Models, code, and papers for "Wenxiao Chen":

On the Necessity and Effectiveness of Learning the Prior of Variational Auto-Encoder

May 31, 2019
Haowen Xu, Wenxiao Chen, Jinlin Lai, Zhihan Li, Youjian Zhao, Dan Pei

Using powerful posterior distributions is a popular approach to achieving better variational inference. However, recent works showed that the aggregated posterior may fail to match unit Gaussian prior, thus learning the prior becomes an alternative way to improve the lower-bound. In this paper, for the first time in the literature, we prove the necessity and effectiveness of learning the prior when aggregated posterior does not match unit Gaussian prior, analyze why this situation may happen, and propose a hypothesis that learning the prior may improve reconstruction loss, all of which are supported by our extensive experiment results. We show that using learned Real NVP prior and just one latent variable in VAE, we can achieve test NLL comparable to very deep state-of-the-art hierarchical VAE, outperforming many previous works with complex hierarchical VAE architectures.


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REFIT: a Unified Watermark Removal Framework for Deep Learning Systems with Limited Data

Nov 17, 2019
Xinyun Chen, Wenxiao Wang, Chris Bender, Yiming Ding, Ruoxi Jia, Bo Li, Dawn Song

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved tremendous success in various fields; however, training these models from scratch could be computationally expensive and requires a lot of training data. Recent work has explored different watermarking techniques to protect the pre-trained deep neural networks from potential copyright infringements; however, they could be vulnerable to adversaries who aim at removing the watermarks. In this work, we propose REFIT, a unified watermark removal framework based on fine-tuning, which does not rely on the knowledge of the watermarks and even the watermarking schemes. Firstly, we demonstrate that by properly designing the learning rate schedule for fine-tuning, an adversary is always able to remove the watermarks. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive study of a realistic attack scenario where the adversary has limited training data. To effectively remove the watermarks without compromising the model functionality under this weak threat model, we propose to incorporate two techniques: (1) an adaption of the elastic weight consolidation (EWC) algorithm, which is originally proposed for mitigating the catastrophic forgetting phenomenon; and (2) unlabeled data augmentation (AU), where we leverage auxiliary unlabeled data from other sources. Our extensive evaluation shows the effectiveness of REFIT against diverse watermark embedding schemes. In particular, both EWC and AU significantly decrease the amount of labeled training data needed for effective watermark removal, and the unlabeled data samples used for AU do not necessarily need to be drawn from the same distribution as the benign data for model evaluation. The experimental results demonstrate that our fine-tuning based watermark removal attacks could pose real threats to the copyright of pre-trained models, and thus highlights the importance of further investigation of the watermarking problem.

* Early version in ICML 2019 Workshop on Security and Privacy of Machine Learning. The first two authors contribute equally 

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Unsupervised Anomaly Detection via Variational Auto-Encoder for Seasonal KPIs in Web Applications

Feb 12, 2018
Haowen Xu, Wenxiao Chen, Nengwen Zhao, Zeyan Li, Jiahao Bu, Zhihan Li, Ying Liu, Youjian Zhao, Dan Pei, Yang Feng, Jie Chen, Zhaogang Wang, Honglin Qiao

To ensure undisrupted business, large Internet companies need to closely monitor various KPIs (e.g., Page Views, number of online users, and number of orders) of its Web applications, to accurately detect anomalies and trigger timely troubleshooting/mitigation. However, anomaly detection for these seasonal KPIs with various patterns and data quality has been a great challenge, especially without labels. In this paper, we proposed Donut, an unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm based on VAE. Thanks to a few of our key techniques, Donut greatly outperforms a state-of-arts supervised ensemble approach and a baseline VAE approach, and its best F-scores range from 0.75 to 0.9 for the studied KPIs from a top global Internet company. We come up with a novel KDE interpretation of reconstruction for Donut, making it the first VAE-based anomaly detection algorithm with solid theoretical explanation.

* 12 pages (including references), 17 figures, submitted to WWW 2018: The 2018 Web Conference, April 23--27, 2018, Lyon, France. The contents discarded from the conference version due to the 9-page limitation are also included in this version 

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