Research papers and code for "Xingyi Zhou":
Detection identifies objects as axis-aligned boxes in an image. Most successful object detectors enumerate a nearly exhaustive list of potential object locations and classify each. This is wasteful, inefficient, and requires additional post-processing. In this paper, we take a different approach. We model an object as a single point --- the center point of its bounding box. Our detector uses keypoint estimation to find center points and regresses to all other object properties, such as size, 3D location, orientation, and even pose. Our center point based approach, CenterNet, is end-to-end differentiable, simpler, faster, and more accurate than corresponding bounding box based detectors. CenterNet achieves the best speed-accuracy trade-off on the MS COCO dataset, with 28.1% AP at 142 FPS, 37.4% AP at 52 FPS, and 45.1% AP with multi-scale testing at 1.4 FPS. We use the same approach to estimate 3D bounding box in the KITTI benchmark and human pose on the COCO keypoint dataset. Our method performs competitively with sophisticated multi-stage methods and runs in real-time.

* 12 pages, 5 figures
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The unsupervised text clustering is one of the major tasks in natural language processing (NLP) and remains a difficult and complex problem. Conventional \mbox{methods} generally treat this task using separated steps, including text representation learning and clustering the representations. As an improvement, neural methods have also been introduced for continuous representation learning to address the sparsity problem. However, the multi-step process still deviates from the unified optimization target. Especially the second step of cluster is generally performed with conventional methods such as k-Means. We propose a pure neural framework for text clustering in an end-to-end manner. It jointly learns the text representation and the clustering model. Our model works well when the context can be obtained, which is nearly always the case in the field of NLP. We have our method \mbox{evaluated} on two widely used benchmarks: IMDB movie reviews for sentiment classification and $20$-Newsgroup for topic categorization. Despite its simplicity, experiments show the model outperforms previous clustering methods by a large margin. Furthermore, the model is also verified on English wiki dataset as a large corpus.

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With the advent of deep learning, object detection drifted from a bottom-up to a top-down recognition problem. State of the art algorithms enumerate a near-exhaustive list of object locations and classify each into: object or not. In this paper, we show that bottom-up approaches still perform competitively. We detect four extreme points (top-most, left-most, bottom-most, right-most) and one center point of objects using a standard keypoint estimation network. We group the five keypoints into a bounding box if they are geometrically aligned. Object detection is then a purely appearance-based keypoint estimation problem, without region classification or implicit feature learning. The proposed method performs on-par with the state-of-the-art region based detection methods, with a bounding box AP of 43.2% on COCO test-dev. In addition, our estimated extreme points directly span a coarse octagonal mask, with a COCO Mask AP of 18.9%, much better than the Mask AP of vanilla bounding boxes. Extreme point guided segmentation further improves this to 34.6% Mask AP.

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Semantic keypoints provide concise abstractions for a variety of visual understanding tasks. Existing methods define semantic keypoints separately for each category with a fixed number of semantic labels in fixed indices. As a result, this keypoint representation is in-feasible when objects have a varying number of parts, e.g. chairs with varying number of legs. We propose a category-agnostic keypoint representation, which combines a multi-peak heatmap (StarMap) for all the keypoints and their corresponding features as 3D locations in the canonical viewpoint (CanViewFeature) defined for each instance. Our intuition is that the 3D locations of the keypoints in canonical object views contain rich semantic and compositional information. Using our flexible representation, we demonstrate competitive performance in keypoint detection and localization compared to category-specific state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we show that when augmented with an additional depth channel (DepthMap) to lift the 2D keypoints to 3D, our representation can achieve state-of-the-art results in viewpoint estimation. Finally, we show that our category-agnostic keypoint representation can be generalized to novel categories.

* ECCV 2018. Supplementary material with more qualitative results and higher resolution is available on the code page
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Predicting traffic conditions has been recently explored as a way to relieve traffic congestion. Several pioneering approaches have been proposed based on traffic observations of the target location as well as its adjacent regions, but they obtain somewhat limited accuracy due to lack of mining road topology. To address the effect attenuation problem, we propose to take account of the traffic of surrounding locations(wider than adjacent range). We propose an end-to-end framework called DeepTransport, in which Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) are utilized to obtain spatial-temporal traffic information within a transport network topology. In addition, attention mechanism is introduced to align spatial and temporal information. Moreover, we constructed and released a real-world large traffic condition dataset with 5-minute resolution. Our experiments on this dataset demonstrate our method captures the complex relationship in temporal and spatial domain. It significantly outperforms traditional statistical methods and a state-of-the-art deep learning method.

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Learning articulated object pose is inherently difficult because the pose is high dimensional but has many structural constraints. Most existing work do not model such constraints and does not guarantee the geometric validity of their pose estimation, therefore requiring a post-processing to recover the correct geometry if desired, which is cumbersome and sub-optimal. In this work, we propose to directly embed a kinematic object model into the deep neutral network learning for general articulated object pose estimation. The kinematic function is defined on the appropriately parameterized object motion variables. It is differentiable and can be used in the gradient descent based optimization in network training. The prior knowledge on the object geometric model is fully exploited and the structure is guaranteed to be valid. We show convincing experiment results on a toy example and the 3D human pose estimation problem. For the latter we achieve state-of-the-art result on Human3.6M dataset.

* ECCV Workshop on Geometry Meets Deep Learning, 2016
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Previous learning based hand pose estimation methods does not fully exploit the prior information in hand model geometry. Instead, they usually rely a separate model fitting step to generate valid hand poses. Such a post processing is inconvenient and sub-optimal. In this work, we propose a model based deep learning approach that adopts a forward kinematics based layer to ensure the geometric validity of estimated poses. For the first time, we show that embedding such a non-linear generative process in deep learning is feasible for hand pose estimation. Our approach is verified on challenging public datasets and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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In this paper, we introduce a novel unsupervised domain adaptation technique for the task of 3D keypoint prediction from a single depth scan or image. Our key idea is to utilize the fact that predictions from different views of the same or similar objects should be consistent with each other. Such view consistency can provide effective regularization for keypoint prediction on unlabeled instances. In addition, we introduce a geometric alignment term to regularize predictions in the target domain. The resulting loss function can be effectively optimized via alternating minimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on real datasets and present experimental results showing that our approach is superior to state-of-the-art general-purpose domain adaptation techniques.

* ECCV 2018
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In this paper, we study the task of 3D human pose estimation in the wild. This task is challenging due to lack of training data, as existing datasets are either in the wild images with 2D pose or in the lab images with 3D pose. We propose a weakly-supervised transfer learning method that uses mixed 2D and 3D labels in a unified deep neutral network that presents two-stage cascaded structure. Our network augments a state-of-the-art 2D pose estimation sub-network with a 3D depth regression sub-network. Unlike previous two stage approaches that train the two sub-networks sequentially and separately, our training is end-to-end and fully exploits the correlation between the 2D pose and depth estimation sub-tasks. The deep features are better learnt through shared representations. In doing so, the 3D pose labels in controlled lab environments are transferred to in the wild images. In addition, we introduce a 3D geometric constraint to regularize the 3D pose prediction, which is effective in the absence of ground truth depth labels. Our method achieves competitive results on both 2D and 3D benchmarks.

* Accepted to ICCV 2017
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