Models, code, and papers for "Tianfu Wu":

Image Synthesis From Reconfigurable Layout and Style

Aug 20, 2019
Wei Sun, Tianfu Wu

Despite remarkable recent progress on both unconditional and conditional image synthesis, it remains a long-standing problem to learn generative models that are capable of synthesizing realistic and sharp images from reconfigurable spatial layout (i.e., bounding boxes + class labels in an image lattice) and style (i.e., structural and appearance variations encoded by latent vectors), especially at high resolution. By reconfigurable, it means that a model can preserve the intrinsic one-to-many mapping from a given layout to multiple plausible images with different styles, and is adaptive with respect to perturbations of a layout and style latent code. In this paper, we present a layout- and style-based architecture for generative adversarial networks (termed LostGANs) that can be trained end-to-end to generate images from reconfigurable layout and style. Inspired by the vanilla StyleGAN, the proposed LostGAN consists of two new components: (i) learning fine-grained mask maps in a weakly-supervised manner to bridge the gap between layouts and images, and (ii) learning object instance-specific layout-aware feature normalization (ISLA-Norm) in the generator to realize multi-object style generation. In experiments, the proposed method is tested on the COCO-Stuff dataset and the Visual Genome dataset with state-of-the-art performance obtained. The code and pretrained models are available at \url{}.

* Accepted to ICCV 2019 

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Adversarial Distillation for Ordered Top-k Attacks

May 25, 2019
Zekun Zhang, Tianfu Wu

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, especially white-box targeted attacks. One scheme of learning attacks is to design a proper adversarial objective function that leads to the imperceptible perturbation for any test image (e.g., the Carlini-Wagner (C&W) method). Most methods address targeted attacks in the Top-1 manner. In this paper, we propose to learn ordered Top-k attacks (k>= 1) for image classification tasks, that is to enforce the Top-k predicted labels of an adversarial example to be the k (randomly) selected and ordered labels (the ground-truth label is exclusive). To this end, we present an adversarial distillation framework: First, we compute an adversarial probability distribution for any given ordered Top-k targeted labels with respect to the ground-truth of a test image. Then, we learn adversarial examples by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence together with the perturbation energy penalty, similar in spirit to the network distillation method. We explore how to leverage label semantic similarities in computing the targeted distributions, leading to knowledge-oriented attacks. In experiments, we thoroughly test Top-1 and Top-5 attacks in the ImageNet-1000 validation dataset using two popular DNNs trained with clean ImageNet-1000 train dataset, ResNet-50 and DenseNet-121. For both models, our proposed adversarial distillation approach outperforms the C&W method in the Top-1 setting, as well as other baseline methods. Our approach shows significant improvement in the Top-5 setting against a strong modified C&W method.

* 10 pages 

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Learning Spatial Pyramid Attentive Pooling in Image Synthesis and Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 18, 2019
Wei Sun, Tianfu Wu

Image synthesis and image-to-image translation are two important generative learning tasks. Remarkable progress has been made by learning Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)~\cite{goodfellow2014generative} and cycle-consistent GANs (CycleGANs)~\cite{zhu2017unpaired} respectively. This paper presents a method of learning Spatial Pyramid Attentive Pooling (SPAP) which is a novel architectural unit and can be easily integrated into both generators and discriminators in GANs and CycleGANs. The proposed SPAP integrates Atrous spatial pyramid~\cite{chen2018deeplab}, a proposed cascade attention mechanism and residual connections~\cite{he2016deep}. It leverages the advantages of the three components to facilitate effective end-to-end generative learning: (i) the capability of fusing multi-scale information by ASPP; (ii) the capability of capturing relative importance between both spatial locations (especially multi-scale context) or feature channels by attention; (iii) the capability of preserving information and enhancing optimization feasibility by residual connections. Coarse-to-fine and fine-to-coarse SPAP are studied and intriguing attention maps are observed in both tasks. In experiments, the proposed SPAP is tested in GANs on the Celeba-HQ-128 dataset~\cite{karras2017progressive}, and tested in CycleGANs on the Image-to-Image translation datasets including the Cityscape dataset~\cite{cordts2016cityscapes}, Facade and Aerial Maps dataset~\cite{zhu2017unpaired}, both obtaining better performance.

* 12 pages 

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ARCHER: Aggressive Rewards to Counter bias in Hindsight Experience Replay

Sep 07, 2018
Sameera Lanka, Tianfu Wu

Experience replay is an important technique for addressing sample-inefficiency in deep reinforcement learning (RL), but faces difficulty in learning from binary and sparse rewards due to disproportionately few successful experiences in the replay buffer. Hindsight experience replay (HER) was recently proposed to tackle this difficulty by manipulating unsuccessful transitions, but in doing so, HER introduces a significant bias in the replay buffer experiences and therefore achieves a suboptimal improvement in sample-efficiency. In this paper, we present an analysis on the source of bias in HER, and propose a simple and effective method to counter the bias, to most effectively harness the sample-efficiency provided by HER. Our method, motivated by counter-factual reasoning and called ARCHER, extends HER with a trade-off to make rewards calculated for hindsight experiences numerically greater than real rewards. We validate our algorithm on two continuous control environments from DeepMind Control Suite - Reacher and Finger, which simulate manipulation tasks with a robotic arm - in combination with various reward functions, task complexities and goal sampling strategies. Our experiments consistently demonstrate that countering bias using more aggressive hindsight rewards increases sample efficiency, thus establishing the greater benefit of ARCHER in RL applications with limited computing budget.

* 8 pages 

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Attentive Normalization

Aug 04, 2019
Xilai Li, Wei Sun, Tianfu Wu

Batch Normalization (BN) is a vital pillar in the development of deep learning with many recent variations such as Group Normalization (GN) and Switchable Normalization. Channel-wise feature attention methods such as the squeeze-and-excitation (SE) unit have also shown impressive performance improvement. BN and its variants take into account different ways of computing the mean and variance within a min-batch for feature normalization, followed by a learnable channel-wise affine transformation. SE explicitly learns how to adaptively recalibrate channel-wise feature responses. They have been studied separately, however. In this paper, we propose a novel and lightweight integration of feature normalization and feature channel-wise attention. We present Attentive Normalization (AN) as a simple and unified alternative. AN absorbs SE into the affine transformation of BN. AN learns a small number of scale and offset parameters per channel (i.e., different affine transformations). Their weighted sums (i.e., mixture) are used in the final affine transformation. The weights are instance-specific and learned in a way that channel-wise attention is considered, similar in spirit to the squeeze module in the SE unit. AN is complementary and applicable to existing variants of BN. In experiments, we test AN in the ImageNet-1K classification dataset and the MS-COCO object detection and instance segmentation dataset with significantly better performance obtained than the vanilla BN. Our AN also outperforms two state-of-the-art variants of BN, GN and SN. The source code will be released at \url{}.

* Preprint. On-going work with promising preliminary results 

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Learning Mixtures of Bernoulli Templates by Two-Round EM with Performance Guarantee

Jan 20, 2015
Adrian Barbu, Tianfu Wu, Ying Nian Wu

Dasgupta and Shulman showed that a two-round variant of the EM algorithm can learn mixture of Gaussian distributions with near optimal precision with high probability if the Gaussian distributions are well separated and if the dimension is sufficiently high. In this paper, we generalize their theory to learning mixture of high-dimensional Bernoulli templates. Each template is a binary vector, and a template generates examples by randomly switching its binary components independently with a certain probability. In computer vision applications, a binary vector is a feature map of an image, where each binary component indicates whether a local feature or structure is present or absent within a certain cell of the image domain. A Bernoulli template can be considered as a statistical model for images of objects (or parts of objects) from the same category. We show that the two-round EM algorithm can learn mixture of Bernoulli templates with near optimal precision with high probability, if the Bernoulli templates are sufficiently different and if the number of features is sufficiently high. We illustrate the theoretical results by synthetic and real examples.

* Electronic Journal of Statistics, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp 3004-3030, 2014 
* 27 pages, 8 figures 

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Zero-Shot Learning posed as a Missing Data Problem

Feb 21, 2017
Bo Zhao, Botong Wu, Tianfu Wu, Yizhou Wang

This paper presents a method of zero-shot learning (ZSL) which poses ZSL as the missing data problem, rather than the missing label problem. Specifically, most existing ZSL methods focus on learning mapping functions from the image feature space to the label embedding space. Whereas, the proposed method explores a simple yet effective transductive framework in the reverse way \--- our method estimates data distribution of unseen classes in the image feature space by transferring knowledge from the label embedding space. In experiments, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on two popular datasets.

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Online Object Tracking, Learning and Parsing with And-Or Graphs

Sep 03, 2016
Tianfu Wu, Yang Lu, Song-Chun Zhu

This paper presents a method, called AOGTracker, for simultaneously tracking, learning and parsing (TLP) of unknown objects in video sequences with a hierarchical and compositional And-Or graph (AOG) representation. %The AOG captures both structural and appearance variations of a target object in a principled way. The TLP method is formulated in the Bayesian framework with a spatial and a temporal dynamic programming (DP) algorithms inferring object bounding boxes on-the-fly. During online learning, the AOG is discriminatively learned using latent SVM to account for appearance (e.g., lighting and partial occlusion) and structural (e.g., different poses and viewpoints) variations of a tracked object, as well as distractors (e.g., similar objects) in background. Three key issues in online inference and learning are addressed: (i) maintaining purity of positive and negative examples collected online, (ii) controling model complexity in latent structure learning, and (iii) identifying critical moments to re-learn the structure of AOG based on its intrackability. The intrackability measures uncertainty of an AOG based on its score maps in a frame. In experiments, our AOGTracker is tested on two popular tracking benchmarks with the same parameter setting: the TB-100/50/CVPR2013 benchmarks, and the VOT benchmarks --- VOT 2013, 2014, 2015 and TIR2015 (thermal imagery tracking). In the former, our AOGTracker outperforms state-of-the-art tracking algorithms including two trackers based on deep convolutional network. In the latter, our AOGTracker outperforms all other trackers in VOT2013 and is comparable to the state-of-the-art methods in VOT2014, 2015 and TIR2015.

* 17 pages, Reproducibility: The source code is released with this paper for reproducing all results, which is available at 

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Learning And-Or Models to Represent Context and Occlusion for Car Detection and Viewpoint Estimation

Sep 27, 2015
Tianfu Wu, Bo Li, Song-Chun Zhu

This paper presents a method for learning And-Or models to represent context and occlusion for car detection and viewpoint estimation. The learned And-Or model represents car-to-car context and occlusion configurations at three levels: (i) spatially-aligned cars, (ii) single car under different occlusion configurations, and (iii) a small number of parts. The And-Or model embeds a grammar for representing large structural and appearance variations in a reconfigurable hierarchy. The learning process consists of two stages in a weakly supervised way (i.e., only bounding boxes of single cars are annotated). Firstly, the structure of the And-Or model is learned with three components: (a) mining multi-car contextual patterns based on layouts of annotated single car bounding boxes, (b) mining occlusion configurations between single cars, and (c) learning different combinations of part visibility based on car 3D CAD simulation. The And-Or model is organized in a directed and acyclic graph which can be inferred by Dynamic Programming. Secondly, the model parameters (for appearance, deformation and bias) are jointly trained using Weak-Label Structural SVM. In experiments, we test our model on four car detection datasets --- the KITTI dataset \cite{Geiger12}, the PASCAL VOC2007 car dataset~\cite{pascal}, and two self-collected car datasets, namely the Street-Parking car dataset and the Parking-Lot car dataset, and three datasets for car viewpoint estimation --- the PASCAL VOC2006 car dataset~\cite{pascal}, the 3D car dataset~\cite{savarese}, and the PASCAL3D+ car dataset~\cite{xiang_wacv14}. Compared with state-of-the-art variants of deformable part-based models and other methods, our model achieves significant improvement consistently on the four detection datasets, and comparable performance on car viewpoint estimation.

* 14 pages 

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Auto-Context R-CNN

Jul 08, 2018
Bo Li, Tianfu Wu, Lun Zhang, Rufeng Chu

Region-based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN)~\cite{fast_rcnn,faster_rcnn,mask_rcnn} have largely dominated object detection. Operators defined on RoIs (Region of Interests) play an important role in R-CNNs such as RoIPooling~\cite{fast_rcnn} and RoIAlign~\cite{mask_rcnn}. They all only utilize information inside RoIs for RoI prediction, even with their recent deformable extensions~\cite{deformable_cnn}. Although surrounding context is well-known for its importance in object detection, it has yet been integrated in R-CNNs in a flexible and effective way. Inspired by the auto-context work~\cite{auto_context} and the multi-class object layout work~\cite{nms_context}, this paper presents a generic context-mining RoI operator (i.e., \textit{RoICtxMining}) seamlessly integrated in R-CNNs, and the resulting object detection system is termed \textbf{Auto-Context R-CNN} which is trained end-to-end. The proposed RoICtxMining operator is a simple yet effective two-layer extension of the RoIPooling or RoIAlign operator. Centered at an object-RoI, it creates a $3\times 3$ layout to mine contextual information adaptively in the $8$ surrounding context regions on-the-fly. Within each of the $8$ context regions, a context-RoI is mined in term of discriminative power and its RoIPooling / RoIAlign features are concatenated with the object-RoI for final prediction. \textit{The proposed Auto-Context R-CNN is robust to occlusion and small objects, and shows promising vulnerability for adversarial attacks without being adversarially-trained.} In experiments, it is evaluated using RoIPooling as the backbone and shows competitive results on Pascal VOC, Microsoft COCO, and KITTI datasets (including $6.9\%$ mAP improvements over the R-FCN~\cite{rfcn} method on COCO \textit{test-dev} dataset and the first place on both KITTI pedestrian and cyclist detection as of this submission).

* Rejected by ECCV18 

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AOGNets: Deep AND-OR Grammar Networks for Visual Recognition

Nov 15, 2017
Xilai Li, Tianfu Wu, Xi Song, Hamid Krim

This paper presents a method of learning deep AND-OR Grammar (AOG) networks for visual recognition, which we term AOGNets. An AOGNet consists of a number of stages each of which is composed of a number of AOG building blocks. An AOG building block is designed based on a principled AND-OR grammar and represented by a hierarchical and compositional AND-OR graph. Each node applies some basic operation (e.g., Conv-BatchNorm-ReLU) to its input. There are three types of nodes: an AND-node explores composition, whose input is computed by concatenating features of its child nodes; an OR-node represents alternative ways of composition in the spirit of exploitation, whose input is the element-wise sum of features of its child nodes; and a Terminal-node takes as input a channel-wise slice of the input feature map of the AOG building block. AOGNets aim to harness the best of two worlds (grammar models and deep neural networks) in representation learning with end-to-end training. In experiments, AOGNets are tested on three highly competitive image classification benchmarks: CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet-1K. AOGNets obtain better performance than the widely used Residual Net and its variants, and are tightly comparable to the Dense Net. AOGNets are also tested in object detection on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2012 using the vanilla Faster RCNN system and obtain better performance than the Residual Net.

* 10 pages 

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An Attention-Driven Approach of No-Reference Image Quality Assessment

May 29, 2017
Diqi Chen, Yizhou Wang, Tianfu Wu, Wen Gao

In this paper, we present a novel method of no-reference image quality assessment (NR-IQA), which is to predict the perceptual quality score of a given image without using any reference image. The proposed method harnesses three functions (i) the visual attention mechanism, which affects many aspects of visual perception including image quality assessment, however, is overlooked in the NR-IQA literature. The method assumes that the fixation areas on an image contain key information to the process of IQA. (ii) the robust averaging strategy, which is a means \--- supported by psychology studies \--- to integrating multiple/step-wise evidence to make a final perceptual judgment. (iii) the multi-task learning, which is believed to be an effectual means to shape representation learning and could result in a more generalized model. To exploit the synergy of the three, we consider the NR-IQA as a dynamic perception process, in which the model samples a sequence of "informative" areas and aggregates the information to learn a representation for the tasks of jointly predicting the image quality score and the distortion type. The model learning is implemented by a reinforcement strategy, in which the rewards of both tasks guide the learning of the optimal sampling policy to acquire the "task-informative" image regions so that the predictions can be made accurately and efficiently (in terms of the sampling steps). The reinforcement learning is realized by a deep network with the policy gradient method and trained through back-propagation. In experiments, the model is tested on the TID2008 dataset and it outperforms several state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the model is very efficient in the sense that a small number of fixations are used in NR-IQA.

* 9 pages, 7 figures 

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Face Detection with End-to-End Integration of a ConvNet and a 3D Model

Aug 29, 2016
Yunzhu Li, Benyuan Sun, Tianfu Wu, Yizhou Wang

This paper presents a method for face detection in the wild, which integrates a ConvNet and a 3D mean face model in an end-to-end multi-task discriminative learning framework. The 3D mean face model is predefined and fixed (e.g., we used the one provided in the AFLW dataset). The ConvNet consists of two components: (i) The face pro- posal component computes face bounding box proposals via estimating facial key-points and the 3D transformation (rotation and translation) parameters for each predicted key-point w.r.t. the 3D mean face model. (ii) The face verification component computes detection results by prun- ing and refining proposals based on facial key-points based configuration pooling. The proposed method addresses two issues in adapting state- of-the-art generic object detection ConvNets (e.g., faster R-CNN) for face detection: (i) One is to eliminate the heuristic design of prede- fined anchor boxes in the region proposals network (RPN) by exploit- ing a 3D mean face model. (ii) The other is to replace the generic RoI (Region-of-Interest) pooling layer with a configuration pooling layer to respect underlying object structures. The multi-task loss consists of three terms: the classification Softmax loss and the location smooth l1 -losses [14] of both the facial key-points and the face bounding boxes. In ex- periments, our ConvNet is trained on the AFLW dataset only and tested on the FDDB benchmark with fine-tuning and on the AFW benchmark without fine-tuning. The proposed method obtains very competitive state-of-the-art performance in the two benchmarks.

* 16 pages, Y. Li and B. Sun contributed equally to this work 

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Towards Interpretable Image Synthesis by Learning Sparsely Connected AND-OR Networks

Sep 10, 2019
Xianglei Xing, Tianfu Wu, Song-Chun Zhu, Ying Nian Wu

This paper proposes interpretable image synthesis by learning hierarchical AND-OR networks of sparsely connected semantically meaningful nodes. The proposed method is based on the compositionality and interpretability of scene-objects-parts-subparts-primitives hierarchy in image representation. A scene has different types (i.e., OR) each of which consists of a number of objects (i.e., AND). This can be recursively formulated across the scene-objects-parts-subparts hierarchy and is terminated at the primitive level (e.g., Gabor wavelets-like basis). To realize this interpretable AND-OR hierarchy in image synthesis, the proposed method consists of two components: (i) Each layer of the hierarchy is represented by an over-completed set of basis functions. The basis functions are instantiated using convolution to be translation covariant. Off-the-shelf convolutional neural architectures are then exploited to implement the hierarchy. (ii) Sparsity-inducing constraints are introduced in end-to-end training, which facilitate a sparsely connected AND-OR network to emerge from initially densely connected convolutional neural networks. A straightforward sparsity-inducing constraint is utilized, that is to only allow the top-$k$ basis functions to be active at each layer (where $k$ is a hyperparameter). The learned basis functions are also capable of image reconstruction to explain away input images. In experiments, the proposed method is tested on five benchmark datasets. The results show that meaningful and interpretable hierarchical representations are learned with better qualities of image synthesis and reconstruction obtained than state-of-the-art baselines.

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Relational Long Short-Term Memory for Video Action Recognition

Nov 16, 2018
Zexi Chen, Bharathkumar Ramachandra, Tianfu Wu, Ranga Raju Vatsavai

Spatial and temporal relationships, both short-range and long-range, between objects in videos are key cues for recognizing actions. It is a challenging problem to model them jointly. In this paper, we first present a new variant of Long Short-Term Memory, namely Relational LSTM to address the challenge for relation reasoning across space and time between objects. In our Relational LSTM module, we utilize a non-local operation similar in spirit to the recently proposed non-local network to substitute the fully connected operation in the vanilla LSTM. By doing this, our Relational LSTM is capable of capturing long and short-range spatio-temporal relations between objects in videos in a principled way. Then, we propose a two-branch neural architecture consisting of the Relational LSTM module as the non-local branch and a spatio-temporal pooling based local branch. The local branch is introduced for capturing local spatial appearance and/or short-term motion features. The two-branch modules are concatenated to learn video-level features from snippet-level ones end-to-end. Experimental results on UCF-101 and HMDB-51 datasets show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results among LSTM-based methods, while obtaining comparable performance with other state-of-the-art methods (which use not directly comparable schema). Our code will be released.

* 10 pages in total 

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Towards Interpretable R-CNN by Unfolding Latent Structures

Sep 06, 2018
Tianfu Wu, Wei Sun, Xilai Li, Xi Song, Bo Li

This paper first proposes a method of formulating model interpretability in visual understanding tasks based on the idea of unfolding latent structures. It then presents a case study in object detection using popular two-stage region-based convolutional network (i.e., R-CNN) detection systems. We focus on weakly-supervised extractive rationale generation, that is learning to unfold latent discriminative part configurations of object instances automatically and simultaneously in detection without using any supervision for part configurations. We utilize a top-down hierarchical and compositional grammar model embedded in a directed acyclic AND-OR Graph (AOG) to explore and unfold the space of latent part configurations of regions of interest (RoIs). We propose an AOGParsing operator to substitute the RoIPooling operator widely used in R-CNN. In detection, a bounding box is interpreted by the best parse tree derived from the AOG on-the-fly, which is treated as the qualitatively extractive rationale generated for interpreting detection. We propose a folding-unfolding method to train the AOG and convolutional networks end-to-end. In experiments, we build on R-FCN and test our method on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2012 datasets. We show that the method can unfold promising latent structures without hurting the performance.

* 9 pages 

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High Resolution Face Completion with Multiple Controllable Attributes via Fully End-to-End Progressive Generative Adversarial Networks

Jan 23, 2018
Zeyuan Chen, Shaoliang Nie, Tianfu Wu, Christopher G. Healey

We present a deep learning approach for high resolution face completion with multiple controllable attributes (e.g., male and smiling) under arbitrary masks. Face completion entails understanding both structural meaningfulness and appearance consistency locally and globally to fill in "holes" whose content do not appear elsewhere in an input image. It is a challenging task with the difficulty level increasing significantly with respect to high resolution, the complexity of "holes" and the controllable attributes of filled-in fragments. Our system addresses the challenges by learning a fully end-to-end framework that trains generative adversarial networks (GANs) progressively from low resolution to high resolution with conditional vectors encoding controllable attributes. We design novel network architectures to exploit information across multiple scales effectively and efficiently. We introduce new loss functions encouraging sharp completion. We show that our system can complete faces with large structural and appearance variations using a single feed-forward pass of computation with mean inference time of 0.007 seconds for images at 1024 x 1024 resolution. We also perform a pilot human study that shows our approach outperforms state-of-the-art face completion methods in terms of rank analysis. The code will be released upon publication.

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Recognizing Car Fluents from Video

Mar 26, 2016
Bo Li, Tianfu Wu, Caiming Xiong, Song-Chun Zhu

Physical fluents, a term originally used by Newton [40], refers to time-varying object states in dynamic scenes. In this paper, we are interested in inferring the fluents of vehicles from video. For example, a door (hood, trunk) is open or closed through various actions, light is blinking to turn. Recognizing these fluents has broad applications, yet have received scant attention in the computer vision literature. Car fluent recognition entails a unified framework for car detection, car part localization and part status recognition, which is made difficult by large structural and appearance variations, low resolutions and occlusions. This paper learns a spatial-temporal And-Or hierarchical model to represent car fluents. The learning of this model is formulated under the latent structural SVM framework. Since there are no publicly related dataset, we collect and annotate a car fluent dataset consisting of car videos with diverse fluents. In experiments, the proposed method outperforms several highly related baseline methods in terms of car fluent recognition and car part localization.

* Accepted by CVPR 2016 

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Learn to Grow: A Continual Structure Learning Framework for Overcoming Catastrophic Forgetting

May 21, 2019
Xilai Li, Yingbo Zhou, Tianfu Wu, Richard Socher, Caiming Xiong

Addressing catastrophic forgetting is one of the key challenges in continual learning where machine learning systems are trained with sequential or streaming tasks. Despite recent remarkable progress in state-of-the-art deep learning, deep neural networks (DNNs) are still plagued with the catastrophic forgetting problem. This paper presents a conceptually simple yet general and effective framework for handling catastrophic forgetting in continual learning with DNNs. The proposed method consists of two components: a neural structure optimization component and a parameter learning and/or fine-tuning component. By separating the explicit neural structure learning and the parameter estimation, not only is the proposed method capable of evolving neural structures in an intuitively meaningful way, but also shows strong capabilities of alleviating catastrophic forgetting in experiments. Furthermore, the proposed method outperforms all other baselines on the permuted MNIST dataset, the split CIFAR100 dataset and the Visual Domain Decathlon dataset in continual learning setting.

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