Research papers and code for "Xiaoyan Sun":
Federated learning obtains a central model on the server by aggregating models trained locally on clients. As a result, federated learning does not require clients to upload their data to the server, thereby preserving the data privacy of the clients. One challenge in federated learning is to reduce the client-server communication since the end devices typically have very limited communication bandwidth. This paper presents an enhanced federated learning technique by proposing a synchronous learning strategy on the clients and a temporally weighted aggregation of the local models on the server. In the asynchronous learning strategy, different layers of the deep neural networks are categorized into shallow and deeps layers and the parameters of the deep layers are updated less frequently than those of the shallow layers. Furthermore, a temporally weighted aggregation strategy is introduced on the server to make use of the previously trained local models, thereby enhancing the accuracy and convergence of the central model. The proposed algorithm is empirically on two datasets with different deep neural networks. Our results demonstrate that the proposed asynchronous federated deep learning outperforms the baseline algorithm both in terms of communication cost and model accuracy.

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The past decade has witnessed great success in applying deep learning to enhance the quality of compressed video. However, the existing approaches aim at quality enhancement on a single frame, or only using fixed neighboring frames. Thus they fail to take full advantage of the inter-frame correlation in the video. This paper proposes the Quality-Gated Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (QG-ConvLSTM) network with bi-directional recurrent structure to fully exploit the advantageous information in a large range of frames. More importantly, due to the obvious quality fluctuation among compressed frames, higher quality frames can provide more useful information for other frames to enhance quality. Therefore, we propose learning the "forget" and "input" gates in the ConvLSTM cell from quality-related features. As such, the frames with various quality contribute to the memory in ConvLSTM with different importance, making the information of each frame reasonably and adequately used. Finally, the experiments validate the effectiveness of our QG-ConvLSTM approach in advancing the state-of-the-art quality enhancement of compressed video, and the ablation study shows that our QG-ConvLSTM approach is learnt to make a trade-off between quality and correlation when leveraging multi-frame information. The project page: https://github.com/ryangchn/QG-ConvLSTM.git.

* Accepted to IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME) 2019
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With the rapid development of social network and multimedia technology, customized image and video stylization has been widely used for various social-media applications. In this paper, we explore the problem of exemplar-based photo style transfer, which provides a flexible and convenient way to invoke fantastic visual impression. Rather than investigating some fixed artistic patterns to represent certain styles as was done in some previous works, our work emphasizes styles related to a series of visual effects in the photograph, e.g. color, tone, and contrast. We propose a photo stylistic brush, an automatic robust style transfer approach based on Superpixel-based BIpartite Graph (SuperBIG). A two-step bipartite graph algorithm with different granularity levels is employed to aggregate pixels into superpixels and find their correspondences. In the first step, with the extracted hierarchical features, a bipartite graph is constructed to describe the content similarity for pixel partition to produce superpixels. In the second step, superpixels in the input/reference image are rematched to form a new superpixel-based bipartite graph, and superpixel-level correspondences are generated by a bipartite matching. Finally, the refined correspondence guides SuperBIG to perform the transformation in a decorrelated color space. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for transferring various styles of exemplar images, even for some challenging cases, such as night images.

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In recent years, neural networks have proven to be effective in Chinese word segmentation. However, this promising performance relies on large-scale training data. Neural networks with conventional architectures cannot achieve the desired results in low-resource datasets due to the lack of labelled training data. In this paper, we propose a deep stacking framework to improve the performance on word segmentation tasks with insufficient data by integrating datasets from diverse domains. Our framework consists of two parts, domain-based models and deep stacking networks. The domain-based models are used to learn knowledge from different datasets. The deep stacking networks are designed to integrate domain-based models. To reduce model conflicts, we innovatively add communication paths among models and design various structures of deep stacking networks, including Gaussian-based Stacking Networks, Concatenate-based Stacking Networks, Sequence-based Stacking Networks and Tree-based Stacking Networks. We conduct experiments on six low-resource datasets from various domains. Our proposed framework shows significant performance improvements on all datasets compared with several strong baselines.

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In this paper, we propose a novel multiplanar autoregressive (AR) model to exploit the correlation in cross-dimensional planes of a similar patch group collected in an image, which has long been neglected by previous AR models. On that basis, we then present a joint multiplanar AR and low-rank based approach (MARLow) for image completion from random sampling, which exploits the nonlocal self-similarity within natural images more effectively. Specifically, the multiplanar AR model constraints the local stationarity in different cross-sections of the patch group, while the low-rank minimization captures the intrinsic coherence of nonlocal patches. The proposed approach can be readily extended to multichannel images (e.g. color images), by simultaneously considering the correlation in different channels. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, even if the pixel missing rate is as high as 90%.

* 16 pages, 9 figures
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The emergence of one-shot approaches has greatly advanced the research on neural architecture search (NAS). Recent approaches train an over-parameterized super-network (one-shot model) and then sample and evaluate a number of sub-networks, which inherit weights from the one-shot model. The overall searching cost is significantly reduced as training is avoided for sub-networks. However, the network sampling process is casually treated and the inherited weights from an independently trained super-network perform sub-optimally for sub-networks. In this paper, we propose a novel one-shot NAS scheme to address the above issues. The key innovation is to explicitly estimate the joint a posteriori distribution over network architecture and weights, and sample networks for evaluation according to it. This brings two benefits. First, network sampling under the guidance of a posteriori probability is more efficient than conventional random or uniform sampling. Second, the network architecture and its weights are sampled as a pair to alleviate the sub-optimal weights problem. Note that estimating the joint a posteriori distribution is not a trivial problem. By adopting variational methods and introducing a hybrid network representation, we convert the distribution approximation problem into an end-to-end neural network training problem which is neatly approached by variational dropout. As a result, the proposed method reduces the number of sampled sub-networks by orders of magnitude. We validate our method on the fundamental image classification task. Results on Cifar-10, Cifar-100 and ImageNet show that our method strikes the best trade-off between precision and speed among NAS methods. On Cifar-10, we speed up the searching process by 20x and achieve a higher precision than the best network found by existing NAS methods.

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Narrative story generation is a challenging problem because it demands the generated sentences with tight semantic connections, which has not been well studied by most existing generative models. To address this problem, we propose a skeleton-based model to promote the coherence of generated stories. Different from traditional models that generate a complete sentence at a stroke, the proposed model first generates the most critical phrases, called skeleton, and then expands the skeleton to a complete and fluent sentence. The skeleton is not manually defined, but learned by a reinforcement learning method. Compared to the state-of-the-art models, our skeleton-based model can generate significantly more coherent text according to human evaluation and automatic evaluation. The G-score is improved by 20.1% in the human evaluation. The code is available at https://github.com/lancopku/Skeleton-Based-Generation-Model

* Accepted by EMNLP 2018
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Deep learning models have enjoyed great success for image related computer vision tasks like image classification and object detection. For video related tasks like human action recognition, however, the advancements are not as significant yet. The main challenge is the lack of effective and efficient models in modeling the rich temporal spatial information in a video. We introduce a simple yet effective operation, termed Temporal-Spatial Mapping (TSM), for capturing the temporal evolution of the frames by jointly analyzing all the frames of a video. We propose a video level 2D feature representation by transforming the convolutional features of all frames to a 2D feature map, referred to as VideoMap. With each row being the vectorized feature representation of a frame, the temporal-spatial features are compactly represented, while the temporal dynamic evolution is also well embedded. Based on the VideoMap representation, we further propose a temporal attention model within a shallow convolutional neural network to efficiently exploit the temporal-spatial dynamics. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme achieves the state-of-the-art performance, with 4.2% accuracy gain over Temporal Segment Network (TSN), a competing baseline method, on the challenging human action benchmark dataset HMDB51.

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Abstractive text summarization is a highly difficult problem, and the sequence-to-sequence model has shown success in improving the performance on the task. However, the generated summaries are often inconsistent with the source content in semantics. In such cases, when generating summaries, the model selects semantically unrelated words with respect to the source content as the most probable output. The problem can be attributed to heuristically constructed training data, where summaries can be unrelated to the source content, thus containing semantically unrelated words and spurious word correspondence. In this paper, we propose a regularization approach for the sequence-to-sequence model and make use of what the model has learned to regularize the learning objective to alleviate the effect of the problem. In addition, we propose a practical human evaluation method to address the problem that the existing automatic evaluation method does not evaluate the semantic consistency with the source content properly. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which outperforms almost all the existing models. Especially, the proposed approach improves the semantic consistency by 4\% in terms of human evaluation.

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