Research papers and code for "Suhang Wang":
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have boosted the performance of many graph related tasks such as node classification and graph classification. Recent researches show that graph neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which deliberately add carefully created unnoticeable perturbation to the graph structure. The perturbation is usually created by adding/deleting a few edges, which might be noticeable even when the number of edges modified is small. In this paper, we propose a graph rewiring operation which affects the graph in a less noticeable way compared to adding/deleting edges. We then use reinforcement learning to learn the attack strategy based on the proposed rewiring operation. Experiments on real world graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. To understand the proposed framework, we further analyze how its generated perturbation to the graph structure affects the output of the target model.

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Most social media platforms are largely based on text, and users often write posts to describe where they are, what they are seeing, and how they are feeling. Because written text lacks the emotional cues of spoken and face-to-face dialogue, ambiguities are common in written language. This problem is exacerbated in the short, informal nature of many social media posts. To bypass this issue, a suite of special characters called "emojis," which are small pictograms, are embedded within the text. Many emojis are small depictions of facial expressions designed to help disambiguate the emotional meaning of the text. However, a new ambiguity arises in the way that emojis are rendered. Every platform (Windows, Mac, and Android, to name a few) renders emojis according to their own style. In fact, it has been shown that some emojis can be rendered so differently that they look "happy" on some platforms, and "sad" on others. In this work, we use real-world data to verify the existence of this problem. We verify that the usage of the same emoji can be significantly different across platforms, with some emojis exhibiting different sentiment polarities on different platforms. We propose a solution to identify the intended emoji based on the platform-specific nature of the emoji used by the author of a social media post. We apply our solution to sentiment analysis, a task that can benefit from the emoji calibration technique we use in this work. We conduct experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the mapping in this task.

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Graph neural networks, which generalize deep neural network models to graph structured data, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. They usually learn node representations by transforming, propagating and aggregating node features and have been proven to improve the performance of many graph related tasks such as node classification and link prediction. To apply graph neural networks for the graph classification task, approaches to generate the \textit{graph representation} from node representations are demanded. A common way is to globally combine the node representations. However, rich structural information is overlooked. Thus a hierarchical pooling procedure is desired to preserve the graph structure during the graph representation learning. There are some recent works on hierarchically learning graph representation analogous to the pooling step in conventional convolutional neural (CNN) networks. However, the local structural information is still largely neglected during the pooling process. In this paper, we introduce a pooling operator $\pooling$ based on graph Fourier transform, which can utilize the node features and local structures during the pooling process. We then design pooling layers based on the pooling operator, which are further combined with traditional GCN convolutional layers to form a graph neural network framework $\m$ for graph classification. Theoretical analysis is provided to understand $\pooling$ from both local and global perspectives. Experimental results of the graph classification task on $6$ commonly used benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

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Social media for news consumption is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, its low cost, easy access, and rapid dissemination of information lead people to seek out and consume news from social media. On the other hand, it enables the wide spread of "fake news", i.e., low quality news with intentionally false information. The extensive spread of fake news has the potential for extremely negative impacts on individuals and society. Therefore, fake news detection on social media has recently become an emerging research that is attracting tremendous attention. Fake news detection on social media presents unique characteristics and challenges that make existing detection algorithms from traditional news media ineffective or not applicable. First, fake news is intentionally written to mislead readers to believe false information, which makes it difficult and nontrivial to detect based on news content; therefore, we need to include auxiliary information, such as user social engagements on social media, to help make a determination. Second, exploiting this auxiliary information is challenging in and of itself as users' social engagements with fake news produce data that is big, incomplete, unstructured, and noisy. Because the issue of fake news detection on social media is both challenging and relevant, we conducted this survey to further facilitate research on the problem. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of detecting fake news on social media, including fake news characterizations on psychology and social theories, existing algorithms from a data mining perspective, evaluation metrics and representative datasets. We also discuss related research areas, open problems, and future research directions for fake news detection on social media.

* ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, 2017
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In this paper, we develop a novel approach for semi-supervised VAE without classifier. Specifically, we propose a new model called SDVAE, which encodes the input data into disentangled representation and non-interpretable representation, then the category information is directly utilized to regularize the disentangled representation via equation constraint. To further enhance the feature learning ability of the proposed VAE, we incorporate reinforcement learning to relieve the lack of data. The dynamic framework is capable of dealing with both image and text data with its corresponding encoder and decoder networks. Extensive experiments on image and text datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

* 6 figures, 10 pages
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Understanding human actions in wild videos is an important task with a broad range of applications. In this paper we propose a novel approach named Hierarchical Attention Network (HAN), which enables to incorporate static spatial information, short-term motion information and long-term video temporal structures for complex human action understanding. Compared to recent convolutional neural network based approaches, HAN has following advantages (1) HAN can efficiently capture video temporal structures in a longer range; (2) HAN is able to reveal temporal transitions between frame chunks with different time steps, i.e. it explicitly models the temporal transitions between frames as well as video segments and (3) with a multiple step spatial temporal attention mechanism, HAN automatically learns important regions in video frames and temporal segments in the video. The proposed model is trained and evaluated on the standard video action benchmarks, i.e., UCF-101 and HMDB-51, and it significantly outperforms the state-of-the arts

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Graph neural networks (GNNs) are widely used in many applications. However, their robustness against adversarial attacks is criticized. Prior studies show that using unnoticeable modifications on graph topology or nodal features can significantly reduce the performances of GNNs. It is very challenging to design robust graph neural networks against poisoning attack and several efforts have been taken. Existing work aims at reducing the negative impact from adversarial edges only with the poisoned graph, which is sub-optimal since they fail to discriminate adversarial edges from normal ones. On the other hand, clean graphs from similar domains as the target poisoned graph are usually available in the real world. By perturbing these clean graphs, we create supervised knowledge to train the ability to detect adversarial edges so that the robustness of GNNs is elevated. However, such potential for clean graphs is neglected by existing work. To this end, we investigate a novel problem of improving the robustness of GNNs against poisoning attacks by exploring clean graphs. Specifically, we propose PA-GNN, which relies on a penalized aggregation mechanism that directly restrict the negative impact of adversarial edges by assigning them lower attention coefficients. To optimize PA-GNN for a poisoned graph, we design a meta-optimization algorithm that trains PA-GNN to penalize perturbations using clean graphs and their adversarial counterparts, and transfers such ability to improve the robustness of PA-GNN on the poisoned graph. Experimental results on four real-world datasets demonstrate the robustness of PA-GNN against poisoning attacks on graphs.

* Preprint, under review
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Feature selection, as a data preprocessing strategy, has been proven to be effective and efficient in preparing data (especially high-dimensional data) for various data mining and machine learning problems. The objectives of feature selection include: building simpler and more comprehensible models, improving data mining performance, and preparing clean, understandable data. The recent proliferation of big data has presented some substantial challenges and opportunities to feature selection. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive and structured overview of recent advances in feature selection research. Motivated by current challenges and opportunities in the era of big data, we revisit feature selection research from a data perspective and review representative feature selection algorithms for conventional data, structured data, heterogeneous data and streaming data. Methodologically, to emphasize the differences and similarities of most existing feature selection algorithms for conventional data, we categorize them into four main groups: similarity based, information theoretical based, sparse learning based and statistical based methods. To facilitate and promote the research in this community, we also present an open-source feature selection repository that consists of most of the popular feature selection algorithms (\url{http://featureselection.asu.edu/}). Also, we use it as an example to show how to evaluate feature selection algorithms. At the end of the survey, we present a discussion about some open problems and challenges that require more attention in future research.

* ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 50(6): 94:1-94:45, 2017
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The superior interpretability and uncertainty modeling ability of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy system (TSK FS) make it possible to describe complex nonlinear systems intuitively and efficiently. However, classical TSK FS usually adopts the whole feature space of the data for model construction, which can result in lengthy rules for high-dimensional data and lead to degeneration in interpretability. Furthermore, for highly nonlinear modeling task, it is usually necessary to use a large number of rules which further weakens the clarity and interpretability of TSK FS. To address these issues, a concise zero-order TSK FS construction method, called ESSC-SL-CTSK-FS, is proposed in this paper by integrating the techniques of enhanced soft subspace clustering (ESSC) and sparse learning (SL). In this method, ESSC is used to generate the antecedents and various sparse subspace for different fuzzy rules, whereas SL is used to optimize the consequent parameters of the fuzzy rules, based on which the number of fuzzy rules can be effectively reduced. Finally, the proposed ESSC-SL-CTSK-FS method is used to construct con-cise zero-order TSK FS that can explain the scenes in high-dimensional data modeling more clearly and easily. Experiments are conducted on various real-world datasets to confirm the advantages.

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