Sensor-based activity recognition seeks the profound high-level knowledge about human activities from multitudes of low-level sensor readings. Conventional pattern recognition approaches have made tremendous progress in the past years. However, those methods often heavily rely on heuristic hand-crafted feature extraction, which could hinder their generalization performance. Additionally, existing methods are undermined for unsupervised and incremental learning tasks. Recently, the recent advancement of deep learning makes it possible to perform automatic high-level feature extraction thus achieves promising performance in many areas. Since then, deep learning based methods have been widely adopted for the sensor-based activity recognition tasks. This paper surveys the recent advance of deep learning based sensor-based activity recognition. We summarize existing literature from three aspects: sensor modality, deep model, and application. We also present detailed insights on existing work and propose grand challenges for future research. Click to Read Paper
In activity recognition, it is often expensive and time-consuming to acquire sufficient activity labels. To solve this problem, transfer learning leverages the labeled samples from the source domain to annotate the target domain which has few or none labels. Existing approaches typically consider learning a global domain shift while ignoring the intra-affinity between classes, which will hinder the performance of the algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel and general cross-domain learning framework that can exploit the intra-affinity of classes to perform intra-class knowledge transfer. The proposed framework, referred to as Stratified Transfer Learning (STL), can dramatically improve the classification accuracy for cross-domain activity recognition. Specifically, STL first obtains pseudo labels for the target domain via majority voting technique. Then, it performs intra-class knowledge transfer iteratively to transform both domains into the same subspaces. Finally, the labels of target domain are obtained via the second annotation. To evaluate the performance of STL, we conduct comprehensive experiments on three large public activity recognition datasets~(i.e. OPPORTUNITY, PAMAP2, and UCI DSADS), which demonstrates that STL significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods w.r.t. classification accuracy (improvement of 7.68%). Furthermore, we extensively investigate the performance of STL across different degrees of similarities and activity levels between domains. And we also discuss the potential of STL in other pervasive computing applications to provide empirical experience for future research. Click to Read Paper
Segmenting semantic objects from images and parsing them into their respective semantic parts are fundamental steps towards detailed object understanding in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a joint solution that tackles semantic object and part segmentation simultaneously, in which higher object-level context is provided to guide part segmentation, and more detailed part-level localization is utilized to refine object segmentation. Specifically, we first introduce the concept of semantic compositional parts (SCP) in which similar semantic parts are grouped and shared among different objects. A two-channel fully convolutional network (FCN) is then trained to provide the SCP and object potentials at each pixel. At the same time, a compact set of segments can also be obtained from the SCP predictions of the network. Given the potentials and the generated segments, in order to explore long-range context, we finally construct an efficient fully connected conditional random field (FCRF) to jointly predict the final object and part labels. Extensive evaluation on three different datasets shows that our approach can mutually enhance the performance of object and part segmentation, and outperforms the current state-of-the-art on both tasks. Click to Read Paper
An intuition on human segmentation is that when a human is moving in a video, the video-context (e.g., appearance and motion clues) may potentially infer reasonable mask information for the whole human body. Inspired by this, based on popular deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), we explore a very-weakly supervised learning framework for human segmentation task, where only an imperfect human detector is available along with massive weakly-labeled YouTube videos. In our solution, the video-context guided human mask inference and CNN based segmentation network learning iterate to mutually enhance each other until no further improvement gains. In the first step, each video is decomposed into supervoxels by the unsupervised video segmentation. The superpixels within the supervoxels are then classified as human or non-human by graph optimization with unary energies from the imperfect human detection results and the predicted confidence maps by the CNN trained in the previous iteration. In the second step, the video-context derived human masks are used as direct labels to train CNN. Extensive experiments on the challenging PASCAL VOC 2012 semantic segmentation benchmark demonstrate that the proposed framework has already achieved superior results than all previous weakly-supervised methods with object class or bounding box annotations. In addition, by augmenting with the annotated masks from PASCAL VOC 2012, our method reaches a new state-of-the-art performance on the human segmentation task. Click to Read Paper
Recently, significant improvement has been made on semantic object segmentation due to the development of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). Training such a DCNN usually relies on a large number of images with pixel-level segmentation masks, and annotating these images is very costly in terms of both finance and human effort. In this paper, we propose a simple to complex (STC) framework in which only image-level annotations are utilized to learn DCNNs for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we first train an initial segmentation network called Initial-DCNN with the saliency maps of simple images (i.e., those with a single category of major object(s) and clean background). These saliency maps can be automatically obtained by existing bottom-up salient object detection techniques, where no supervision information is needed. Then, a better network called Enhanced-DCNN is learned with supervision from the predicted segmentation masks of simple images based on the Initial-DCNN as well as the image-level annotations. Finally, more pixel-level segmentation masks of complex images (two or more categories of objects with cluttered background), which are inferred by using Enhanced-DCNN and image-level annotations, are utilized as the supervision information to learn the Powerful-DCNN for semantic segmentation. Our method utilizes $40$K simple images from and 10K complex images from PASCAL VOC for step-wisely boosting the segmentation network. Extensive experimental results on PASCAL VOC 2012 segmentation benchmark well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed STC framework compared with other state-of-the-arts. Click to Read Paper
The ability of predicting the future is important for intelligent systems, e.g. autonomous vehicles and robots to plan early and make decisions accordingly. Future scene parsing and optical flow estimation are two key tasks that help agents better understand their environments as the former provides dense semantic information, i.e. what objects will be present and where they will appear, while the latter provides dense motion information, i.e. how the objects will move. In this paper, we propose a novel model to simultaneously predict scene parsing and optical flow in unobserved future video frames. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt in jointly predicting scene parsing and motion dynamics. In particular, scene parsing enables structured motion prediction by decomposing optical flow into different groups while optical flow estimation brings reliable pixel-wise correspondence to scene parsing. By exploiting this mutually beneficial relationship, our model shows significantly better parsing and motion prediction results when compared to well-established baselines and individual prediction models on the large-scale Cityscapes dataset. In addition, we also demonstrate that our model can be used to predict the steering angle of the vehicles, which further verifies the ability of our model to learn latent representations of scene dynamics. Click to Read Paper
In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to predict future frames and their parsing maps (if available) given only historical frames. In this way, the network can effectively learn to capture video dynamics and temporal context, which are critical clues for video scene parsing, without requiring extra manual annotations. (2) \textbf{Prediction steering parsing}} architecture that effectively adapts the learned spatiotemporal features to scene parsing tasks and provides strong guidance for any off-the-shelf parsing model to achieve better video scene parsing performance. Extensive experiments over two challenging datasets, Cityscapes and Camvid, have demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods by showing significant improvement over well-established baselines. Click to Read Paper