This paper proposes a novel framework for detecting redundancy in supervised sentence categorisation. Unlike traditional singleton neural network, our model incorporates character-aware convolutional neural network (Char-CNN) with character-aware recurrent neural network (Char-RNN) to form a convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN). Our model benefits from Char-CNN in that only salient features are selected and fed into the integrated Char-RNN. Char-RNN effectively learns long sequence semantics via sophisticated update mechanism. We compare our framework against the state-of-the-art text classification algorithms on four popular benchmarking corpus. For instance, our model achieves competing precision rate, recall ratio, and F1 score on the Google-news data-set. For twenty-news-groups data stream, our algorithm obtains the optimum on precision rate, recall ratio, and F1 score. For Brown Corpus, our framework obtains the best F1 score and almost equivalent precision rate and recall ratio over the top competitor. For the question classification collection, CRNN produces the optimal recall rate and F1 score and comparable precision rate. We also analyse three different RNN hidden recurrent cells' impact on performance and their runtime efficiency. We observe that MGU achieves the optimal runtime and comparable performance against GRU and LSTM. For TFIDF based algorithms, we experiment with word2vec, GloVe, and sent2vec embeddings and report their performance differences. Click to Read Paper
Novelty detection in news events has long been a difficult problem. A number of models performed well on specific data streams but certain issues are far from being solved, particularly in large data streams from the WWW where unpredictability of new terms requires adaptation in the vector space model. We present a novel event detection system based on the Incremental Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) weighting incorporated with Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Our system could efficiently and effectively adapt to the changes within the data streams of any new terms with continual updates to the vector space model. Regarding miss probability, our proposed novelty detection framework outperforms a recognised baseline system by approximately 16% when evaluating a benchmark dataset from Google News. Click to Read Paper
Multimodal affective computing, learning to recognize and interpret human affects and subjective information from multiple data sources, is still challenging because: (i) it is hard to extract informative features to represent human affects from heterogeneous inputs; (ii) current fusion strategies only fuse different modalities at abstract level, ignoring time-dependent interactions between modalities. Addressing such issues, we introduce a hierarchical multimodal architecture with attention and word-level fusion to classify utter-ance-level sentiment and emotion from text and audio data. Our introduced model outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on published datasets and we demonstrated that our model is able to visualize and interpret the synchronized attention over modalities. Click to Read Paper
Brain-inspired learning mechanisms, e.g. spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP), enable agile and fast on-the-fly adaptation capability in a spiking neural network. When incorporating emerging nanoscale resistive non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, with ultra-low power consumption and high-density integration capability, a spiking neural network hardware would result in several orders of magnitude reduction in energy consumption at a very small form factor and potentially herald autonomous learning machines. However, actual memory devices have shown to be intrinsically binary with stochastic switching, and thus impede the realization of ideal STDP with continuous analog values. In this work, a dendritic-inspired processing architecture is proposed in addition to novel CMOS neuron circuits. The utilization of spike attenuations and delays transforms the traditionally undesired stochastic behavior of binary NVMs into a useful leverage that enables biologically-plausible STDP learning. As a result, this work paves a pathway to adopt practical binary emerging NVM devices in brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. Click to Read Paper
In this work we propose to fit a sparse logistic regression model by a weakly convex regularized nonconvex optimization problem. The idea is based on the finding that a weakly convex function as an approximation of the $\ell_0$ pseudo norm is able to better induce sparsity than the commonly used $\ell_1$ norm. For a class of weakly convex sparsity inducing functions, we prove the nonconvexity of the corresponding sparse logistic regression problem, and study its local optimality conditions and the choice of the regularization parameter to exclude trivial solutions. Despite the nonconvexity, a method based on proximal gradient descent is used to solve the general weakly convex sparse logistic regression, and its convergence behavior is studied theoretically. Then the general framework is applied to a specific weakly convex function, and a necessary and sufficient local optimality condition is provided. The solution method is instantiated in this case as an iterative firm-shrinkage algorithm, and its effectiveness is demonstrated in numerical experiments by both randomly generated and real datasets. Click to Read Paper
We study the problem of domain adaptation for neural abstractive summarization. We make initial efforts in investigating what information can be transferred to a new domain. Experimental results on news stories and opinion articles indicate that neural summarization model benefits from pre-training based on extractive summaries. We also find that the combination of in-domain and out-of-domain setup yields better summaries when in-domain data is insufficient. Further analysis shows that, the model is capable to select salient content even trained on out-of-domain data, but requires in-domain data to capture the style for a target domain. Click to Read Paper
We investigate the problem of sentence-level supporting argument detection from relevant documents for user-specified claims. A dataset containing claims and associated citation articles is collected from online debate website We then manually label sentence-level supporting arguments from the documents along with their types as study, factual, opinion, or reasoning. We further characterize arguments of different types, and explore whether leveraging type information can facilitate the supporting arguments detection task. Experimental results show that LambdaMART (Burges, 2010) ranker that uses features informed by argument types yields better performance than the same ranker trained without type information. Click to Read Paper
Recent years, transfer learning has attracted much attention in the community of machine learning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the tasks of parameter transfer under the framework of extreme learning machine (ELM). Unlike the existing parameter transfer approaches, which incorporate the source model information into the target by regularizing the di erence between the source and target domain parameters, an intuitively appealing projective-model is proposed to bridge the source and target model parameters. Specifically, we formulate the parameter transfer in the ELM networks by the means of parameter projection, and train the model by optimizing the projection matrix and classifier parameters jointly. Further more, the `L2,1-norm structured sparsity penalty is imposed on the source domain parameters, which encourages the joint feature selection and parameter transfer. To evaluate the e ectiveness of the proposed method, comprehensive experiments on several commonly used domain adaptation datasets are presented. The results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the non-transfer ELM networks and other classical transfer learning methods. Click to Read Paper
Three dimensional (3D) interest point detection plays a fundamental role in 3D computer vision and graphics. In this paper, we introduce a new method for detecting mesh interest points based on geometric measures and sparse refinement (GMSR). The key point of our approach is to calculate the 3D interest point response function using two intuitive and effective geometric properties of the local surface on a 3D mesh model, namely Euclidean distances between the neighborhood vertices to the tangent plane of a vertex and the angles of normal vectors of them. The response function is defined in multi-scale space and can be utilized to effectively distinguish 3D interest points from edges and flat areas. Those points with local maximal 3D interest point response value are selected as the candidates of 3D interest points. Finally, we utilize an $\ell_0$ norm based optimization method to refine the candidates of 3D interest points by constraining its quality and quantity. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed GMSR based 3D interest point detector outperforms current several state-of-the-art methods for different kinds of 3D mesh models. Click to Read Paper
In recent years, deep neural networks have yielded state-of-the-art performance on several tasks. Although some recent works have focused on combining deep learning with recommendation, we highlight three issues of existing works. First, most works perform deep content feature learning and resort to matrix factorization, which cannot effectively model the highly complex user-item interaction function. Second, due to the difficulty on training deep neural networks, existing models utilize a shallow architecture, and thus limit the expressive potential of deep learning. Third, neural network models are easy to overfit on the implicit setting, because negative interactions are not taken into account. To tackle these issues, we present a generic recommender framework called Neural Collaborative Autoencoder (NCAE) to perform collaborative filtering, which works well for both explicit feedback and implicit feedback. NCAE can effectively capture the relationship between interactions via a non-linear matrix factorization process. To optimize the deep architecture of NCAE, we develop a three-stage pre-training mechanism that combines supervised and unsupervised feature learning. Moreover, to prevent overfitting on the implicit setting, we propose an error reweighting module and a sparsity-aware data-augmentation strategy. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate that NCAE can significantly advance the state-of-the-art. Click to Read Paper
A neuromorphic chip that combines CMOS analog spiking neurons and memristive synapses offers a promising solution to brain-inspired computing, as it can provide massive neural network parallelism and density. Previous hybrid analog CMOS-memristor approaches required extensive CMOS circuitry for training, and thus eliminated most of the density advantages gained by the adoption of memristor synapses. Further, they used different waveforms for pre and post-synaptic spikes that added undesirable circuit overhead. Here we describe a hardware architecture that can feature a large number of memristor synapses to learn real-world patterns. We present a versatile CMOS neuron that combines integrate-and-fire behavior, drives passive memristors and implements competitive learning in a compact circuit module, and enables in-situ plasticity in the memristor synapses. We demonstrate handwritten-digits recognition using the proposed architecture using transistor-level circuit simulations. As the described neuromorphic architecture is homogeneous, it realizes a fundamental building block for large-scale energy-efficient brain-inspired silicon chips that could lead to next-generation cognitive computing. Click to Read Paper
This paper proposed a new regression model called $l_1$-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE) and a fast algorithm based on block coordinate descent to solve this model. Besides, assuming outliers are gross errors following a Bernoulli process, this paper also presented a Bernoulli estimate model which, in theory, should be very accurate and robust due to its complete elimination of affections caused by outliers. Though this Bernoulli estimate is hard to solve, it could be approximately achieved through a process which takes LOIRE as an important intermediate step. As a result, the approximate Bernoulli estimate is a good combination of Bernoulli estimate's accuracy and LOIRE regression's efficiency with several simulations conducted to strongly verify this point. Moreover, LOIRE can be further extended to realize robust rank factorization which is powerful in recovering low-rank component from massive corruptions. Extensive experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods like RPCA and GoDec in the aspect of computation speed with a competitive performance. Click to Read Paper
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown great capacity on image generation, in which a discriminative model guides the training of a generative model to construct images that resemble real images. Recently, GANs have been extended from generating images to generating sequences (e.g., poems, music and codes). Existing GANs on sequence generation mainly focus on general sequences, which are grammar-free. In many real-world applications, however, we need to generate sequences in a formal language with the constraint of its corresponding grammar. For example, to test the performance of a database, one may want to generate a collection of SQL queries, which are not only similar to the queries of real users, but also follow the SQL syntax of the target database. Generating such sequences is highly challenging because both the generator and discriminator of GANs need to consider the structure of the sequences and the given grammar in the formal language. To address these issues, we study the problem of syntax-aware sequence generation with GANs, in which a collection of real sequences and a set of pre-defined grammatical rules are given to both discriminator and generator. We propose a novel GAN framework, namely TreeGAN, to incorporate a given Context-Free Grammar (CFG) into the sequence generation process. In TreeGAN, the generator employs a recurrent neural network (RNN) to construct a parse tree. Each generated parse tree can then be translated to a valid sequence of the given grammar. The discriminator uses a tree-structured RNN to distinguish the generated trees from real trees. We show that TreeGAN can generate sequences for any CFG and its generation fully conforms with the given syntax. Experiments on synthetic and real data sets demonstrated that TreeGAN significantly improves the quality of the sequence generation in context-free languages. Click to Read Paper
Recently, it has been shown that deep neural networks (DNN) are subject to attacks through adversarial samples. Adversarial samples are often crafted through adversarial perturbation, i.e., manipulating the original sample with minor modifications so that the DNN model labels the sample incorrectly. Given that it is almost impossible to train perfect DNN, adversarial samples are shown to be easy to generate. As DNN are increasingly used in safety-critical systems like autonomous cars, it is crucial to develop techniques for defending such attacks. Existing defense mechanisms which aim to make adversarial perturbation challenging have been shown to be ineffective. In this work, we propose an alternative approach. We first observe that adversarial samples are much more sensitive to perturbations than normal samples. That is, if we impose random perturbations on a normal and an adversarial sample respectively, there is a significant difference between the ratio of label change due to the perturbations. Observing this, we design a statistical adversary detection algorithm called nMutant (inspired by mutation testing from software engineering community). Our experiments show that nMutant effectively detects most of the adversarial samples generated by recently proposed attacking methods. Furthermore, we provide an error bound with certain statistical significance along with the detection. Click to Read Paper
In this paper, we propose and study a technique to reduce the number of parameters and computation time in convolutional neural networks. We use Kronecker product to exploit the local structures within convolution and fully-connected layers, by replacing the large weight matrices by combinations of multiple Kronecker products of smaller matrices. Just as the Kronecker product is a generalization of the outer product from vectors to matrices, our method is a generalization of the low rank approximation method for convolution neural networks. We also introduce combinations of different shapes of Kronecker product to increase modeling capacity. Experiments on SVHN, scene text recognition and ImageNet dataset demonstrate that we can achieve $3.3 \times$ speedup or $3.6 \times$ parameter reduction with less than 1\% drop in accuracy, showing the effectiveness and efficiency of our method. Moreover, the computation efficiency of Kronecker layer makes using larger feature map possible, which in turn enables us to outperform the previous state-of-the-art on both SVHN(digit recognition) and CASIA-HWDB (handwritten Chinese character recognition) datasets. Click to Read Paper
Confusing classes that are ubiquitous in real world often degrade performance for many vision related applications like object detection, classification, and segmentation. The confusion errors are not only caused by similar visual patterns but also amplified by various factors during the training of our designed models, such as reduced feature resolution in the encoding process or imbalanced data distributions. A large amount of deep learning based network structures has been proposed in recent years to deal with these individual factors and improve network performance. However, to our knowledge, no existing work in semantic image segmentation is designed to tackle confusion errors explicitly. In this paper, we present a novel and general network structure that reduces confusion errors in more direct manner and apply the network for semantic segmentation. There are two major contributions in our network structure: 1) We ensemble subnets with heterogeneous output spaces based on the discriminative confusing groups. The training for each subnet can distinguish confusing classes within the group without affecting unrelated classes outside the group. 2) We propose an improved cross-entropy loss function that maximizes the probability assigned to the correct class and penalizes the probabilities assigned to the confusing classes at the same time. Our network structure is a general structure and can be easily adapted to any other networks to further reduce confusion errors. Without any changes in the feature encoder and post-processing steps, our experiments demonstrate consistent and significant improvements on different baseline models on Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC datasets (e.g., 3.05% over ResNet-101 and 1.30% over ResNet-38). Click to Read Paper
A head-mounted display (HMD) could be an important component of augmented reality system. However, as the upper face region is seriously occluded by the device, the user experience could be affected in applications such as telecommunication and multi-player video games. In this paper, we first present a novel experimental setup that consists of two near-infrared (NIR) cameras to point to the eye regions and one visible-light RGB camera to capture the visible face region. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize realistic face images without occlusions based on the images captured by these cameras. To this end, we propose a novel synthesis framework that contains four modules: 3D head reconstruction, face alignment and tracking, face synthesis, and eye synthesis. In face synthesis, we propose a novel algorithm that can robustly align and track a personalized 3D head model given a face that is severely occluded by the HMD. In eye synthesis, in order to generate accurate eye movements and dynamic wrinkle variations around eye regions, we propose another novel algorithm to colorize the NIR eye images and further remove the "red eye" effects caused by the colorization. Results show that both hardware setup and system framework are robust to synthesize realistic face images in video sequences. Click to Read Paper
Researchers have proposed various methods to extract 3D keypoints from the surface of 3D mesh models over the last decades, but most of them are based on geometric methods, which lack enough flexibility to meet the requirements for various applications. In this paper, we propose a new method on the basis of deep learning by formulating the 3D keypoint detection as a regression problem using deep neural network (DNN) with sparse autoencoder (SAE) as our regression model. Both local information and global information of a 3D mesh model in multi-scale space are fully utilized to detect whether a vertex is a keypoint or not. SAE can effectively extract the internal structure of these two kinds of information and formulate high-level features for them, which is beneficial to the regression model. Three SAEs are used to formulate the hidden layers of the DNN and then a logistic regression layer is trained to process the high-level features produced in the third SAE. Numerical experiments show that the proposed DNN based 3D keypoint detection algorithm outperforms current five state-of-the-art methods for various 3D mesh models. Click to Read Paper
Nanoscale resistive memories are expected to fuel dense integration of electronic synapses for large-scale neuromorphic system. To realize such a brain-inspired computing chip, a compact CMOS spiking neuron that performs in-situ learning and computing while driving a large number of resistive synapses is desired. This work presents a novel leaky integrate-and-fire neuron design which implements the dual-mode operation of current integration and synaptic drive, with a single opamp and enables in-situ learning with crossbar resistive synapses. The proposed design was implemented in a 0.18 $\mu$m CMOS technology. Measurements show neuron's ability to drive a thousand resistive synapses, and demonstrate an in-situ associative learning. The neuron circuit occupies a small area of 0.01 mm$^2$ and has an energy-efficiency of 9.3 pJ$/$spike$/$synapse. Click to Read Paper
FPGA becomes a popular technology for implementing Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in recent years. Most CNN applications on FPGA are domain-specific, e.g., detecting objects from specific categories, in which commonly-used CNN models pre-trained on general datasets may not be efficient enough. This paper presents TuRF, an end-to-end CNN acceleration framework to efficiently deploy domain-specific applications on FPGA by transfer learning that adapts pre-trained models to specific domains, replacing standard convolution layers with efficient convolution blocks, and applying layer fusion to enhance hardware design performance. We evaluate TuRF by deploying a pre-trained VGG-16 model for a domain-specific image recognition task onto a Stratix V FPGA. Results show that designs generated by TuRF achieve better performance than prior methods for the original VGG-16 and ResNet-50 models, while for the optimised VGG-16 model TuRF designs are more accurate and easier to process. Click to Read Paper