Towards Real-Time Action Recognition on Mobile Devices Using Deep Models

Jun 17, 2019

Chen-Lin Zhang, Xin-Xin Liu, Jianxin Wu

Action recognition is a vital task in computer vision, and many methods are developed to push it to the limit. However, current action recognition models have huge computational costs, which cannot be deployed to real-world tasks on mobile devices. In this paper, we first illustrate the setting of real-time action recognition, which is different from current action recognition inference settings. Under the new inference setting, we investigate state-of-the-art action recognition models on the Kinetics dataset empirically. Our results show that designing efficient real-time action recognition models is different from designing efficient ImageNet models, especially in weight initialization. We show that pre-trained weights on ImageNet improve the accuracy under the real-time action recognition setting. Finally, we use the hand gesture recognition task as a case study to evaluate our compact real-time action recognition models in real-world applications on mobile phones. Results show that our action recognition models, being 6x faster and with similar accuracy as state-of-the-art, can roughly meet the real-time requirements on mobile devices. To our best knowledge, this is the first paper that deploys current deep learning action recognition models on mobile devices.
Jun 17, 2019

Chen-Lin Zhang, Xin-Xin Liu, Jianxin Wu

* work in progress

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Traffic classification has various applications in today's Internet, from resource allocation, billing and QoS purposes in ISPs to firewall and malware detection in clients. Classical machine learning algorithms and deep learning models have been widely used to solve the traffic classification task. However, training such models requires a large amount of labeled data. Labeling data is often the most difficult and time-consuming process in building a classifier. To solve this challenge, we reformulate the traffic classification into a multi-task learning framework where bandwidth requirement and duration of a flow are predicted along with the traffic class. The motivation of this approach is twofold: First, bandwidth requirement and duration are useful in many applications, including routing, resource allocation, and QoS provisioning. Second, these two values can be obtained from each flow easily without the need for human labeling or capturing flows in a controlled and isolated environment. We show that with a large amount of easily obtainable data samples for bandwidth and duration prediction tasks, and only a few data samples for the traffic classification task, one can achieve high accuracy. We conduct two experiment with ISCX and QUIC public datasets and show the efficacy of our approach.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
A Target-Agnostic Attack on Deep Models: Exploiting Security Vulnerabilities of Transfer Learning

Apr 08, 2019

Shahbaz Rezaei, Xin Liu

Due to the lack of enough training data and high computational cost to train a deep neural network from scratch, transfer learning has been extensively used in many deep-neural-network-based applications, such as face recognition, image classification, speech recognition, etc. A commonly-used transfer learning approach involves taking a part of a pre-trained model, adding a few layers at the end, and re-training the new layers with a small dataset. This approach, while efficient and widely used, imposes a security vulnerability because the pre-trained models used in transfer learning are usually available publicly to everyone, including potential attackers. In this paper, we show that without any additional knowledge other than the pre-trained model, an attacker can launch an effective and efficient brute force attack that can craft instances of input to trigger each target class with high confidence. Note that we assume that the attacker does not have access to any target-specific information, including samples from target classes, re-trained model, and probabilities assigned by Softmax to each class, and thus called target-agnostic attack. These assumptions render all previous attacks impractical, to the best of our knowledge. To evaluate the proposed attack, we perform a set of experiments on face recognition and speech recognition tasks and show the effectiveness of the attack. Our work sheds light on a fundamental security challenge of transfer learning in deep neural networks.
Apr 08, 2019

Shahbaz Rezaei, Xin Liu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

We develop a new algorithm to perform facial reconstruction from a given skull. This technique has forensic application in helping the identification of skeletal remains when other information is unavailable. Unlike most existing strategies that directly reconstruct the face from the skull, we utilize a database of portrait photos to create many face candidates, then perform a superimposition to get a well matched face, and then revise it according to the superimposition. To support this pipeline, we build an effective autoencoder for image-based facial reconstruction, and a generative model for constrained face inpainting. Our experiments have demonstrated that the proposed pipeline is stable and accurate.

* 14 pages; 14 figures

* 14 pages; 14 figures

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Nowadays, it is still difficult to adapt Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based models for deployment on embedded devices. The heavy computation and large memory footprint of CNN models become the main burden in real application. In this paper, we propose a "Sparse Shrink" algorithm to prune an existing CNN model. By analyzing the importance of each channel via sparse reconstruction, the algorithm is able to prune redundant feature maps accordingly. The resulting pruned model thus directly saves computational resource. We have evaluated our algorithm on CIFAR-100. As shown in our experiments, we can reduce 56.77% parameters and 73.84% multiplication in total with only minor decrease in accuracy. These results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our "Sparse Shrink" algorithm.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Parameter Estimation in Computational Biology by Approximate Bayesian Computation coupled with Sensitivity Analysis

Apr 28, 2017

Xin Liu, Mahesan Niranjan

We address the problem of parameter estimation in models of systems biology from noisy observations. The models we consider are characterized by simultaneous deterministic nonlinear differential equations whose parameters are either taken from in vitro experiments, or are hand-tuned during the model development process to reproduces observations from the system. We consider the family of algorithms coming under the Bayesian formulation of Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), and show that sensitivity analysis could be deployed to quantify the relative roles of different parameters in the system. Parameters to which a system is relatively less sensitive (known as sloppy parameters) need not be estimated to high precision, while the values of parameters that are more critical (stiff parameters) need to be determined with care. A tradeoff between computational complexity and the accuracy with which the posterior distribution may be probed is an important characteristic of this class of algorithms.
Apr 28, 2017

Xin Liu, Mahesan Niranjan

* 17 pages, 5 figures. Under submission to Bioinformatics

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

In this paper, we propose a Double Thompson Sampling (D-TS) algorithm for dueling bandit problems. As indicated by its name, D-TS selects both the first and the second candidates according to Thompson Sampling. Specifically, D-TS maintains a posterior distribution for the preference matrix, and chooses the pair of arms for comparison by sampling twice from the posterior distribution. This simple algorithm applies to general Copeland dueling bandits, including Condorcet dueling bandits as its special case. For general Copeland dueling bandits, we show that D-TS achieves $O(K^2 \log T)$ regret. For Condorcet dueling bandits, we further simplify the D-TS algorithm and show that the simplified D-TS algorithm achieves $O(K \log T + K^2 \log \log T)$ regret. Simulation results based on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed D-TS algorithm.

* 27 pages, 5 figures, 9 tables; accepted by 30th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2016

* 27 pages, 5 figures, 9 tables; accepted by 30th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2016

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
hood2vec: Identifying Similar Urban Areas Using Mobility Networks

Jul 17, 2019

Xin Liu, Konstantinos Pelechrinis, Alexandros Labrinidis

Which area in NYC is the most similar to Lower East Side? What about the NoHo Arts District in Los Angeles? Traditionally this task utilizes information about the type of places located within the areas and some popularity/quality metric. We take a different approach. In particular, urban dwellers' time-variant mobility is a reflection of how they interact with their city over time. Hence, in this paper, we introduce an approach, namely hood2vec, to identify the similarity between urban areas through learning a node embedding of the mobility network captured through Foursquare check-ins. We compare the pairwise similarities obtained from hood2vec with the ones obtained from comparing the types of venues in the different areas. The low correlation between the two indicates that the mobility dynamics and the venue types potentially capture different aspects of similarity between urban areas.
Jul 17, 2019

Xin Liu, Konstantinos Pelechrinis, Alexandros Labrinidis

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Distributed Linear Model Clustering over Networks: A Tree-Based Fused-Lasso ADMM Approach

May 28, 2019

Xin Zhang, Jia Liu, Zhengyuan Zhu

In this work, we consider to improve the model estimation efficiency by aggregating the neighbors' information as well as identify the subgroup membership for each node in the network. A tree-based $l_1$ penalty is proposed to save the computation and communication cost. We design a decentralized generalized alternating direction method of multiplier algorithm for solving the objective function in parallel. The theoretical properties are derived to guarantee both the model consistency and the algorithm convergence. Thorough numerical experiments are also conducted to back up our theory, which also show that our approach outperforms in the aspects of the estimation accuracy, computation speed and communication cost.
May 28, 2019

Xin Zhang, Jia Liu, Zhengyuan Zhu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Algorithm Portfolio for Individual-based Surrogate-Assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

Apr 22, 2019

Hao Tong, Jialin Liu, Xin Yao

Surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) are powerful optimisation tools for computationally expensive problems (CEPs). However, a randomly selected algorithm may fail in solving unknown problems due to no free lunch theorems, and it will cause more computational resource if we re-run the algorithm or try other algorithms to get a much solution, which is more serious in CEPs. In this paper, we consider an algorithm portfolio for SAEAs to reduce the risk of choosing an inappropriate algorithm for CEPs. We propose two portfolio frameworks for very expensive problems in which the maximal number of fitness evaluations is only 5 times of the problem's dimension. One framework named Par-IBSAEA runs all algorithm candidates in parallel and a more sophisticated framework named UCB-IBSAEA employs the Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) policy from reinforcement learning to help select the most appropriate algorithm at each iteration. An effective reward definition is proposed for the UCB policy. We consider three state-of-the-art individual-based SAEAs on different problems and compare them to the portfolios built from their instances on several benchmark problems given limited computation budgets. Our experimental studies demonstrate that our proposed portfolio frameworks significantly outperform any single algorithm on the set of benchmark problems.
Apr 22, 2019

Hao Tong, Jialin Liu, Xin Yao

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Efficient Path Prediction for Semi-Supervised and Weakly Supervised Hierarchical Text Classification

Feb 25, 2019

Huiru Xiao, Xin Liu, Yangqiu Song

Hierarchical text classification has many real-world applications. However, labeling a large number of documents is costly. In practice, we can use semi-supervised learning or weakly supervised learning (e.g., dataless classification) to reduce the labeling cost. In this paper, we propose a path cost-sensitive learning algorithm to utilize the structural information and further make use of unlabeled and weakly-labeled data. We use a generative model to leverage the large amount of unlabeled data and introduce path constraints into the learning algorithm to incorporate the structural information of the class hierarchy. The posterior probabilities of both unlabeled and weakly labeled data can be incorporated with path-dependent scores. Since we put a structure-sensitive cost to the learning algorithm to constrain the classification consistent with the class hierarchy and do not need to reconstruct the feature vectors for different structures, we can significantly reduce the computational cost compared to structural output learning. Experimental results on two hierarchical text classification benchmarks show that our approach is not only effective but also efficient to handle the semi-supervised and weakly supervised hierarchical text classification.
Feb 25, 2019

Huiru Xiao, Xin Liu, Yangqiu Song

* Aceepted by 2019 World Wide Web Conference (WWW19)

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Rolling Horizon Evolutionary Algorithms (RHEA) are a class of online planning methods for real-time game playing; their performance is closely related to the planning horizon and the search time allowed. In this paper, we propose to learn a prior for RHEA in an offline manner by training a value network and a policy network. The value network is used to reduce the planning horizon by providing an estimation of future rewards, and the policy network is used to initialize the population, which helps to narrow down the search scope. The proposed algorithm, named prior-based RHEA (p-RHEA), trains policy and value networks by performing planning and learning iteratively. In the planning stage, the horizon-limited search assisted with the policy network and value network is performed to improve the policies and collect training samples. In the learning stage, the policy network and value network are trained with the collected samples to learn better prior knowledge. Experimental results on OpenAI Gym MuJoCo tasks show that the performance of the proposed p-RHEA is significantly improved compared to that of RHEA.

* 8 pages, 3 figures

* 8 pages, 3 figures

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
AdaLinUCB: Opportunistic Learning for Contextual Bandits

Feb 20, 2019

Xueying Guo, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xin Liu

In this paper, we propose and study opportunistic contextual bandits - a special case of contextual bandits where the exploration cost varies under different environmental conditions, such as network load or return variation in recommendations. When the exploration cost is low, so is the actual regret of pulling a sub-optimal arm (e.g., trying a suboptimal recommendation). Therefore, intuitively, we could explore more when the exploration cost is relatively low and exploit more when the exploration cost is relatively high. Inspired by this intuition, for opportunistic contextual bandits with Linear payoffs, we propose an Adaptive Upper-Confidence-Bound algorithm (AdaLinUCB) to adaptively balance the exploration-exploitation trade-off for opportunistic learning. We prove that AdaLinUCB achieves O((log T)^2) problem-dependent regret upper bound, which has a smaller coefficient than that of the traditional LinUCB algorithm. Moreover, based on both synthetic and real-world dataset, we show that AdaLinUCB significantly outperforms other contextual bandit algorithms, under large exploration cost fluctuations.
Feb 20, 2019

Xueying Guo, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xin Liu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Taming Convergence for Asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent with Unbounded Delay in Non-Convex Learning

May 24, 2018

Xin Zhang, Jia Liu, Zhengyuan Zhu

Understanding the convergence performance of asynchronous stochastic gradient descent method (Async-SGD) has received increasing attention in recent years due to their foundational role in machine learning. To date, however, most of the existing works are restricted to either bounded gradient delays or convex settings. In this paper, we focus on Async-SGD and its variant Async-SGDI (which uses increasing batch size) for non-convex optimization problems with unbounded gradient delays. We prove $o(1/\sqrt{k})$ convergence rate for Async-SGD and $o(1/k)$ for Async-SGDI. Also, a unifying sufficient condition for Async-SGD's convergence is established, which includes two major gradient delay models in the literature as special cases and yields a new delay model not considered thus far.
May 24, 2018

Xin Zhang, Jia Liu, Zhengyuan Zhu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Automatic Construction of Parallel Portfolios via Explicit Instance Grouping

Apr 17, 2018

Shengcai Liu, Ke Tang, Xin Yao

Simultaneously utilizing several complementary solvers is a simple yet effective strategy for solving computationally hard problems. However, manually building such solver portfolios typically requires considerable domain knowledge and plenty of human effort. As an alternative, automatic construction of parallel portfolios (ACPP) aims at automatically building effective parallel portfolios based on a given problem instance set and a given rich design space. One promising way to solve the ACPP problem is to explicitly group the instances into different subsets and promote a component solver to handle each of them.This paper investigates solving ACPP from this perspective, and especially studies how to obtain a good instance grouping.The experimental results showed that the parallel portfolios constructed by the proposed method could achieve consistently superior performances to the ones constructed by the state-of-the-art ACPP methods,and could even rival sophisticated hand-designed parallel solvers.
Apr 17, 2018

Shengcai Liu, Ke Tang, Xin Yao

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Experience-based Optimization: A Coevolutionary Approach

Apr 17, 2018

Shengcai Liu, Ke Tang, Xin Yao

This paper studies improving solvers based on their past solving experiences, and focuses on improving solvers by offline training. Specifically, the key issues of offline training methods are discussed, and research belonging to this category but from different areas are reviewed in a unified framework. Existing training methods generally adopt a two-stage strategy in which selecting the training instances and training instances are treated in two independent phases. This paper proposes a new training method, dubbed LiangYi, which addresses these two issues simultaneously. LiangYi includes a training module for a population-based solver and an instance sampling module for updating the training instances. The idea behind LiangYi is to promote the population-based solver by training it (with the training module) to improve its performance on those instances (discovered by the sampling module) on which it performs badly, while keeping the good performances obtained by it on previous instances. An instantiation of LiangYi on the Travelling Salesman Problem is also proposed. Empirical results on a huge testing set containing 10000 instances showed LiangYi could train solvers that perform significantly better than the solvers trained by other state-of-the-art training method. Moreover, empirical investigation of the behaviours of LiangYi confirmed it was able to continuously improve the solver through training.
Apr 17, 2018

Shengcai Liu, Ke Tang, Xin Yao

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Adaptive Exploration-Exploitation Tradeoff for Opportunistic Bandits

Sep 12, 2017

Huasen Wu, Xueying Guo, Xin Liu

In this paper, we propose and study opportunistic bandits - a new variant of bandits where the regret of pulling a suboptimal arm varies under different environmental conditions, such as network load or produce price. When the load/price is low, so is the cost/regret of pulling a suboptimal arm (e.g., trying a suboptimal network configuration). Therefore, intuitively, we could explore more when the load is low and exploit more when the load is high. Inspired by this intuition, we propose an Adaptive Upper-Confidence-Bound (AdaUCB) algorithm to adaptively balance the exploration-exploitation tradeoff for opportunistic bandits. We prove that AdaUCB achieves $O(\log T)$ regret with a smaller coefficient than the traditional UCB algorithm. Furthermore, AdaUCB achieves $O(1)$ regret when the exploration cost is zero if the load level is below a certain threshold. Last, based on both synthetic data and real-world traces, experimental results show that AdaUCB significantly outperforms other bandit algorithms, such as UCB and TS (Thompson Sampling), under large load fluctuations.
Sep 12, 2017

Huasen Wu, Xueying Guo, Xin Liu

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

The Power of Online Learning in Stochastic Network Optimization

Jul 29, 2014

Longbo Huang, Xin Liu, Xiaohong Hao

In this paper, we investigate the power of online learning in stochastic network optimization with unknown system statistics {\it a priori}. We are interested in understanding how information and learning can be efficiently incorporated into system control techniques, and what are the fundamental benefits of doing so. We propose two \emph{Online Learning-Aided Control} techniques, $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$, that explicitly utilize the past system information in current system control via a learning procedure called \emph{dual learning}. We prove strong performance guarantees of the proposed algorithms: $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ achieve the near-optimal $[O(\epsilon), O([\log(1/\epsilon)]^2)]$ utility-delay tradeoff and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ possesses an $O(\epsilon^{-2/3})$ convergence time. $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ are probably the first algorithms that simultaneously possess explicit near-optimal delay guarantee and sub-linear convergence time. Simulation results also confirm the superior performance of the proposed algorithms in practice. To the best of our knowledge, our attempt is the first to explicitly incorporate online learning into stochastic network optimization and to demonstrate its power in both theory and practice.
Jul 29, 2014

Longbo Huang, Xin Liu, Xiaohong Hao

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

A generic trust framework for large-scale open systems using machine learning

Mar 01, 2011

Xin Liu, Gilles Tredan, Anwitaman Datta

In many large scale distributed systems and on the web, agents need to interact with other unknown agents to carry out some tasks or transactions. The ability to reason about and assess the potential risks in carrying out such transactions is essential for providing a safe and reliable environment. A traditional approach to reason about the trustworthiness of a transaction is to determine the trustworthiness of the specific agent involved, derived from the history of its behavior. As a departure from such traditional trust models, we propose a generic, machine learning approach based trust framework where an agent uses its own previous transactions (with other agents) to build a knowledge base, and utilize this to assess the trustworthiness of a transaction based on associated features, which are capable of distinguishing successful transactions from unsuccessful ones. These features are harnessed using appropriate machine learning algorithms to extract relationships between the potential transaction and previous transactions. The trace driven experiments using real auction dataset show that this approach provides good accuracy and is highly efficient compared to other trust mechanisms, especially when historical information of the specific agent is rare, incomplete or inaccurate.
Mar 01, 2011

Xin Liu, Gilles Tredan, Anwitaman Datta

* 30 pages

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**