Models, code, and papers for "Xinlei Chen":

Spatial Memory for Context Reasoning in Object Detection

Apr 13, 2017
Xinlei Chen, Abhinav Gupta

Modeling instance-level context and object-object relationships is extremely challenging. It requires reasoning about bounding boxes of different classes, locations \etc. Above all, instance-level spatial reasoning inherently requires modeling conditional distributions on previous detections. Unfortunately, our current object detection systems do not have any {\bf memory} to remember what to condition on! The state-of-the-art object detectors still detect all object in parallel followed by non-maximal suppression (NMS). While memory has been used for tasks such as captioning, they mostly use image-level memory cells without capturing the spatial layout. On the other hand, modeling object-object relationships requires {\bf spatial} reasoning -- not only do we need a memory to store the spatial layout, but also a effective reasoning module to extract spatial patterns. This paper presents a conceptually simple yet powerful solution -- Spatial Memory Network (SMN), to model the instance-level context efficiently and effectively. Our spatial memory essentially assembles object instances back into a pseudo "image" representation that is easy to be fed into another ConvNet for object-object context reasoning. This leads to a new sequential reasoning architecture where image and memory are processed in parallel to obtain detections which update the memory again. We show our SMN direction is promising as it provides 2.2\% improvement over baseline Faster RCNN on the COCO dataset so far.

* Draft submitted to ICCV 2017 

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An Implementation of Faster RCNN with Study for Region Sampling

Feb 08, 2017
Xinlei Chen, Abhinav Gupta

We adapted the join-training scheme of Faster RCNN framework from Caffe to TensorFlow as a baseline implementation for object detection. Our code is made publicly available. This report documents the simplifications made to the original pipeline, with justifications from ablation analysis on both PASCAL VOC 2007 and COCO 2014. We further investigated the role of non-maximal suppression (NMS) in selecting regions-of-interest (RoIs) for region classification, and found that a biased sampling toward small regions helps performance and can achieve on-par mAP to NMS-based sampling when converged sufficiently.

* Technical Report, 3 pages 

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Webly Supervised Learning of Convolutional Networks

Oct 07, 2015
Xinlei Chen, Abhinav Gupta

We present an approach to utilize large amounts of web data for learning CNNs. Specifically inspired by curriculum learning, we present a two-step approach for CNN training. First, we use easy images to train an initial visual representation. We then use this initial CNN and adapt it to harder, more realistic images by leveraging the structure of data and categories. We demonstrate that our two-stage CNN outperforms a fine-tuned CNN trained on ImageNet on Pascal VOC 2012. We also demonstrate the strength of webly supervised learning by localizing objects in web images and training a R-CNN style detector. It achieves the best performance on VOC 2007 where no VOC training data is used. Finally, we show our approach is quite robust to noise and performs comparably even when we use image search results from March 2013 (pre-CNN image search era).


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Learning a Recurrent Visual Representation for Image Caption Generation

Nov 20, 2014
Xinlei Chen, C. Lawrence Zitnick

In this paper we explore the bi-directional mapping between images and their sentence-based descriptions. We propose learning this mapping using a recurrent neural network. Unlike previous approaches that map both sentences and images to a common embedding, we enable the generation of novel sentences given an image. Using the same model, we can also reconstruct the visual features associated with an image given its visual description. We use a novel recurrent visual memory that automatically learns to remember long-term visual concepts to aid in both sentence generation and visual feature reconstruction. We evaluate our approach on several tasks. These include sentence generation, sentence retrieval and image retrieval. State-of-the-art results are shown for the task of generating novel image descriptions. When compared to human generated captions, our automatically generated captions are preferred by humans over $19.8\%$ of the time. Results are better than or comparable to state-of-the-art results on the image and sentence retrieval tasks for methods using similar visual features.


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Learning Visual Storylines with Skipping Recurrent Neural Networks

Jul 26, 2016
Gunnar A. Sigurdsson, Xinlei Chen, Abhinav Gupta

What does a typical visit to Paris look like? Do people first take photos of the Louvre and then the Eiffel Tower? Can we visually model a temporal event like "Paris Vacation" using current frameworks? In this paper, we explore how we can automatically learn the temporal aspects, or storylines of visual concepts from web data. Previous attempts focus on consecutive image-to-image transitions and are unsuccessful at recovering the long-term underlying story. Our novel Skipping Recurrent Neural Network (S-RNN) model does not attempt to predict each and every data point in the sequence, like classic RNNs. Rather, S-RNN uses a framework that skips through the images in the photo stream to explore the space of all ordered subsets of the albums via an efficient sampling procedure. This approach reduces the negative impact of strong short-term correlations, and recovers the latent story more accurately. We show how our learned storylines can be used to analyze, predict, and summarize photo albums from Flickr. Our experimental results provide strong qualitative and quantitative evidence that S-RNN is significantly better than other candidate methods such as LSTMs on learning long-term correlations and recovering latent storylines. Moreover, we show how storylines can help machines better understand and summarize photo streams by inferring a brief personalized story of each individual album.

* European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2016 

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TensorMask: A Foundation for Dense Object Segmentation

Mar 28, 2019
Xinlei Chen, Ross Girshick, Kaiming He, Piotr Dollár

Sliding-window object detectors that generate bounding-box object predictions over a dense, regular grid have advanced rapidly and proven popular. In contrast, modern instance segmentation approaches are dominated by methods that first detect object bounding boxes, and then crop and segment these regions, as popularized by Mask R-CNN. In this work, we investigate the paradigm of dense sliding-window instance segmentation, which is surprisingly under-explored. Our core observation is that this task is fundamentally different than other dense prediction tasks such as semantic segmentation or bounding-box object detection, as the output at every spatial location is itself a geometric structure with its own spatial dimensions. To formalize this, we treat dense instance segmentation as a prediction task over 4D tensors and present a general framework called TensorMask that explicitly captures this geometry and enables novel operators on 4D tensors. We demonstrate that the tensor view leads to large gains over baselines that ignore this structure, and leads to results comparable to Mask R-CNN. These promising results suggest that TensorMask can serve as a foundation for novel advances in dense mask prediction and a more complete understanding of the task. Code will be made available.

* 12 pages, technical report 

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Cycle-Consistency for Robust Visual Question Answering

Feb 15, 2019
Meet Shah, Xinlei Chen, Marcus Rohrbach, Devi Parikh

Despite significant progress in Visual Question Answering over the years, robustness of today's VQA models leave much to be desired. We introduce a new evaluation protocol and associated dataset (VQA-Rephrasings) and show that state-of-the-art VQA models are notoriously brittle to linguistic variations in questions. VQA-Rephrasings contains 3 human-provided rephrasings for 40k questions spanning 40k images from the VQA v2.0 validation dataset. As a step towards improving robustness of VQA models, we propose a model-agnostic framework that exploits cycle consistency. Specifically, we train a model to not only answer a question, but also generate a question conditioned on the answer, such that the answer predicted for the generated question is the same as the ground truth answer to the original question. Without the use of additional annotations, we show that our approach is significantly more robust to linguistic variations than state-of-the-art VQA models, when evaluated on the VQA-Rephrasings dataset. In addition, our approach outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on the standard VQA and Visual Question Generation tasks on the challenging VQA v2.0 dataset.

* Technical Report 

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An Efficient Minibatch Acceptance Test for Metropolis-Hastings

Jul 09, 2017
Daniel Seita, Xinlei Pan, Haoyu Chen, John Canny

We present a novel Metropolis-Hastings method for large datasets that uses small expected-size minibatches of data. Previous work on reducing the cost of Metropolis-Hastings tests yield variable data consumed per sample, with only constant factor reductions versus using the full dataset for each sample. Here we present a method that can be tuned to provide arbitrarily small batch sizes, by adjusting either proposal step size or temperature. Our test uses the noise-tolerant Barker acceptance test with a novel additive correction variable. The resulting test has similar cost to a normal SGD update. Our experiments demonstrate several order-of-magnitude speedups over previous work.

* Final version for UAI 2017 

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Stability of Analytic Neural Networks with Event-triggered Synaptic Feedbacks

Apr 02, 2016
Ren Zheng, Xinlei Yi, Wenlian Lu, Tianping Chen

In this paper, we investigate stability of a class of analytic neural networks with the synaptic feedback via event-triggered rules. This model is general and include Hopfield neural network as a special case. These event-trigger rules can efficiently reduces loads of computation and information transmission at synapses of the neurons. The synaptic feedback of each neuron keeps a constant value based on the outputs of the other neurons at its latest triggering time but changes at its next triggering time, which is determined by certain criterion. It is proved that every trajectory of the analytic neural network converges to certain equilibrium under this event-triggered rule for all initial values except a set of zero measure. The main technique of the proof is the Lojasiewicz inequality to prove the finiteness of trajectory length. The realization of this event-triggered rule is verified by the exclusion of Zeno behaviors. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the theoretical results.

* IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, Vol. 27, No. 2, 483-494, 2016 
* 12 pages, 3 figures. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1504.08081 

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Visualizing and Understanding Neural Models in NLP

Jan 08, 2016
Jiwei Li, Xinlei Chen, Eduard Hovy, Dan Jurafsky

While neural networks have been successfully applied to many NLP tasks the resulting vector-based models are very difficult to interpret. For example it's not clear how they achieve {\em compositionality}, building sentence meaning from the meanings of words and phrases. In this paper we describe four strategies for visualizing compositionality in neural models for NLP, inspired by similar work in computer vision. We first plot unit values to visualize compositionality of negation, intensification, and concessive clauses, allow us to see well-known markedness asymmetries in negation. We then introduce three simple and straightforward methods for visualizing a unit's {\em salience}, the amount it contributes to the final composed meaning: (1) gradient back-propagation, (2) the variance of a token from the average word node, (3) LSTM-style gates that measure information flow. We test our methods on sentiment using simple recurrent nets and LSTMs. Our general-purpose methods may have wide applications for understanding compositionality and other semantic properties of deep networks , and also shed light on why LSTMs outperform simple recurrent nets,


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Iterative Visual Reasoning Beyond Convolutions

Mar 29, 2018
Xinlei Chen, Li-Jia Li, Li Fei-Fei, Abhinav Gupta

We present a novel framework for iterative visual reasoning. Our framework goes beyond current recognition systems that lack the capability to reason beyond stack of convolutions. The framework consists of two core modules: a local module that uses spatial memory to store previous beliefs with parallel updates; and a global graph-reasoning module. Our graph module has three components: a) a knowledge graph where we represent classes as nodes and build edges to encode different types of semantic relationships between them; b) a region graph of the current image where regions in the image are nodes and spatial relationships between these regions are edges; c) an assignment graph that assigns regions to classes. Both the local module and the global module roll-out iteratively and cross-feed predictions to each other to refine estimates. The final predictions are made by combining the best of both modules with an attention mechanism. We show strong performance over plain ConvNets, \eg achieving an $8.4\%$ absolute improvement on ADE measured by per-class average precision. Analysis also shows that the framework is resilient to missing regions for reasoning.

* CVPR 2018 

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PixelNet: Representation of the pixels, by the pixels, and for the pixels

Feb 21, 2017
Aayush Bansal, Xinlei Chen, Bryan Russell, Abhinav Gupta, Deva Ramanan

We explore design principles for general pixel-level prediction problems, from low-level edge detection to mid-level surface normal estimation to high-level semantic segmentation. Convolutional predictors, such as the fully-convolutional network (FCN), have achieved remarkable success by exploiting the spatial redundancy of neighboring pixels through convolutional processing. Though computationally efficient, we point out that such approaches are not statistically efficient during learning precisely because spatial redundancy limits the information learned from neighboring pixels. We demonstrate that stratified sampling of pixels allows one to (1) add diversity during batch updates, speeding up learning; (2) explore complex nonlinear predictors, improving accuracy; and (3) efficiently train state-of-the-art models tabula rasa (i.e., "from scratch") for diverse pixel-labeling tasks. Our single architecture produces state-of-the-art results for semantic segmentation on PASCAL-Context dataset, surface normal estimation on NYUDv2 depth dataset, and edge detection on BSDS.

* Project Page: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~aayushb/pixelNet/. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1609.06694 

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PixelNet: Towards a General Pixel-level Architecture

Sep 21, 2016
Aayush Bansal, Xinlei Chen, Bryan Russell, Abhinav Gupta, Deva Ramanan

We explore architectures for general pixel-level prediction problems, from low-level edge detection to mid-level surface normal estimation to high-level semantic segmentation. Convolutional predictors, such as the fully-convolutional network (FCN), have achieved remarkable success by exploiting the spatial redundancy of neighboring pixels through convolutional processing. Though computationally efficient, we point out that such approaches are not statistically efficient during learning precisely because spatial redundancy limits the information learned from neighboring pixels. We demonstrate that (1) stratified sampling allows us to add diversity during batch updates and (2) sampled multi-scale features allow us to explore more nonlinear predictors (multiple fully-connected layers followed by ReLU) that improve overall accuracy. Finally, our objective is to show how a architecture can get performance better than (or comparable to) the architectures designed for a particular task. Interestingly, our single architecture produces state-of-the-art results for semantic segmentation on PASCAL-Context, surface normal estimation on NYUDv2 dataset, and edge detection on BSDS without contextual post-processing.


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Grounded Video Description

Dec 17, 2018
Luowei Zhou, Yannis Kalantidis, Xinlei Chen, Jason J. Corso, Marcus Rohrbach

Video description is one of the most challenging problems in vision and language understanding due to the large variability both on the video and language side. Models, hence, typically shortcut the difficulty in recognition and generate plausible sentences that are based on priors but are not necessarily grounded in the video. In this work, we explicitly link the sentence to the evidence in the video by annotating each noun phrase in a sentence with the corresponding bounding box in one of the frames of a video. Our novel dataset, ActivityNet-Entities, is based on the challenging ActivityNet Captions dataset and augments it with 158k bounding box annotations, each grounding a noun phrase. This allows training video description models with this data, and importantly, evaluate how grounded or "true" such model are to the video they describe. To generate grounded captions, we propose a novel video description model which is able to exploit these bounding box annotations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on our ActivityNet-Entities, but also show how it can be applied to image description on the Flickr30k Entities dataset. We achieve state-of-the-art performance on video description, video paragraph description, and image description and demonstrate our generated sentences are better grounded in the video.

* 19 pages including Appendix 

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Pythia v0.1: the Winning Entry to the VQA Challenge 2018

Jul 27, 2018
Yu Jiang, Vivek Natarajan, Xinlei Chen, Marcus Rohrbach, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh

This document describes Pythia v0.1, the winning entry from Facebook AI Research (FAIR)'s A-STAR team to the VQA Challenge 2018. Our starting point is a modular re-implementation of the bottom-up top-down (up-down) model. We demonstrate that by making subtle but important changes to the model architecture and the learning rate schedule, fine-tuning image features, and adding data augmentation, we can significantly improve the performance of the up-down model on VQA v2.0 dataset -- from 65.67% to 70.22%. Furthermore, by using a diverse ensemble of models trained with different features and on different datasets, we are able to significantly improve over the 'standard' way of ensembling (i.e. same model with different random seeds) by 1.31%. Overall, we achieve 72.27% on the test-std split of the VQA v2.0 dataset. Our code in its entirety (training, evaluation, data-augmentation, ensembling) and pre-trained models are publicly available at: https://github.com/facebookresearch/pythia


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Multi-Target Embodied Question Answering

Apr 09, 2019
Licheng Yu, Xinlei Chen, Georgia Gkioxari, Mohit Bansal, Tamara L. Berg, Dhruv Batra

Embodied Question Answering (EQA) is a relatively new task where an agent is asked to answer questions about its environment from egocentric perception. EQA makes the fundamental assumption that every question, e.g., "what color is the car?", has exactly one target ("car") being inquired about. This assumption puts a direct limitation on the abilities of the agent. We present a generalization of EQA - Multi-Target EQA (MT-EQA). Specifically, we study questions that have multiple targets in them, such as "Is the dresser in the bedroom bigger than the oven in the kitchen?", where the agent has to navigate to multiple locations ("dresser in bedroom", "oven in kitchen") and perform comparative reasoning ("dresser" bigger than "oven") before it can answer a question. Such questions require the development of entirely new modules or components in the agent. To address this, we propose a modular architecture composed of a program generator, a controller, a navigator, and a VQA module. The program generator converts the given question into sequential executable sub-programs; the navigator guides the agent to multiple locations pertinent to the navigation-related sub-programs; and the controller learns to select relevant observations along its path. These observations are then fed to the VQA module to predict the answer. We perform detailed analysis for each of the model components and show that our joint model can outperform previous methods and strong baselines by a significant margin.

* 10 pages, 6 figures 

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Embodied Visual Recognition

Apr 09, 2019
Jianwei Yang, Zhile Ren, Mingze Xu, Xinlei Chen, David Crandall, Devi Parikh, Dhruv Batra

Passive visual systems typically fail to recognize objects in the amodal setting where they are heavily occluded. In contrast, humans and other embodied agents have the ability to move in the environment, and actively control the viewing angle to better understand object shapes and semantics. In this work, we introduce the task of Embodied Visual Recognition (EVR): An agent is instantiated in a 3D environment close to an occluded target object, and is free to move in the environment to perform object classification, amodal object localization, and amodal object segmentation. To address this, we develop a new model called Embodied Mask R-CNN, for agents to learn to move strategically to improve their visual recognition abilities. We conduct experiments using the House3D environment. Experimental results show that: 1) agents with embodiment (movement) achieve better visual recognition performance than passive ones; 2) in order to improve visual recognition abilities, agents can learn strategical moving paths that are different from shortest paths.

* 14 pages, 13 figures, technical report 

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Towards VQA Models That Can Read

May 13, 2019
Amanpreet Singh, Vivek Natarajan, Meet Shah, Yu Jiang, Xinlei Chen, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Marcus Rohrbach

Studies have shown that a dominant class of questions asked by visually impaired users on images of their surroundings involves reading text in the image. But today's VQA models can not read! Our paper takes a first step towards addressing this problem. First, we introduce a new "TextVQA" dataset to facilitate progress on this important problem. Existing datasets either have a small proportion of questions about text (e.g., the VQA dataset) or are too small (e.g., the VizWiz dataset). TextVQA contains 45,336 questions on 28,408 images that require reasoning about text to answer. Second, we introduce a novel model architecture that reads text in the image, reasons about it in the context of the image and the question, and predicts an answer which might be a deduction based on the text and the image or composed of the strings found in the image. Consequently, we call our approach Look, Read, Reason & Answer (LoRRA). We show that LoRRA outperforms existing state-of-the-art VQA models on our TextVQA dataset. We find that the gap between human performance and machine performance is significantly larger on TextVQA than on VQA 2.0, suggesting that TextVQA is well-suited to benchmark progress along directions complementary to VQA 2.0.

* CVPR 2019 

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Prior-aware Neural Network for Partially-Supervised Multi-Organ Segmentation

Apr 12, 2019
Yuyin Zhou, Zhe Li, Song Bai, Chong Wang, Xinlei Chen, Mei Han, Elliot Fishman, Alan Yuille

Accurate multi-organ abdominal CT segmentation is essential to many clinical applications such as computer-aided intervention. As data annotation requires massive human labor from experienced radiologists, it is common that training data are partially labeled, e.g., pancreas datasets only have the pancreas labeled while leaving the rest marked as background. However, these background labels can be misleading in multi-organ segmentation since the "background" usually contains some other organs of interest. To address the background ambiguity in these partially-labeled datasets, we propose Prior-aware Neural Network (PaNN) via explicitly incorporating anatomical priors on abdominal organ sizes, guiding the training process with domain-specific knowledge. More specifically, PaNN assumes that the average organ size distributions in the abdomen should approximate their empirical distributions, a prior statistics obtained from the fully-labeled dataset. As our training objective is difficult to be directly optimized using stochastic gradient descent [20], we propose to reformulate it in a min-max form and optimize it via the stochastic primal-dual gradient algorithm. PaNN achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MICCAI2015 challenge "Multi-Atlas Labeling Beyond the Cranial Vault", a competition on organ segmentation in the abdomen. We report an average Dice score of 84.97%, surpassing the prior art by a large margin of 3.27%.

* Tech Report 

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nocaps: novel object captioning at scale

Dec 20, 2018
Harsh Agrawal, Karan Desai, Xinlei Chen, Rishabh Jain, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Stefan Lee, Peter Anderson

Image captioning models have achieved impressive results on datasets containing limited visual concepts and large amounts of paired image-caption training data. However, if these models are to ever function in the wild, a much larger variety of visual concepts must be learned, ideally from less supervision. To encourage the development of image captioning models that can learn visual concepts from alternative data sources, such as object detection datasets, we present the first large-scale benchmark for this task. Dubbed 'nocaps', for novel object captioning at scale, our benchmark consists of 166,100 human-generated captions describing 15,100 images from the Open Images validation and test sets. The associated training data consists of COCO image-caption pairs, plus Open Images image-level labels and object bounding boxes. Since Open Images contains many more classes than COCO, more than 500 object classes seen in test images have no training captions (hence, nocaps). We evaluate several existing approaches to novel object captioning on our challenging benchmark. In automatic evaluations these approaches show modest improvements over a strong baseline trained only on image-caption data. However, even when using ground-truth object detections, the results are significantly weaker than our human baseline - indicating substantial room for improvement.


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