Models, code, and papers for "Xiaodong Gu":

Max-Pooling Dropout for Regularization of Convolutional Neural Networks

Dec 04, 2015
Haibing Wu, Xiaodong Gu

Recently, dropout has seen increasing use in deep learning. For deep convolutional neural networks, dropout is known to work well in fully-connected layers. However, its effect in pooling layers is still not clear. This paper demonstrates that max-pooling dropout is equivalent to randomly picking activation based on a multinomial distribution at training time. In light of this insight, we advocate employing our proposed probabilistic weighted pooling, instead of commonly used max-pooling, to act as model averaging at test time. Empirical evidence validates the superiority of probabilistic weighted pooling. We also compare max-pooling dropout and stochastic pooling, both of which introduce stochasticity based on multinomial distributions at pooling stage.

* The journal version of this paper [arXiv:1512.00242] has been published in Neural Networks, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608015001446 

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Towards Dropout Training for Convolutional Neural Networks

Dec 01, 2015
Haibing Wu, Xiaodong Gu

Recently, dropout has seen increasing use in deep learning. For deep convolutional neural networks, dropout is known to work well in fully-connected layers. However, its effect in convolutional and pooling layers is still not clear. This paper demonstrates that max-pooling dropout is equivalent to randomly picking activation based on a multinomial distribution at training time. In light of this insight, we advocate employing our proposed probabilistic weighted pooling, instead of commonly used max-pooling, to act as model averaging at test time. Empirical evidence validates the superiority of probabilistic weighted pooling. We also empirically show that the effect of convolutional dropout is not trivial, despite the dramatically reduced possibility of over-fitting due to the convolutional architecture. Elaborately designing dropout training simultaneously in max-pooling and fully-connected layers, we achieve state-of-the-art performance on MNIST, and very competitive results on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, relative to other approaches without data augmentation. Finally, we compare max-pooling dropout and stochastic pooling, both of which introduce stochasticity based on multinomial distributions at pooling stage.

* Neural Networks 71: 1-10 (2015) 
* This paper has been published in Neural Networks, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608015001446 

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Deep API Learning

Jul 14, 2017
Xiaodong Gu, Hongyu Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Sunghun Kim

Developers often wonder how to implement a certain functionality (e.g., how to parse XML files) using APIs. Obtaining an API usage sequence based on an API-related natural language query is very helpful in this regard. Given a query, existing approaches utilize information retrieval models to search for matching API sequences. These approaches treat queries and APIs as bag-of-words (i.e., keyword matching or word-to-word alignment) and lack a deep understanding of the semantics of the query. We propose DeepAPI, a deep learning based approach to generate API usage sequences for a given natural language query. Instead of a bags-of-words assumption, it learns the sequence of words in a query and the sequence of associated APIs. DeepAPI adapts a neural language model named RNN Encoder-Decoder. It encodes a word sequence (user query) into a fixed-length context vector, and generates an API sequence based on the context vector. We also augment the RNN Encoder-Decoder by considering the importance of individual APIs. We empirically evaluate our approach with more than 7 million annotated code snippets collected from GitHub. The results show that our approach generates largely accurate API sequences and outperforms the related approaches.

* The paper is accepted at FSE 2016 (the 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering) 

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DeepAM: Migrate APIs with Multi-modal Sequence to Sequence Learning

Apr 25, 2017
Xiaodong Gu, Hongyu Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Sunghun Kim

Computer programs written in one language are often required to be ported to other languages to support multiple devices and environments. When programs use language specific APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), it is very challenging to migrate these APIs to the corresponding APIs written in other languages. Existing approaches mine API mappings from projects that have corresponding versions in two languages. They rely on the sparse availability of bilingual projects, thus producing a limited number of API mappings. In this paper, we propose an intelligent system called DeepAM for automatically mining API mappings from a large-scale code corpus without bilingual projects. The key component of DeepAM is based on the multimodal sequence to sequence learning architecture that aims to learn joint semantic representations of bilingual API sequences from big source code data. Experimental results indicate that DeepAM significantly increases the accuracy of API mappings as well as the number of API mappings, when compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

* Accepted at IJCAI 2017 (The 26th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) 

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Aspect-based Opinion Summarization with Convolutional Neural Networks

Nov 30, 2015
Haibing Wu, Yiwei Gu, Shangdi Sun, Xiaodong Gu

This paper considers Aspect-based Opinion Summarization (AOS) of reviews on particular products. To enable real applications, an AOS system needs to address two core subtasks, aspect extraction and sentiment classification. Most existing approaches to aspect extraction, which use linguistic analysis or topic modeling, are general across different products but not precise enough or suitable for particular products. Instead we take a less general but more precise scheme, directly mapping each review sentence into pre-defined aspects. To tackle aspect mapping and sentiment classification, we propose two Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based methods, cascaded CNN and multitask CNN. Cascaded CNN contains two levels of convolutional networks. Multiple CNNs at level 1 deal with aspect mapping task, and a single CNN at level 2 deals with sentiment classification. Multitask CNN also contains multiple aspect CNNs and a sentiment CNN, but different networks share the same word embeddings. Experimental results indicate that both cascaded and multitask CNNs outperform SVM-based methods by large margins. Multitask CNN generally performs better than cascaded CNN.


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DialogWAE: Multimodal Response Generation with Conditional Wasserstein Auto-Encoder

May 31, 2018
Xiaodong Gu, Kyunghyun Cho, Jungwoo Ha, Sunghun Kim

Variational autoencoders (VAEs) have shown a promise in data-driven conversation modeling. However, most VAE conversation models match the approximate posterior distribution over the latent variables to a simple prior such as standard normal distribution, thereby restricting the generated responses to a relatively simple (e.g., single-modal) scope. In this paper, we propose DialogWAE, a conditional Wasserstein autoencoder (WAE) specially designed for dialogue modeling. Unlike VAEs that impose a simple distribution over the latent variables, DialogWAE models the distribution of data by training a GAN within the latent variable space. Specifically, our model samples from the prior and posterior distributions over the latent variables by transforming context-dependent random noise using neural networks and minimizes the Wasserstein distance between the two distributions. We further develop a Gaussian mixture prior network to enrich the latent space. Experiments on two widely-used datasets show that DialogWAE outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches in generating more coherent, informative and diverse responses.


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Attribute-Driven Spontaneous Motion in Unpaired Image Translation

Jul 02, 2019
Ruizheng Wu, Xin Tao, Xiaodong Gu, Xiaoyong Shen, Jiaya Jia

Current image translation methods, albeit effective to produce high-quality results on various applications, still do not consider much geometric transforms. We in this paper propose spontaneous motion estimation module, along with a refinement module, to learn attribute-driven deformation between source and target domains. Extensive experiments and visualization demonstrate effectiveness of these modules. We achieve promising results in unpaired image translation tasks, and enable interesting applications with spontaneous motion basis.


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Thermal Infrared Colorization via Conditional Generative Adversarial Network

Nov 05, 2018
Xiaodong Kuang, Xiubao Sui, Chengwei Liu, Yuan Liu, Qian Chen, Guohua Gu

Transforming a thermal infrared image into a realistic RGB image is a challenging task. In this paper we propose a deep learning method to bridge this gap. We propose learning the transformation mapping using a coarse-to-fine generator that preserves the details. Since the standard mean squared loss cannot penalize the distance between colorized and ground truth images well, we propose a composite loss function that combines content, adversarial, perceptual and total variation losses. The content loss is used to recover global image information while the latter three losses are used to synthesize local realistic textures. Quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms existing approaches.


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Landmark Assisted CycleGAN for Cartoon Face Generation

Jul 02, 2019
Ruizheng Wu, Xiaodong Gu, Xin Tao, Xiaoyong Shen, Yu-Wing Tai, Jiaya Jia

In this paper, we are interested in generating an cartoon face of a person by using unpaired training data between real faces and cartoon ones. A major challenge of this task is that the structures of real and cartoon faces are in two different domains, whose appearance differs greatly from each other. Without explicit correspondence, it is difficult to generate a high quality cartoon face that captures the essential facial features of a person. In order to solve this problem, we propose landmark assisted CycleGAN, which utilizes face landmarks to define landmark consistency loss and to guide the training of local discriminator in CycleGAN. To enforce structural consistency in landmarks, we utilize the conditional generator and discriminator. Our approach is capable to generate high-quality cartoon faces even indistinguishable from those drawn by artists and largely improves state-of-the-art.


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Acoustic Model Optimization Based On Evolutionary Stochastic Gradient Descent with Anchors for Automatic Speech Recognition

Jul 10, 2019
Xiaodong Cui, Michael Picheny

Evolutionary stochastic gradient descent (ESGD) was proposed as a population-based approach that combines the merits of gradient-aware and gradient-free optimization algorithms for superior overall optimization performance. In this paper we investigate a variant of ESGD for optimization of acoustic models for automatic speech recognition (ASR). In this variant, we assume the existence of a well-trained acoustic model and use it as an anchor in the parent population whose good "gene" will propagate in the evolution to the offsprings. We propose an ESGD algorithm leveraging the anchor models such that it guarantees the best fitness of the population will never degrade from the anchor model. Experiments on 50-hour Broadcast News (BN50) and 300-hour Switchboard (SWB300) show that the ESGD with anchors can further improve the loss and ASR performance over the existing well-trained acoustic models.

* Interspeech 2019 

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Reinforcement Learning with External Knowledge and Two-Stage Q-functions for Predicting Popular Reddit Threads

Apr 20, 2017
Ji He, Mari Ostendorf, Xiaodong He

This paper addresses the problem of predicting popularity of comments in an online discussion forum using reinforcement learning, particularly addressing two challenges that arise from having natural language state and action spaces. First, the state representation, which characterizes the history of comments tracked in a discussion at a particular point, is augmented to incorporate the global context represented by discussions on world events available in an external knowledge source. Second, a two-stage Q-learning framework is introduced, making it feasible to search the combinatorial action space while also accounting for redundancy among sub-actions. We experiment with five Reddit communities, showing that the two methods improve over previous reported results on this task.


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Fundamental Conditions for Low-CP-Rank Tensor Completion

Mar 31, 2017
Morteza Ashraphijuo, Xiaodong Wang

We consider the problem of low canonical polyadic (CP) rank tensor completion. A completion is a tensor whose entries agree with the observed entries and its rank matches the given CP rank. We analyze the manifold structure corresponding to the tensors with the given rank and define a set of polynomials based on the sampling pattern and CP decomposition. Then, we show that finite completability of the sampled tensor is equivalent to having a certain number of algebraically independent polynomials among the defined polynomials. Our proposed approach results in characterizing the maximum number of algebraically independent polynomials in terms of a simple geometric structure of the sampling pattern, and therefore we obtain the deterministic necessary and sufficient condition on the sampling pattern for finite completability of the sampled tensor. Moreover, assuming that the entries of the tensor are sampled independently with probability $p$ and using the mentioned deterministic analysis, we propose a combinatorial method to derive a lower bound on the sampling probability $p$, or equivalently, the number of sampled entries that guarantees finite completability with high probability. We also show that the existing result for the matrix completion problem can be used to obtain a loose lower bound on the sampling probability $p$. In addition, we obtain deterministic and probabilistic conditions for unique completability. It is seen that the number of samples required for finite or unique completability obtained by the proposed analysis on the CP manifold is orders-of-magnitude lower than that is obtained by the existing analysis on the Grassmannian manifold.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1703.07698 

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Redefinition of the concept of fuzzy set based on vague partition from the perspective of axiomatization

Jan 27, 2017
Xiaodong Pan, Yang Xu

Based on the in-depth analysis of the essence and features of vague phenomena, this paper focuses on establishing the axiomatical foundation of membership degree theory for vague phenomena, presents an axiomatic system to govern membership degrees and their interconnections. On this basis, the concept of vague partition is introduced, further, the concept of fuzzy set introduced by Zadeh in 1965 is redefined based on vague partition from the perspective of axiomatization. The thesis defended in this paper is that the relationship among vague attribute values should be the starting point to recognize and model vague phenomena from a quantitative view.

* 25 pages. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1506.07821 

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Robust and computationally feasible community detection in the presence of arbitrary outlier nodes

Jun 03, 2015
T. Tony Cai, Xiaodong Li

Community detection, which aims to cluster $N$ nodes in a given graph into $r$ distinct groups based on the observed undirected edges, is an important problem in network data analysis. In this paper, the popular stochastic block model (SBM) is extended to the generalized stochastic block model (GSBM) that allows for adversarial outlier nodes, which are connected with the other nodes in the graph in an arbitrary way. Under this model, we introduce a procedure using convex optimization followed by $k$-means algorithm with $k=r$. Both theoretical and numerical properties of the method are analyzed. A theoretical guarantee is given for the procedure to accurately detect the communities with small misclassification rate under the setting where the number of clusters can grow with $N$. This theoretical result admits to the best-known result in the literature of computationally feasible community detection in SBM without outliers. Numerical results show that our method is both computationally fast and robust to different kinds of outliers, while some popular computationally fast community detection algorithms, such as spectral clustering applied to adjacency matrices or graph Laplacians, may fail to retrieve the major clusters due to a small portion of outliers. We apply a slight modification of our method to a political blogs data set, showing that our method is competent in practice and comparable to existing computationally feasible methods in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, our result is the first in the literature in terms of clustering communities with fast growing numbers under the GSBM where a portion of arbitrary outlier nodes exist.

* Annals of Statistics 2015, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1027-1059 
* Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-AOS1290 in the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org) 

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Nonconvex Rectangular Matrix Completion via Gradient Descent without $\ell_{2,\infty}$ Regularization

Jan 18, 2019
Ji Chen, Dekai Liu, Xiaodong Li

The analysis of nonconvex matrix completion has recently attracted much attention in the community of machine learning thanks to its computational convenience. Existing analysis on this problem, however, usually relies on $\ell_{2,\infty}$ projection or regularization that involves unknown model parameters, although they are observed to be unnecessary in numerical simulations, see, e.g. Zheng and Lafferty [2016]. In this paper, we extend the analysis of the vanilla gradient descent for positive semidefinite matrix completion proposed in Ma et al. [2017] to the rectangular case, and more significantly, improve the required sampling complexity from $\widetilde{O}(r^3)$ to $\widetilde{O}(r^2)$. Our technical ideas and contributions are potentially useful in improving the leave-one-out analysis in other related problems.


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Convex Relaxation Methods for Community Detection

Sep 30, 2018
Xiaodong Li, Yudong Chen, Jiaming Xu

This paper surveys recent theoretical advances in convex optimization approaches for community detection. We introduce some important theoretical techniques and results for establishing the consistency of convex community detection under various statistical models. In particular, we discuss the basic techniques based on the primal and dual analysis. We also present results that demonstrate several distinctive advantages of convex community detection, including robustness against outlier nodes, consistency under weak assortativity, and adaptivity to heterogeneous degrees. This survey is not intended to be a complete overview of the vast literature on this fast-growing topic. Instead, we aim to provide a big picture of the remarkable recent development in this area and to make the survey accessible to a broad audience. We hope that this expository article can serve as an introductory guide for readers who are interested in using, designing, and analyzing convex relaxation methods in network analysis.

* 22 pages 

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Hungarian Layer: Logics Empowered Neural Architecture

May 17, 2018
Han Xiao, Yidong Chen, Xiaodong Shi

Neural architecture is a purely numeric framework, which fits the data as a continuous function. However, lacking of logic flow (e.g. \textit{if, for, while}), traditional algorithms (e.g. \textit{Hungarian algorithm, A$^*$ searching, decision tress algorithm}) could not be embedded into this paradigm, which limits the theories and applications. In this paper, we reform the calculus graph as a dynamic process, which is guided by logic flow. Within our novel methodology, traditional algorithms could empower numerical neural network. Specifically, regarding the subject of sentence matching, we reformulate this issue as the form of task-assignment, which is solved by Hungarian algorithm. First, our model applies BiLSTM to parse the sentences. Then Hungarian layer aligns the matching positions. Last, we transform the matching results for soft-max regression by another BiLSTM. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines substantially.

* This is the draft submitting to ICML 2018. You could expect the final version, which is more perfect 

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Stochastic Answer Networks for Natural Language Inference

Apr 21, 2018
Xiaodong Liu, Kevin Duh, Jianfeng Gao

We propose a stochastic answer network (SAN) to explore multi-step inference strategies in Natural Language Inference. Rather than directly predicting the results given the inputs, the model maintains a state and iteratively refines its predictions. Our experiments show that SAN achieves the state-of-the-art results on three benchmarks: Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) dataset, MultiGenre Natural Language Inference (MultiNLI) dataset and Quora Question Pairs dataset.

* 5 pages, 1 figures 

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Deterministic and Probabilistic Conditions for Finite Completability of Low-Tucker-Rank Tensor

Feb 28, 2018
Morteza Ashraphijuo, Vaneet Aggarwal, Xiaodong Wang

We investigate the fundamental conditions on the sampling pattern, i.e., locations of the sampled entries, for finite completability of a low-rank tensor given some components of its Tucker rank. In order to find the deterministic necessary and sufficient conditions, we propose an algebraic geometric analysis on the Tucker manifold, which allows us to incorporate multiple rank components in the proposed analysis in contrast with the conventional geometric approaches on the Grassmannian manifold. This analysis characterizes the algebraic independence of a set of polynomials defined based on the sampling pattern, which is closely related to finite completion. Probabilistic conditions are then studied and a lower bound on the sampling probability is given, which guarantees that the proposed deterministic conditions on the sampling patterns for finite completability hold with high probability. Furthermore, using the proposed geometric approach for finite completability, we propose a sufficient condition on the sampling pattern that ensures there exists exactly one completion for the sampled tensor.


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Deterministic and Probabilistic Conditions for Finite Completability of Low-rank Multi-View Data

Apr 26, 2017
Morteza Ashraphijuo, Xiaodong Wang, Vaneet Aggarwal

We consider the multi-view data completion problem, i.e., to complete a matrix $\mathbf{U}=[\mathbf{U}_1|\mathbf{U}_2]$ where the ranks of $\mathbf{U},\mathbf{U}_1$, and $\mathbf{U}_2$ are given. In particular, we investigate the fundamental conditions on the sampling pattern, i.e., locations of the sampled entries for finite completability of such a multi-view data given the corresponding rank constraints. In contrast with the existing analysis on Grassmannian manifold for a single-view matrix, i.e., conventional matrix completion, we propose a geometric analysis on the manifold structure for multi-view data to incorporate more than one rank constraint. We provide a deterministic necessary and sufficient condition on the sampling pattern for finite completability. We also give a probabilistic condition in terms of the number of samples per column that guarantees finite completability with high probability. Finally, using the developed tools, we derive the deterministic and probabilistic guarantees for unique completability.


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