Models, code, and papers for "Xiao Chen":

RAUNet: Residual Attention U-Net for Semantic Segmentation of Cataract Surgical Instruments

Oct 02, 2019
Zhen-Liang Ni, Gui-Bin Bian, Xiao-Hu Zhou, Zeng-Guang Hou, Xiao-Liang Xie, Chen Wang, Yan-Jie Zhou, Rui-Qi Li, Zhen Li

Semantic segmentation of surgical instruments plays a crucial role in robot-assisted surgery. However, accurate segmentation of cataract surgical instruments is still a challenge due to specular reflection and class imbalance issues. In this paper, an attention-guided network is proposed to segment the cataract surgical instrument. A new attention module is designed to learn discriminative features and address the specular reflection issue. It captures global context and encodes semantic dependencies to emphasize key semantic features, boosting the feature representation. This attention module has very few parameters, which helps to save memory. Thus, it can be flexibly plugged into other networks. Besides, a hybrid loss is introduced to train our network for addressing the class imbalance issue, which merges cross entropy and logarithms of Dice loss. A new dataset named Cata7 is constructed to evaluate our network. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cataract surgical instrument dataset for semantic segmentation. Based on this dataset, RAUNet achieves state-of-the-art performance 97.71% mean Dice and 95.62% mean IOU.

* Accepted by the 26th International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP2019). arXiv admin note: cs.CV => eess.IV cs.CV 

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A propagation matting method based on the Local Sampling and KNN Classification with adaptive feature space

May 03, 2016
Xiao Chen, Fazhi He

Closed Form is a propagation based matting algorithm, functioning well on images with good propagation . The deficiency of the Closed Form method is that for complex areas with poor image propagation , such as hole areas or areas of long and narrow structures. The right results are usually hard to get. On these areas, if certain flags are provided, it can improve the effects of matting. In this paper, we design a matting algorithm by local sampling and the KNN classifier propagation based matting algorithm. First of all, build the corresponding features space according to the different components of image colors to reduce the influence of overlapping between the foreground and background, and to improve the classification accuracy of KNN classifier. Second, adaptively use local sampling or using local KNN classifier for processing based on the pros and cons of the sample performance of unknown image areas. Finally, based on different treatment methods for the unknown areas, we will use different weight for augmenting constraints to make the treatment more effective. In this paper, by combining qualitative observation and quantitative analysis, we will make evaluation of the experimental results through online standard set of evaluation tests. It shows that on images with good propagation , this method is as effective as the Closed Form method, while on images in complex regions, it can perform even better than Closed Form.


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Trading the Twitter Sentiment with Reinforcement Learning

Jan 07, 2018
Catherine Xiao, Wanfeng Chen

This paper is to explore the possibility to use alternative data and artificial intelligence techniques to trade stocks. The efficacy of the daily Twitter sentiment on predicting the stock return is examined using machine learning methods. Reinforcement learning(Q-learning) is applied to generate the optimal trading policy based on the sentiment signal. The predicting power of the sentiment signal is more significant if the stock price is driven by the expectation of the company growth and when the company has a major event that draws the public attention. The optimal trading strategy based on reinforcement learning outperforms the trading strategy based on the machine learning prediction.

* 5 pages 

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A Near-Optimal Dynamic Learning Algorithm for Online Matching Problems with Concave Returns

Jun 06, 2015
Xiao Alison Chen, Zizhuo Wang

We consider an online matching problem with concave returns. This problem is a significant generalization of the Adwords allocation problem and has vast applications in online advertising. In this problem, a sequence of items arrive sequentially and each has to be allocated to one of the bidders, who bid a certain value for each item. At each time, the decision maker has to allocate the current item to one of the bidders without knowing the future bids and the objective is to maximize the sum of some concave functions of each bidder's aggregate value. In this work, we propose an algorithm that achieves near-optimal performance for this problem when the bids arrive in a random order and the input data satisfies certain conditions. The key idea of our algorithm is to learn the input data pattern dynamically: we solve a sequence of carefully chosen partial allocation problems and use their optimal solutions to assist with the future decision. Our analysis belongs to the primal-dual paradigm, however, the absence of linearity of the objective function and the dynamic feature of the algorithm makes our analysis quite unique.


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Stable Matrix Completion using Properly Configured Kronecker Product Decomposition

Dec 06, 2019
Chencheng Cai, Rong Chen, Han Xiao

Matrix completion problems are the problems of recovering missing entries in a partially observed high dimensional matrix with or without noise. Such a problem is encountered in a wide range of applications such as collaborative filtering, global positioning and remote sensing. Most of the existing matrix completion algorithms assume a low rank structure of the underlying complete matrix and perform reconstruction through the recovery of the low-rank structure using singular value decomposition. In this paper, we propose an alternative and more flexible structure for the underlying true complete matrix for the purpose of matrix completion and denoising. Specifically, instead of assuming a low matrix rank, we assume the underlying complete matrix has a low Kronecker product rank structure. Such a structure is often seen in the matrix observations in signal processing and image processing applications. The Kronecker product structure also includes low rank singular value decomposition structure commonly used as one of its special cases. The extra flexibility assumed for the underlying structure allows for using much less number of parameters but also raises the challenge of determining the proper Kronecker product configuration to be used. In this article, we propose to use a class of information criteria for the determination of the proper configuration and study its empirical performance in matrix completion problems. Simulation studies show promising results that the true underlying configuration can be accurately selected by the information criteria and the accompanying matrix completion algorithm can produce more accurate matrix recovery with less number of parameters than the standard matrix completion algorithms.


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Hybrid Kronecker Product Decomposition and Approximation

Dec 06, 2019
Chencheng Cai, Rong Chen, Han Xiao

Discovering the underlying low dimensional structure of high dimensional data has attracted a significant amount of researches recently and has shown to have a wide range of applications. As an effective dimension reduction tool, singular value decomposition is often used to analyze high dimensional matrices, which are traditionally assumed to have a low rank matrix approximation. In this paper, we propose a new approach. We assume a high dimensional matrix can be approximated by a sum of a small number of Kronecker products of matrices with potentially different configurations, named as a hybird Kronecker outer Product Approximation (hKoPA). It provides an extremely flexible way of dimension reduction compared to the low-rank matrix approximation. Challenges arise in estimating a hKoPA when the configurations of component Kronecker products are different or unknown. We propose an estimation procedure when the set of configurations are given and a joint configuration determination and component estimation procedure when the configurations are unknown. Specifically, a least squares backfitting algorithm is used when the configuration is given. When the configuration is unknown, an iterative greedy algorithm is used. Both simulation and real image examples show that the proposed algorithms have promising performances. The hybrid Kronecker product approximation may have potentially wider applications in low dimensional representation of high dimensional data


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KoPA: Automated Kronecker Product Approximation

Dec 05, 2019
Chencheng Cai, Rong Chen, Han Xiao

We consider matrix approximation induced by the Kronecker product decomposition. Similar as the low rank approximations, which seeks to approximate a given matrix by the sum of a few rank-1 matrices, we propose to use the approximation by the sum of a few Kronecker products, which we refer to as the Kronecker product approximation (KoPA). Although it can be transformed into an SVD problem, KoPA offers a greater flexibility over low rank approximation, since it allows the user to choose the configuration of the Kronecker product. On the other hand, the configuration (the dimensions of the two smaller matrices forming the Kronecker product) to be used is usually unknown, and has to be determined from the data in order to obtain optimal balance between accuracy and complexity. We propose to use an extended information criterion to select the configuration. Under the paradigm of high dimensionality, we show that the proposed procedure is able to select the true configuration with probability tending to one, under suitable conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate the performance and superiority of KoPA over the low rank approximations thought numerical studies, and a real example in image analysis.


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Understanding Video Content: Efficient Hero Detection and Recognition for the Game "Honor of Kings"

Jul 18, 2019
Wentao Yao, Zixun Sun, Xiao Chen

In order to understand content and automatically extract labels for videos of the game "Honor of Kings", it is necessary to detect and recognize characters (called "hero") together with their camps in the game video. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage algorithm to detect and recognize heros in game videos. First, we detect all heros in a video frame based on blood bar template-matching method, and classify them according to their camps (self/ friend/ enemy). Then we recognize the name of each hero using one or more deep convolution neural networks. Our method needs almost no work for labelling training and testing samples in the recognition stage. Experiments show its efficiency and accuracy in the task of hero detection and recognition in game videos.


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End-to-end Segmentation with Recurrent Attention Neural Network

Dec 05, 2018
Qiaoying Huang, Xiao Chen, Mariappan Nadar

Image segmentation quality depends heavily on the quality of the image. For many medical imaging modalities, image reconstruction is required to convert acquired raw data to images before any analysis. However, imperfect reconstruction with artifacts and loss of information is almost inevitable, which compromises the final performance of segmentation. In this study, we present a novel end-to-end deep learning framework that performs magnetic resonance brain image segmentation directly from the raw data. The end-to-end framework consists a unique task-driven attention module that recurrently utilizes intermediate segmentation result to facilitate image-domain feature extraction from the raw data for segmentation, thus closely bridging the reconstruction and the segmentation tasks. In addition, we introduce a novel workflow to generate labeled training data for segmentation by exploiting imaging modality simulators and digital phantoms. Extensive experiment results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

* 14 pages; 

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Deep Inception Generative Network for Cognitive Image Inpainting

Dec 01, 2018
Qingguo Xiao, Guangyao Li, Qiaochuan Chen

Recent advances in deep learning have shown exciting promise in filling large holes and lead to another orientation for image inpainting. However, existing learning-based methods often create artifacts and fallacious textures because of insufficient cognition understanding. Previous generative networks are limited with single receptive type and give up pooling in consideration of detail sharpness. Human cognition is constant regardless of the target attribute. As multiple receptive fields improve the ability of abstract image characterization and pooling can keep feature invariant, specifically, deep inception learning is adopted to promote high-level feature representation and enhance model learning capacity for local patches. Moreover, approaches for generating diverse mask images are introduced and a random mask dataset is created. We benchmark our methods on ImageNet, Places2 dataset, and CelebA-HQ. Experiments for regular, irregular, and custom regions completion are all performed and free-style image inpainting is also presented. Quantitative comparisons with previous state-of-the-art methods show that ours obtain much more natural image completions.


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Understanding Compressive Adversarial Privacy

Oct 02, 2018
Xiao Chen, Peter Kairouz, Ram Rajagopal

Designing a data sharing mechanism without sacrificing too much privacy can be considered as a game between data holders and malicious attackers. This paper describes a compressive adversarial privacy framework that captures the trade-off between the data privacy and utility. We characterize the optimal data releasing mechanism through convex optimization when assuming that both the data holder and attacker can only modify the data using linear transformations. We then build a more realistic data releasing mechanism that can rely on a nonlinear compression model while the attacker uses a neural network. We demonstrate in a series of empirical applications that this framework, consisting of compressive adversarial privacy, can preserve sensitive information.


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Constrained Generation of Semantically Valid Graphs via Regularizing Variational Autoencoders

Sep 19, 2018
Tengfei Ma, Jie Chen, Cao Xiao

Deep generative models have achieved remarkable success in various data domains, including images, time series, and natural languages. There remain, however, substantial challenges for combinatorial structures, including graphs. One of the key challenges lies in the difficulty of ensuring semantic validity in context. For examples, in molecular graphs, the number of bonding-electron pairs must not exceed the valence of an atom; whereas in protein interaction networks, two proteins may be connected only when they belong to the same or correlated gene ontology terms. These constraints are not easy to be incorporated into a generative model. In this work, we propose a regularization framework for variational autoencoders as a step toward semantic validity. We focus on the matrix representation of graphs and formulate penalty terms that regularize the output distribution of the decoder to encourage the satisfaction of validity constraints. Experimental results confirm a much higher likelihood of sampling valid graphs in our approach, compared with others reported in the literature.

* NIPS 2018 

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Multi-Perspective Neural Architecture for Recommendation System

Jul 12, 2018
Han Xiao, Yidong Chen, Xiaodong Shi

Currently, there starts a research trend to leverage neural architecture for recommendation systems. Though several deep recommender models are proposed, most methods are too simple to characterize users' complex preference. In this paper, for a fine-grain analysis, users' ratings are explained from multiple perspectives, based on which, we propose our neural architecture. Specifically, our model employs several sequential stages to encode the user and item into hidden representations. In one stage, the user and item are represented from multiple perspectives and in each perspective, the representations of user and item put attentions to each other. Last, we metric the output representations of final stage to approach the users' rating. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves substantial improvements against baselines.


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Component SPD Matrices: A lower-dimensional discriminative data descriptor for image set classification

Jun 16, 2018
Kai-Xuan Chen, Xiao-Jun Wu

In the domain of pattern recognition, using the SPD (Symmetric Positive Definite) matrices to represent data and taking the metrics of resulting Riemannian manifold into account have been widely used for the task of image set classification. In this paper, we propose a new data representation framework for image sets named CSPD (Component Symmetric Positive Definite). Firstly, we obtain sub-image sets by dividing the image set into square blocks with the same size, and use traditional SPD model to describe them. Then, we use the results of the Riemannian kernel on SPD matrices as similarities of corresponding sub-image sets. Finally, the CSPD matrix appears in the form of the kernel matrix for all the sub-image sets, and CSPDi,j denotes the similarity between i-th sub-image set and j-th sub-image set. Here, the Riemannian kernel is shown to satisfy the Mercer's theorem, so our proposed CSPD matrix is symmetric and positive definite and also lies on a Riemannian manifold. On three benchmark datasets, experimental results show that CSPD is a lower-dimensional and more discriminative data descriptor for the task of image set classification.

* 8 pages,5 figures, Computational Visual Media, 2018 

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Hungarian Layer: Logics Empowered Neural Architecture

May 17, 2018
Han Xiao, Yidong Chen, Xiaodong Shi

Neural architecture is a purely numeric framework, which fits the data as a continuous function. However, lacking of logic flow (e.g. \textit{if, for, while}), traditional algorithms (e.g. \textit{Hungarian algorithm, A$^*$ searching, decision tress algorithm}) could not be embedded into this paradigm, which limits the theories and applications. In this paper, we reform the calculus graph as a dynamic process, which is guided by logic flow. Within our novel methodology, traditional algorithms could empower numerical neural network. Specifically, regarding the subject of sentence matching, we reformulate this issue as the form of task-assignment, which is solved by Hungarian algorithm. First, our model applies BiLSTM to parse the sentences. Then Hungarian layer aligns the matching positions. Last, we transform the matching results for soft-max regression by another BiLSTM. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines substantially.

* This is the draft submitting to ICML 2018. You could expect the final version, which is more perfect 

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Towards Training Probabilistic Topic Models on Neuromorphic Multi-chip Systems

Apr 10, 2018
Zihao Xiao, Jianfei Chen, Jun Zhu

Probabilistic topic models are popular unsupervised learning methods, including probabilistic latent semantic indexing (pLSI) and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). By now, their training is implemented on general purpose computers (GPCs), which are flexible in programming but energy-consuming. Towards low-energy implementations, this paper investigates their training on an emerging hardware technology called the neuromorphic multi-chip systems (NMSs). NMSs are very effective for a family of algorithms called spiking neural networks (SNNs). We present three SNNs to train topic models. The first SNN is a batch algorithm combining the conventional collapsed Gibbs sampling (CGS) algorithm and an inference SNN to train LDA. The other two SNNs are online algorithms targeting at both energy- and storage-limited environments. The two online algorithms are equivalent with training LDA by using maximum-a-posterior estimation and maximizing the semi-collapsed likelihood, respectively. They use novel, tailored ordinary differential equations for stochastic optimization. We simulate the new algorithms and show that they are comparable with the GPC algorithms, while being suitable for NMS implementation. We also propose an extension to train pLSI and a method to prune the network to obey the limited fan-in of some NMSs.

* Accepted by AAAI-18, oral 

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Tracking Multiple Moving Objects Using Unscented Kalman Filtering Techniques

Feb 05, 2018
Xi Chen, Xiao Wang, Jianhua Xuan

It is an important task to reliably detect and track multiple moving objects for video surveillance and monitoring. However, when occlusion occurs in nonlinear motion scenarios, many existing methods often fail to continuously track multiple moving objects of interest. In this paper we propose an effective approach for detection and tracking of multiple moving objects with occlusion. Moving targets are initially detected using a simple yet efficient block matching technique, providing rough location information for multiple object tracking. More accurate location information is then estimated for each moving object by a nonlinear tracking algorithm. Considering the ambiguity caused by the occlusion among multiple moving objects, we apply an unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) technique for reliable object detection and tracking. Different from conventional Kalman filtering (KF), which cannot achieve the optimal estimation in nonlinear tracking scenarios, UKF can be used to track both linear and nonlinear motions due to the unscented transform. Further, it estimates the velocity information for each object to assist to the object detection algorithm, effectively delineating multiple moving objects of occlusion. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can correctly detect and track multiple moving objects with nonlinear motion patterns and occlusions.

* 2012 International Conference on Engineering and Applied Science (ICEAS 2012) 

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