this new model, we show that we can improve the stability of learning, get rid of problems like mode collapse, and provide meaningful learning curves useful for debugging and hyperparameter searches. Furthermore, we show that the corresponding optimization problem is sound, and provide extensive theoretical work highlighting the deep connections to other distances between distributions.

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In recent years, supervised learning with convolutional networks (CNNs) has seen huge adoption in computer vision applications. Comparatively, unsupervised learning with CNNs has received less attention. In this work we hope to help bridge the gap between the success of CNNs for supervised learning and unsupervised learning. We introduce a class of CNNs called deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs), that have certain architectural constraints, and demonstrate that they are a strong candidate for unsupervised learning. Training on various image datasets, we show convincing evidence that our deep convolutional adversarial pair learns a hierarchy of representations from object parts to scenes in both the generator and discriminator. Additionally, we use the learned features for novel tasks - demonstrating their applicability as general image representations.

* Under review as a conference paper at ICLR 2016
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We classify digits of real-world house numbers using convolutional neural networks (ConvNets). ConvNets are hierarchical feature learning neural networks whose structure is biologically inspired. Unlike many popular vision approaches that are hand-designed, ConvNets can automatically learn a unique set of features optimized for a given task. We augmented the traditional ConvNet architecture by learning multi-stage features and by using Lp pooling and establish a new state-of-the-art of 94.85% accuracy on the SVHN dataset (45.2% error improvement). Furthermore, we analyze the benefits of different pooling methods and multi-stage features in ConvNets. The source code and a tutorial are available at eblearn.sf.net.

* 4 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables
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We consider scenarios from the real-time strategy game StarCraft as new benchmarks for reinforcement learning algorithms. We propose micromanagement tasks, which present the problem of the short-term, low-level control of army members during a battle. From a reinforcement learning point of view, these scenarios are challenging because the state-action space is very large, and because there is no obvious feature representation for the state-action evaluation function. We describe our approach to tackle the micromanagement scenarios with deep neural network controllers from raw state features given by the game engine. In addition, we present a heuristic reinforcement learning algorithm which combines direct exploration in the policy space and backpropagation. This algorithm allows for the collection of traces for learning using deterministic policies, which appears much more efficient than, for example, {\epsilon}-greedy exploration. Experiments show that with this algorithm, we successfully learn non-trivial strategies for scenarios with armies of up to 15 agents, where both Q-learning and REINFORCE struggle.

* 18 pages, 1 figure (2 plots), 2 tables
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Adversarial training has been shown to produce state of the art results for generative image modeling. In this paper we propose an adversarial training approach to train semantic segmentation models. We train a convolutional semantic segmentation network along with an adversarial network that discriminates segmentation maps coming either from the ground truth or from the segmentation network. The motivation for our approach is that it can detect and correct higher-order inconsistencies between ground truth segmentation maps and the ones produced by the segmentation net. Our experiments show that our adversarial training approach leads to improved accuracy on the Stanford Background and PASCAL VOC 2012 datasets.

* NIPS Workshop on Adversarial Training, Dec 2016, Barcelona, Spain
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In this paper we introduce a generative parametric model capable of producing high quality samples of natural images. Our approach uses a cascade of convolutional networks within a Laplacian pyramid framework to generate images in a coarse-to-fine fashion. At each level of the pyramid, a separate generative convnet model is trained using the Generative Adversarial Nets (GAN) approach (Goodfellow et al.). Samples drawn from our model are of significantly higher quality than alternate approaches. In a quantitative assessment by human evaluators, our CIFAR10 samples were mistaken for real images around 40% of the time, compared to 10% for samples drawn from a GAN baseline model. We also show samples from models trained on the higher resolution images of the LSUN scene dataset.

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Pedestrian detection is a problem of considerable practical interest. Adding to the list of successful applications of deep learning methods to vision, we report state-of-the-art and competitive results on all major pedestrian datasets with a convolutional network model. The model uses a few new twists, such as multi-stage features, connections that skip layers to integrate global shape information with local distinctive motif information, and an unsupervised method based on convolutional sparse coding to pre-train the filters at each stage.

* 12 pages
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This paper introduces MazeBase: an environment for simple 2D games, designed as a sandbox for machine learning approaches to reasoning and planning. Within it, we create 10 simple games embodying a range of algorithmic tasks (e.g. if-then statements or set negation). A variety of neural models (fully connected, convolutional network, memory network) are deployed via reinforcement learning on these games, with and without a procedurally generated curriculum. Despite the tasks' simplicity, the performance of the models is far from optimal, suggesting directions for future development. We also demonstrate the versatility of MazeBase by using it to emulate small combat scenarios from StarCraft. Models trained on the MazeBase version can be directly applied to StarCraft, where they consistently beat the in-game AI.

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This paper establishes the existence of observable footprints that reveal the "causal dispositions" of the object categories appearing in collections of images. We achieve this goal in two steps. First, we take a learning approach to observational causal discovery, and build a classifier that achieves state-of-the-art performance on finding the causal direction between pairs of random variables, given samples from their joint distribution. Second, we use our causal direction classifier to effectively distinguish between features of objects and features of their contexts in collections of static images. Our experiments demonstrate the existence of a relation between the direction of causality and the difference between objects and their contexts, and by the same token, the existence of observable signals that reveal the causal dispositions of objects.

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The conventional classification schemes -- notably multinomial logistic regression -- used in conjunction with convolutional networks (convnets) are classical in statistics, designed without consideration for the usual coupling with convnets, stochastic gradient descent, and backpropagation. In the specific application to supervised learning for convnets, a simple scale-invariant classification stage turns out to be more robust than multinomial logistic regression, appears to result in slightly lower errors on several standard test sets, has similar computational costs, and features precise control over the actual rate of learning. "Scale-invariant" means that multiplying the input values by any nonzero scalar leaves the output unchanged.

* Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal., 42 (1): 154-166, 2017
* 12 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables
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A complex-valued convolutional network (convnet) implements the repeated application of the following composition of three operations, recursively applying the composition to an input vector of nonnegative real numbers: (1) convolution with complex-valued vectors followed by (2) taking the absolute value of every entry of the resulting vectors followed by (3) local averaging. For processing real-valued random vectors, complex-valued convnets can be viewed as "data-driven multiscale windowed power spectra," "data-driven multiscale windowed absolute spectra," "data-driven multiwavelet absolute values," or (in their most general configuration) "data-driven nonlinear multiwavelet packets." Indeed, complex-valued convnets can calculate multiscale windowed spectra when the convnet filters are windowed complex-valued exponentials. Standard real-valued convnets, using rectified linear units (ReLUs), sigmoidal (for example, logistic or tanh) nonlinearities, max. pooling, etc., do not obviously exhibit the same exact correspondence with data-driven wavelets (whereas for complex-valued convnets, the correspondence is much more than just a vague analogy). Courtesy of the exact correspondence, the remarkably rich and rigorous body of mathematical analysis for wavelets applies directly to (complex-valued) convnets.

* Neural Computation, 28 (5): 815-825, May 2016
* 11 pages, 3 figures; this is the retitled version submitted to the journal, "Neural Computation"
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We examine the performance profile of Convolutional Neural Network training on the current generation of NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units. We introduce two new Fast Fourier Transform convolution implementations: one based on NVIDIA's cuFFT library, and another based on a Facebook authored FFT implementation, fbfft, that provides significant speedups over cuFFT (over 1.5x) for whole CNNs. Both of these convolution implementations are available in open source, and are faster than NVIDIA's cuDNN implementation for many common convolutional layers (up to 23.5x for some synthetic kernel configurations). We discuss different performance regimes of convolutions, comparing areas where straightforward time domain convolutions outperform Fourier frequency domain convolutions. Details on algorithmic applications of NVIDIA GPU hardware specifics in the implementation of fbfft are also provided.

* Camera ready for ICLR2015
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In this work we propose a simple unsupervised approach for next frame prediction in video. Instead of directly predicting the pixels in a frame given past frames, we predict the transformations needed for generating the next frame in a sequence, given the transformations of the past frames. This leads to sharper results, while using a smaller prediction model. In order to enable a fair comparison between different video frame prediction models, we also propose a new evaluation protocol. We use generated frames as input to a classifier trained with ground truth sequences. This criterion guarantees that models scoring high are those producing sequences which preserve discrim- inative features, as opposed to merely penalizing any deviation, plausible or not, from the ground truth. Our proposed approach compares favourably against more sophisticated ones on the UCF-101 data set, while also being more efficient in terms of the number of parameters and computational cost.

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While Truncated Back-Propagation through Time (BPTT) is the most popular approach to training Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), it suffers from being inherently sequential (making parallelization difficult) and from truncating gradient flow between distant time-steps. We investigate whether Target Propagation (TPROP) style approaches can address these shortcomings. Unfortunately, extensive experiments suggest that TPROP generally underperforms BPTT, and we end with an analysis of this phenomenon, and suggestions for future work.

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We present TorchCraft, a library that enables deep learning research on Real-Time Strategy (RTS) games such as StarCraft: Brood War, by making it easier to control these games from a machine learning framework, here Torch. This white paper argues for using RTS games as a benchmark for AI research, and describes the design and components of TorchCraft.

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The recent COCO object detection dataset presents several new challenges for object detection. In particular, it contains objects at a broad range of scales, less prototypical images, and requires more precise localization. To address these challenges, we test three modifications to the standard Fast R-CNN object detector: (1) skip connections that give the detector access to features at multiple network layers, (2) a foveal structure to exploit object context at multiple object resolutions, and (3) an integral loss function and corresponding network adjustment that improve localization. The result of these modifications is that information can flow along multiple paths in our network, including through features from multiple network layers and from multiple object views. We refer to our modified classifier as a "MultiPath" network. We couple our MultiPath network with DeepMask object proposals, which are well suited for localization and small objects, and adapt our pipeline to predict segmentation masks in addition to bounding boxes. The combined system improves results over the baseline Fast R-CNN detector with Selective Search by 66% overall and by 4x on small objects. It placed second in both the COCO 2015 detection and segmentation challenges.

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