Research papers and code for "Xinyu Huang":
Semantic dependency parsing aims to identify semantic relationships between words in a sentence that form a graph. In this paper, we propose a second-order semantic dependency parser, which takes into consideration not only individual dependency edges but also interactions between pairs of edges. We show that second-order parsing can be approximated using mean field (MF) variational inference or loopy belief propagation (LBP). We can unfold both algorithms as recurrent layers of a neural network and therefore can train the parser in an end-to-end manner. Our experiments show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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We introduce an Actor-Critic Ensemble(ACE) method for improving the performance of Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient(DDPG) algorithm. At inference time, our method uses a critic ensemble to select the best action from proposals of multiple actors running in parallel. By having a larger candidate set, our method can avoid actions that have fatal consequences, while staying deterministic. Using ACE, we have won the 2nd place in NIPS'17 Learning to Run competition, under the name of "Megvii-hzwer".

* 3 pages, 4 figures
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Modern statistical machine translation (SMT) systems usually use a linear combination of features to model the quality of each translation hypothesis. The linear combination assumes that all the features are in a linear relationship and constrains that each feature interacts with the rest features in an linear manner, which might limit the expressive power of the model and lead to a under-fit model on the current data. In this paper, we propose a non-linear modeling for the quality of translation hypotheses based on neural networks, which allows more complex interaction between features. A learning framework is presented for training the non-linear models. We also discuss possible heuristics in designing the network structure which may improve the non-linear learning performance. Experimental results show that with the basic features of a hierarchical phrase-based machine translation system, our method produce translations that are better than a linear model.

* submitted to a conference
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Confusing classes that are ubiquitous in real world often degrade performance for many vision related applications like object detection, classification, and segmentation. The confusion errors are not only caused by similar visual patterns but also amplified by various factors during the training of our designed models, such as reduced feature resolution in the encoding process or imbalanced data distributions. A large amount of deep learning based network structures has been proposed in recent years to deal with these individual factors and improve network performance. However, to our knowledge, no existing work in semantic image segmentation is designed to tackle confusion errors explicitly. In this paper, we present a novel and general network structure that reduces confusion errors in more direct manner and apply the network for semantic segmentation. There are two major contributions in our network structure: 1) We ensemble subnets with heterogeneous output spaces based on the discriminative confusing groups. The training for each subnet can distinguish confusing classes within the group without affecting unrelated classes outside the group. 2) We propose an improved cross-entropy loss function that maximizes the probability assigned to the correct class and penalizes the probabilities assigned to the confusing classes at the same time. Our network structure is a general structure and can be easily adapted to any other networks to further reduce confusion errors. Without any changes in the feature encoder and post-processing steps, our experiments demonstrate consistent and significant improvements on different baseline models on Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC datasets (e.g., 3.05% over ResNet-101 and 1.30% over ResNet-38).

* 18 pages, 9 figures
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A head-mounted display (HMD) could be an important component of augmented reality system. However, as the upper face region is seriously occluded by the device, the user experience could be affected in applications such as telecommunication and multi-player video games. In this paper, we first present a novel experimental setup that consists of two near-infrared (NIR) cameras to point to the eye regions and one visible-light RGB camera to capture the visible face region. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize realistic face images without occlusions based on the images captured by these cameras. To this end, we propose a novel synthesis framework that contains four modules: 3D head reconstruction, face alignment and tracking, face synthesis, and eye synthesis. In face synthesis, we propose a novel algorithm that can robustly align and track a personalized 3D head model given a face that is severely occluded by the HMD. In eye synthesis, in order to generate accurate eye movements and dynamic wrinkle variations around eye regions, we propose another novel algorithm to colorize the NIR eye images and further remove the "red eye" effects caused by the colorization. Results show that both hardware setup and system framework are robust to synthesize realistic face images in video sequences.

* 12 pages,15 figures
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Understanding and interpreting how machine learning (ML) models make decisions have been a big challenge. While recent research has proposed various technical approaches to provide some clues as to how an ML model makes individual predictions, they cannot provide users with an ability to inspect a model as a complete entity. In this work, we propose a novel technical approach that augments a Bayesian non-parametric regression mixture model with multiple elastic nets. Using the enhanced mixture model, we can extract generalizable insights for a target model through a global approximation. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we evaluate it on different ML models in the context of image recognition. The empirical results indicate that our proposed approach not only outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques in explaining individual decisions but also provides users with an ability to discover the vulnerabilities of the target ML models.

* In Proceedings of the 32nd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1705.08564
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Pairwise ranking methods are the basis of many widely used discriminative training approaches for structure prediction problems in natural language processing(NLP). Decomposing the problem of ranking hypotheses into pairwise comparisons enables simple and efficient solutions. However, neglecting the global ordering of the hypothesis list may hinder learning. We propose a listwise learning framework for structure prediction problems such as machine translation. Our framework directly models the entire translation list's ordering to learn parameters which may better fit the given listwise samples. Furthermore, we propose top-rank enhanced loss functions, which are more sensitive to ranking errors at higher positions. Experiments on a large-scale Chinese-English translation task show that both our listwise learning framework and top-rank enhanced listwise losses lead to significant improvements in translation quality.

* Accepted to CONLL 2017
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It is oftentimes impossible to understand how machine learning models reach a decision. While recent research has proposed various technical approaches to provide some clues as to how a learning model makes individual decisions, they cannot provide users with ability to inspect a learning model as a complete entity. In this work, we propose a new technical approach that augments a Bayesian regression mixture model with multiple elastic nets. Using the enhanced mixture model, we extract explanations for a target model through global approximation. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we evaluate it on different learning models covering the tasks of text mining and image recognition. Our results indicate that the proposed approach not only outperforms the state-of-the-art technique in explaining individual decisions but also provides users with an ability to discover the vulnerabilities of a learning model.

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In the encoder-decoder architecture for neural machine translation (NMT), the hidden states of the recurrent structures in the encoder and decoder carry the crucial information about the sentence.These vectors are generated by parameters which are updated by back-propagation of translation errors through time. We argue that propagating errors through the end-to-end recurrent structures are not a direct way of control the hidden vectors. In this paper, we propose to use word predictions as a mechanism for direct supervision. More specifically, we require these vectors to be able to predict the vocabulary in target sentence. Our simple mechanism ensures better representations in the encoder and decoder without using any extra data or annotation. It is also helpful in reducing the target side vocabulary and improving the decoding efficiency. Experiments on Chinese-English and German-English machine translation tasks show BLEU improvements by 4.53 and 1.3, respectively

* Accepted at EMNLP2017
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3D point cloud generation by the deep neural network from a single image has been attracting more and more researchers' attention. However, recently-proposed methods require the objects be captured with relatively clean backgrounds, fixed viewpoint, while this highly limits its application in the real environment. To overcome these drawbacks, we proposed to integrate the prior 3D shape knowledge into the network to guide the 3D generation. By taking additional 3D information, the proposed network can handle the 3D object generation from a single real image captured from any viewpoint and complex background. Specifically, giving a query image, we retrieve the nearest shape model from a pre-prepared 3D model database. Then, the image together with the retrieved shape model is fed into the proposed network to generate the fine-grained 3D point cloud. The effectiveness of our proposed framework has been verified on different kinds of datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art accuracy compared to other volumetric-based and point set generation methods. Furthermore, the proposed framework works well for real images in complex backgrounds with various view angles.

* 8 pages, 6 figures
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We present a system for concurrent activity recognition. To extract features associated with different activities, we propose a feature-to-activity attention that maps the extracted global features to sub-features associated with individual activities. To model the temporal associations of individual activities, we propose a transformer-network encoder that models independent temporal associations for each activity. To make the concurrent activity prediction aware of the potential associations between activities, we propose self-attention with an association mask. Our system achieved state-of-the-art or comparable performance on three commonly used concurrent activity detection datasets. Our visualizations demonstrate that our system is able to locate the important spatial-temporal features for final decision making. We also showed that our system can be applied to general multilabel classification problems.

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Autonomous driving has attracted tremendous attention especially in the past few years. The key techniques for a self-driving car include solving tasks like 3D map construction, self-localization, parsing the driving road and understanding objects, which enable vehicles to reason and act. However, large scale data set for training and system evaluation is still a bottleneck for developing robust perception models. In this paper, we present the ApolloScape dataset [1] and its applications for autonomous driving. Compared with existing public datasets from real scenes, e.g. KITTI [2] or Cityscapes [3], ApolloScape contains much large and richer labelling including holistic semantic dense point cloud for each site, stereo, per-pixel semantic labelling, lanemark labelling, instance segmentation, 3D car instance, high accurate location for every frame in various driving videos from multiple sites, cities and daytimes. For each task, it contains at lease 15x larger amount of images than SOTA datasets. To label such a complete dataset, we develop various tools and algorithms specified for each task to accelerate the labelling process, such as 3D-2D segment labeling tools, active labelling in videos etc. Depend on ApolloScape, we are able to develop algorithms jointly consider the learning and inference of multiple tasks. In this paper, we provide a sensor fusion scheme integrating camera videos, consumer-grade motion sensors (GPS/IMU), and a 3D semantic map in order to achieve robust self-localization and semantic segmentation for autonomous driving. We show that practically, sensor fusion and joint learning of multiple tasks are beneficial to achieve a more robust and accurate system. We expect our dataset and proposed relevant algorithms can support and motivate researchers for further development of multi-sensor fusion and multi-task learning in the field of computer vision.

* Version 3: 17 pages, 10 tables, 11 figures, added the application (DeLS-3D) based on the ApolloScape Dataset. Version 2: 7 pages, 6 figures, added comparison with BDD100K dataset
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Neural style transfer is an emerging technique which is able to endow daily-life images with attractive artistic styles. Previous work has succeeded in applying convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to style transfer for monocular images or videos. However, style transfer for stereoscopic images is still a missing piece. Different from processing a monocular image, the two views of a stylized stereoscopic pair are required to be consistent to provide observers a comfortable visual experience. In this paper, we propose a novel dual path network for view-consistent style transfer on stereoscopic images. While each view of the stereoscopic pair is processed in an individual path, a novel feature aggregation strategy is proposed to effectively share information between the two paths. Besides a traditional perceptual loss being used for controlling the style transfer quality in each view, a multi-layer view loss is leveraged to enforce the network to coordinate the learning of both the paths to generate view-consistent stylized results. Extensive experiments show that, compared against previous methods, our proposed model can produce stylized stereoscopic images which achieve decent view consistency.

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In this paper, we make the first attempt to build a framework to simultaneously estimate semantic parts, shape, translation, and orientation of cars from single street view. Our framework contains three major contributions. Firstly, a novel domain adaptation approach based on the class consistency loss is developed to transfer our part segmentation model from the synthesized images to the real images. Secondly, we propose a novel network structure that leverages part-level features from street views and 3D losses for pose and shape estimation. Thirdly, we construct a high quality dataset that contains more than 300 different car models with physical dimensions and part-level annotations based on global and local deformations. We have conducted experiments on both synthesized data and real images. Our results show that the domain adaptation approach can bring 35.5 percentage point performance improvement in terms of mean intersection-over-union score (mIoU) comparing with the baseline network using domain randomization only. Our network for translation and orientation estimation achieves competitive performance on highly complex street views (e.g., 11 cars per image on average). Moreover, our network is able to reconstruct a list of 3D car models with part-level details from street views, which could benefit various applications such as fine-grained car recognition, vehicle re-identification, and traffic simulation.

* 10 pages, 9 figures
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Existing neural machine translation systems do not explicitly model what has been translated and what has not during the decoding phase. To address this problem, we propose a novel mechanism that separates the source information into two parts: translated Past contents and untranslated Future contents, which are modeled by two additional recurrent layers. The Past and Future contents are fed to both the attention model and the decoder states, which offers NMT systems the knowledge of translated and untranslated contents. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves translation performance in Chinese-English, German-English and English-German translation tasks. Specifically, the proposed model outperforms the conventional coverage model in both of the translation quality and the alignment error rate.

* Accepted by Transaction of ACL
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Online video chat services such as Chatroulette, Omegle, and vChatter that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions are fast becoming very popular, with over a million users per month in the case of Chatroulette. A key problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. This problem is especially acute given the presence of underage minors in such systems. This paper presents SafeVchat, a novel solution to the problem of flasher detection that employs an array of image detection algorithms. A key contribution of the paper concerns how the results of the individual detectors are fused together into an overall decision classifying the user as misbehaving or not, based on Dempster-Shafer Theory. The paper introduces a novel, motion-based skin detection method that achieves significantly higher recall and better precision. The proposed methods have been evaluated over real world data and image traces obtained from Chatroulette.com.

* The 20th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2011)
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Simulation systems have become an essential component in the development and validation of autonomous driving technologies. The prevailing state-of-the-art approach for simulation is to use game engines or high-fidelity computer graphics (CG) models to create driving scenarios. However, creating CG models and vehicle movements (e.g., the assets for simulation) remains a manual task that can be costly and time-consuming. In addition, the fidelity of CG images still lacks the richness and authenticity of real-world images and using these images for training leads to degraded performance. In this paper we present a novel approach to address these issues: Augmented Autonomous Driving Simulation (AADS). Our formulation augments real-world pictures with a simulated traffic flow to create photo-realistic simulation images and renderings. More specifically, we use LiDAR and cameras to scan street scenes. From the acquired trajectory data, we generate highly plausible traffic flows for cars and pedestrians and compose them into the background. The composite images can be re-synthesized with different viewpoints and sensor models. The resulting images are photo-realistic, fully annotated, and ready for end-to-end training and testing of autonomous driving systems from perception to planning. We explain our system design and validate our algorithms with a number of autonomous driving tasks from detection to segmentation and predictions. Compared to traditional approaches, our method offers unmatched scalability and realism. Scalability is particularly important for AD simulation and we believe the complexity and diversity of the real world cannot be realistically captured in a virtual environment. Our augmented approach combines the flexibility in a virtual environment (e.g., vehicle movements) with the richness of the real world to allow effective simulation of anywhere on earth.

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