Models, code, and papers for "Wittawat Jitkrittum":

We propose a nonparametric, kernel-based test to assess the relative goodness of fit of latent variable models with intractable unnormalized densities. Our test generalises the kernel Stein discrepancy (KSD) tests of (Liu et al., 2016, Chwialkowski et al., 2016, Yang et al., 2018, Jitkrittum et al., 2018) which required exact access to unnormalized densities. Our new test relies on the simple idea of using an approximate observed-variable marginal in place of the exact, intractable one. As our main theoretical contribution, we prove that the new test, with a properly corrected threshold, has a well-controlled type-I error. In the case of models with low-dimensional latent structure and high-dimensional observations, our test significantly outperforms the relative maximum mean discrepancy test (Bounliphone et al., 2015) , which cannot exploit the latent structure.

We develop a novel approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework, ABCDP, that obeys the notion of differential privacy (DP). Under our framework, simply performing ABC inference with a mild modification yields differentially private posterior samples. We theoretically analyze the interplay between the ABC similarity threshold $\epsilon_{abc}$ (for comparing the similarity between real and simulated data) and the resulting privacy level $\epsilon_{dp}$ of the posterior samples, in two types of frequently-used ABC algorithms. We apply ABCDP to simulated data as well as privacy-sensitive real data. The results suggest that tuning the similarity threshold $\epsilon_{abc}$ helps us obtain better privacy and accuracy trade-off.

In kernel methods, the median heuristic has been widely used as a way of setting the bandwidth of RBF kernels. While its empirical performances make it a safe choice under many circumstances, there is little theoretical understanding of why this is the case. Our aim in this paper is to advance our understanding of the median heuristic by focusing on the setting of kernel two-sample test. We collect new findings that may be of interest for both theoreticians and practitioners. In theory, we provide a convergence analysis that shows the asymptotic normality of the bandwidth chosen by the median heuristic in the setting of kernel two-sample test. Systematic empirical investigations are also conducted in simple settings, comparing the performances based on the bandwidths chosen by the median heuristic and those by the maximization of test power.

A new computationally efficient dependence measure, and an adaptive statistical test of independence, are proposed. The dependence measure is the difference between analytic embeddings of the joint distribution and the product of the marginals, evaluated at a finite set of locations (features). These features are chosen so as to maximize a lower bound on the test power, resulting in a test that is data-efficient, and that runs in linear time (with respect to the sample size n). The optimized features can be interpreted as evidence to reject the null hypothesis, indicating regions in the joint domain where the joint distribution and the product of the marginals differ most. Consistency of the independence test is established, for an appropriate choice of features. In real-world benchmarks, independence tests using the optimized features perform comparably to the state-of-the-art quadratic-time HSIC test, and outperform competing O(n) and O(n log n) tests.

Complicated generative models often result in a situation where computing the likelihood of observed data is intractable, while simulating from the conditional density given a parameter value is relatively easy. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) is a paradigm that enables simulation-based posterior inference in such cases by measuring the similarity between simulated and observed data in terms of a chosen set of summary statistics. However, there is no general rule to construct sufficient summary statistics for complex models. Insufficient summary statistics will "leak" information, which leads to ABC algorithms yielding samples from an incorrect (partial) posterior. In this paper, we propose a fully nonparametric ABC paradigm which circumvents the need for manually selecting summary statistics. Our approach, K2-ABC, uses maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) as a dissimilarity measure between the distributions over observed and simulated data. MMD is easily estimated as the squared difference between their empirical kernel embeddings. Experiments on a simulated scenario and a real-world biological problem illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

We propose to learn a kernel-based message operator which takes as input all expectation propagation (EP) incoming messages to a factor node and produces an outgoing message. In ordinary EP, computing an outgoing message involves estimating a multivariate integral which may not have an analytic expression. Learning such an operator allows one to bypass the expensive computation of the integral during inference by directly mapping all incoming messages into an outgoing message. The operator can be learned from training data (examples of input and output messages) which allows automated inference to be made on any kind of factor that can be sampled.

Feature selection is a technique to screen out less important features. Many existing supervised feature selection algorithms use redundancy and relevancy as the main criteria to select features. However, feature interaction, potentially a key characteristic in real-world problems, has not received much attention. As an attempt to take feature interaction into account, we propose L1-LSMI, an L1-regularization based algorithm that maximizes a squared-loss variant of mutual information between selected features and outputs. Numerical results show that L1-LSMI performs well in handling redundancy, detecting non-linear dependency, and considering feature interaction.

The Kullback-Leilber divergence from model to data is a classic goodness of fit measure but can be intractable in many cases. In this paper, we estimate the ratio function between a data density and a model density with the help of Stein operator. The estimated density ratio allows us to compute the likelihood ratio function which is a surrogate to the actual Kullback-Leibler divergence from model to data. By minimizing this surrogate, we can perform model fitting and inference from either frequentist or Bayesian point of view. This paper discusses methods, theories and algorithms for performing such tasks. Our theoretical claims are verified by experiments and examples are given demonstrating the usefulness of our methods.

Modern implicit generative models such as generative adversarial networks (GANs) are generally known to suffer from instability and lack of interpretability as it is difficult to diagnose what aspects of the target distribution are missed by the generative model. In this work, we propose a theoretically grounded solution to these issues by augmenting the GAN's loss function with a kernel-based regularization term that magnifies local discrepancy between the distributions of generated and real samples. The proposed method relies on so-called witness points in the data space which are jointly trained with the generator and provide an interpretable indication of where the two distributions locally differ during the training procedure. In addition, the proposed algorithm is scaled to higher dimensions by learning the witness locations in a latent space of an autoencoder. We theoretically investigate the dynamics of the training procedure, prove that a desirable equilibrium point exists, and the dynamical system is locally stable around this equilibrium. Finally, we demonstrate different aspects of the proposed algorithm by numerical simulations of analytical solutions and empirical results for low and high-dimensional datasets.

Two semimetrics on probability distributions are proposed, given as the sum of differences of expectations of analytic functions evaluated at spatial or frequency locations (i.e, features). The features are chosen so as to maximize the distinguishability of the distributions, by optimizing a lower bound on test power for a statistical test using these features. The result is a parsimonious and interpretable indication of how and where two distributions differ locally. An empirical estimate of the test power criterion converges with increasing sample size, ensuring the quality of the returned features. In real-world benchmarks on high-dimensional text and image data, linear-time tests using the proposed semimetrics achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art quadratic-time maximum mean discrepancy test, while returning human-interpretable features that explain the test results.

We propose a novel adaptive test of goodness-of-fit, with computational cost linear in the number of samples. We learn the test features that best indicate the differences between observed samples and a reference model, by minimizing the false negative rate. These features are constructed via Stein's method, meaning that it is not necessary to compute the normalising constant of the model. We analyse the asymptotic Bahadur efficiency of the new test, and prove that under a mean-shift alternative, our test always has greater relative efficiency than a previous linear-time kernel test, regardless of the choice of parameters for that test. In experiments, the performance of our method exceeds that of the earlier linear-time test, and matches or exceeds the power of a quadratic-time kernel test. In high dimensions and where model structure may be exploited, our goodness of fit test performs far better than a quadratic-time two-sample test based on the Maximum Mean Discrepancy, with samples drawn from the model.

The goal of supervised feature selection is to find a subset of input features that are responsible for predicting output values. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) allows computationally efficient feature selection based on linear dependency between input features and output values. In this paper, we consider a feature-wise kernelized Lasso for capturing non-linear input-output dependency. We first show that, with particular choices of kernel functions, non-redundant features with strong statistical dependence on output values can be found in terms of kernel-based independence measures. We then show that the globally optimal solution can be efficiently computed; this makes the approach scalable to high-dimensional problems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through feature selection experiments with thousands of features.

Given two candidate models, and a set of target observations, we address the problem of measuring the relative goodness of fit of the two models. We propose two new statistical tests which are nonparametric, computationally efficient (runtime complexity is linear in the sample size), and interpretable. As a unique advantage, our tests can produce a set of examples (informative features) indicating the regions in the data domain where one model fits significantly better than the other. In a real-world problem of comparing GAN models, the test power of our new test matches that of the state-of-the-art test of relative goodness of fit, while being one order of magnitude faster.

We introduce the Locally Linear Latent Variable Model (LL-LVM), a probabilistic model for non-linear manifold discovery that describes a joint distribution over observations, their manifold coordinates and locally linear maps conditioned on a set of neighbourhood relationships. The model allows straightforward variational optimisation of the posterior distribution on coordinates and locally linear maps from the latent space to the observation space given the data. Thus, the LL-LVM encapsulates the local-geometry preserving intuitions that underlie non-probabilistic methods such as locally linear embedding (LLE). Its probabilistic semantics make it easy to evaluate the quality of hypothesised neighbourhood relationships, select the intrinsic dimensionality of the manifold, construct out-of-sample extensions and to combine the manifold model with additional probabilistic models that capture the structure of coordinates within the manifold.

Refining one's hypotheses in the light of data is a commonplace scientific practice, however, this approach introduces selection bias and can lead to specious statistical analysis. One approach of addressing this phenomena is via conditioning on the selection procedure, i.e., how we have used the data to generate our hypotheses, and prevents information to be used again after selection. Many selective inference (a.k.a. post-selection inference) algorithms typically take this approach but will "over-condition" for sake of tractability. While this practice obtains well calibrated $p$-values, it can incur a major loss in power. In our work, we extend two recent proposals for selecting features using the Maximum Mean Discrepancy and Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion to condition on the minimal conditioning event. We show how recent advances in multiscale bootstrap makes conditioning on the minimal selection event possible and demonstrate our proposal over a range of synthetic and real world experiments. Our results show that our proposed test is indeed more powerful in most scenarios.

We propose a novel procedure which adds "content-addressability" to any given unconditional implicit model e.g., a generative adversarial network (GAN). The procedure allows users to control the generative process by specifying a set (arbitrary size) of desired examples based on which similar samples are generated from the model. The proposed approach, based on kernel mean matching, is applicable to any generative models which transform latent vectors to samples, and does not require retraining of the model. Experiments on various high-dimensional image generation problems (CelebA-HQ, LSUN bedroom, bridge, tower) show that our approach is able to generate images which are consistent with the input set, while retaining the image quality of the original model. To our knowledge, this is the first work that attempts to construct, at test time, a content-addressable generative model from a trained marginal model.

We propose an efficient nonparametric strategy for learning a message operator in expectation propagation (EP), which takes as input the set of incoming messages to a factor node, and produces an outgoing message as output. This learned operator replaces the multivariate integral required in classical EP, which may not have an analytic expression. We use kernel-based regression, which is trained on a set of probability distributions representing the incoming messages, and the associated outgoing messages. The kernel approach has two main advantages: first, it is fast, as it is implemented using a novel two-layer random feature representation of the input message distributions; second, it has principled uncertainty estimates, and can be cheaply updated online, meaning it can request and incorporate new training data when it encounters inputs on which it is uncertain. In experiments, our approach is able to solve learning problems where a single message operator is required for multiple, substantially different data sets (logistic regression for a variety of classification problems), where it is essential to accurately assess uncertainty and to efficiently and robustly update the message operator.