Models, code, and papers for "Yang Yi":

Virtual-to-Real: Learning to Control in Visual Semantic Segmentation

Oct 28, 2018
Zhang-Wei Hong, Chen Yu-Ming, Shih-Yang Su, Tzu-Yun Shann, Yi-Hsiang Chang, Hsuan-Kung Yang, Brian Hsi-Lin Ho, Chih-Chieh Tu, Yueh-Chuan Chang, Tsu-Ching Hsiao, Hsin-Wei Hsiao, Sih-Pin Lai, Chun-Yi Lee

Collecting training data from the physical world is usually time-consuming and even dangerous for fragile robots, and thus, recent advances in robot learning advocate the use of simulators as the training platform. Unfortunately, the reality gap between synthetic and real visual data prohibits direct migration of the models trained in virtual worlds to the real world. This paper proposes a modular architecture for tackling the virtual-to-real problem. The proposed architecture separates the learning model into a perception module and a control policy module, and uses semantic image segmentation as the meta representation for relating these two modules. The perception module translates the perceived RGB image to semantic image segmentation. The control policy module is implemented as a deep reinforcement learning agent, which performs actions based on the translated image segmentation. Our architecture is evaluated in an obstacle avoidance task and a target following task. Experimental results show that our architecture significantly outperforms all of the baseline methods in both virtual and real environments, and demonstrates a faster learning curve than them. We also present a detailed analysis for a variety of variant configurations, and validate the transferability of our modular architecture.

* 7 pages, accepted by IJCAI-18 

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Convolutional Neural Networks with Recurrent Neural Filters

Aug 28, 2018
Yi Yang

We introduce a class of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that utilize recurrent neural networks (RNNs) as convolution filters. A convolution filter is typically implemented as a linear affine transformation followed by a non-linear function, which fails to account for language compositionality. As a result, it limits the use of high-order filters that are often warranted for natural language processing tasks. In this work, we model convolution filters with RNNs that naturally capture compositionality and long-term dependencies in language. We show that simple CNN architectures equipped with recurrent neural filters (RNFs) achieve results that are on par with the best published ones on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank and two answer sentence selection datasets.

* Accepted by EMNLP 2018 as a short paper 

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Dual-Path Convolutional Image-Text Embedding with Instance Loss

Jul 17, 2018
Zhedong Zheng, Liang Zheng, Michael Garrett, Yi Yang, Yi-Dong Shen

Matching images and sentences demands a fine understanding of both modalities. In this paper, we propose a new system to discriminatively embed the image and text to a shared visual-textual space. In this field, most existing works apply the ranking loss to pull the positive image / text pairs close and push the negative pairs apart from each other. However, directly deploying the ranking loss is hard for network learning, since it starts from the two heterogeneous features to build inter-modal relationship. To address this problem, we propose the instance loss which explicitly considers the intra-modal data distribution. It is based on an unsupervised assumption that each image / text group can be viewed as a class. So the network can learn the fine granularity from every image/text group. The experiment shows that the instance loss offers better weight initialization for the ranking loss, so that more discriminative embeddings can be learned. Besides, existing works usually apply the off-the-shelf features, i.e., word2vec and fixed visual feature. So in a minor contribution, this paper constructs an end-to-end dual-path convolutional network to learn the image and text representations. End-to-end learning allows the system to directly learn from the data and fully utilize the supervision. On two generic retrieval datasets (Flickr30k and MSCOCO), experiments demonstrate that our method yields competitive accuracy compared to state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, in language based person retrieval, we improve the state of the art by a large margin. The code has been made publicly available.

* 15pages, 15 figures, 8 tables 

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Improving Automatic Jazz Melody Generation by Transfer Learning Techniques

Aug 26, 2019
Hsiao-Tzu Hung, Chung-Yang Wang, Yi-Hsuan Yang, Hsin-Min Wang

In this paper, we tackle the problem of transfer learning for Jazz automatic generation. Jazz is one of representative types of music, but the lack of Jazz data in the MIDI format hinders the construction of a generative model for Jazz. Transfer learning is an approach aiming to solve the problem of data insufficiency, so as to transfer the common feature from one domain to another. In view of its success in other machine learning problems, we investigate whether, and how much, it can help improve automatic music generation for under-resourced musical genres. Specifically, we use a recurrent variational autoencoder as the generative model, and use a genre-unspecified dataset as the source dataset and a Jazz-only dataset as the target dataset. Two transfer learning methods are evaluated using six levels of source-to-target data ratios. The first method is to train the model on the source dataset, and then fine-tune the resulting model parameters on the target dataset. The second method is to train the model on both the source and target datasets at the same time, but add genre labels to the latent vectors and use a genre classifier to improve Jazz generation. The evaluation results show that the second method seems to perform better overall, but it cannot take full advantage of the genre-unspecified dataset.

* 8 pages, Accepted to APSIPA ASC(Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference ) 2019 

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MuseGAN: Multi-track Sequential Generative Adversarial Networks for Symbolic Music Generation and Accompaniment

Nov 24, 2017
Hao-Wen Dong, Wen-Yi Hsiao, Li-Chia Yang, Yi-Hsuan Yang

Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at https://salu133445.github.io/musegan/ .

* to appear at AAAI 2018 

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Hit Song Prediction for Pop Music by Siamese CNN with Ranking Loss

Oct 30, 2017
Lang-Chi Yu, Yi-Hsuan Yang, Yun-Ning Hung, Yi-An Chen

A model for hit song prediction can be used in the pop music industry to identify emerging trends and potential artists or songs before they are marketed to the public. While most previous work formulates hit song prediction as a regression or classification problem, we present in this paper a convolutional neural network (CNN) model that treats it as a ranking problem. Specifically, we use a commercial dataset with daily play-counts to train a multi-objective Siamese CNN model with Euclidean loss and pairwise ranking loss to learn from audio the relative ranking relations among songs. Besides, we devise a number of pair sampling methods according to some empirical observation of the data. Our experiment shows that the proposed model with a sampling method called A/B sampling leads to much higher accuracy in hit song prediction than the baseline regression model. Moreover, we can further improve the accuracy by using a neural attention mechanism to extract the highlights of songs and by using a separate CNN model to offer high-level features of songs.


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Revisiting the problem of audio-based hit song prediction using convolutional neural networks

Apr 05, 2017
Li-Chia Yang, Szu-Yu Chou, Jen-Yu Liu, Yi-Hsuan Yang, Yi-An Chen

Being able to predict whether a song can be a hit has impor- tant applications in the music industry. Although it is true that the popularity of a song can be greatly affected by exter- nal factors such as social and commercial influences, to which degree audio features computed from musical signals (whom we regard as internal factors) can predict song popularity is an interesting research question on its own. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning techniques, we attempt to ex- tend previous work on hit song prediction by jointly learning the audio features and prediction models using deep learning. Specifically, we experiment with a convolutional neural net- work model that takes the primitive mel-spectrogram as the input for feature learning, a more advanced JYnet model that uses an external song dataset for supervised pre-training and auto-tagging, and the combination of these two models. We also consider the inception model to characterize audio infor- mation in different scales. Our experiments suggest that deep structures are indeed more accurate than shallow structures in predicting the popularity of either Chinese or Western Pop songs in Taiwan. We also use the tags predicted by JYnet to gain insights into the result of different models.

* To appear in the proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 

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Referring Expression Object Segmentation with Caption-Aware Consistency

Oct 10, 2019
Yi-Wen Chen, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Tiantian Wang, Yen-Yu Lin, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Referring expressions are natural language descriptions that identify a particular object within a scene and are widely used in our daily conversations. In this work, we focus on segmenting the object in an image specified by a referring expression. To this end, we propose an end-to-end trainable comprehension network that consists of the language and visual encoders to extract feature representations from both domains. We introduce the spatial-aware dynamic filters to transfer knowledge from text to image, and effectively capture the spatial information of the specified object. To better communicate between the language and visual modules, we employ a caption generation network that takes features shared across both domains as input, and improves both representations via a consistency that enforces the generated sentence to be similar to the given referring expression. We evaluate the proposed framework on two referring expression datasets and show that our method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

* Accepted in BMVC'19, project page at https://github.com/wenz116/lang2seg 

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Unseen Object Segmentation in Videos via Transferable Representations

Jan 08, 2019
Yi-Wen Chen, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Chu-Ya Yang, Yen-Yu Lin, Ming-Hsuan Yang

In order to learn object segmentation models in videos, conventional methods require a large amount of pixel-wise ground truth annotations. However, collecting such supervised data is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this paper, we exploit existing annotations in source images and transfer such visual information to segment videos with unseen object categories. Without using any annotations in the target video, we propose a method to jointly mine useful segments and learn feature representations that better adapt to the target frames. The entire process is decomposed into two tasks: 1) solving a submodular function for selecting object-like segments, and 2) learning a CNN model with a transferable module for adapting seen categories in the source domain to the unseen target video. We present an iterative update scheme between two tasks to self-learn the final solution for object segmentation. Experimental results on numerous benchmark datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

* Accepted in ACCV'18 (oral). Code is available at https://github.com/wenz116/TransferSeg 

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Diversity-Driven Exploration Strategy for Deep Reinforcement Learning

Oct 28, 2018
Zhang-Wei Hong, Tzu-Yun Shann, Shih-Yang Su, Yi-Hsiang Chang, Chun-Yi Lee

Efficient exploration remains a challenging research problem in reinforcement learning, especially when an environment contains large state spaces, deceptive local optima, or sparse rewards. To tackle this problem, we present a diversity-driven approach for exploration, which can be easily combined with both off- and on-policy reinforcement learning algorithms. We show that by simply adding a distance measure to the loss function, the proposed methodology significantly enhances an agent's exploratory behaviors, and thus preventing the policy from being trapped in local optima. We further propose an adaptive scaling method for stabilizing the learning process. Our experimental results in Atari 2600 show that our method outperforms baseline approaches in several tasks in terms of mean scores and exploration efficiency.


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A Deep Policy Inference Q-Network for Multi-Agent Systems

Apr 09, 2018
Zhang-Wei Hong, Shih-Yang Su, Tzu-Yun Shann, Yi-Hsiang Chang, Chun-Yi Lee

We present DPIQN, a deep policy inference Q-network that targets multi-agent systems composed of controllable agents, collaborators, and opponents that interact with each other. We focus on one challenging issue in such systems---modeling agents with varying strategies---and propose to employ "policy features" learned from raw observations (e.g., raw images) of collaborators and opponents by inferring their policies. DPIQN incorporates the learned policy features as a hidden vector into its own deep Q-network (DQN), such that it is able to predict better Q values for the controllable agents than the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning models. We further propose an enhanced version of DPIQN, called deep recurrent policy inference Q-network (DRPIQN), for handling partial observability. Both DPIQN and DRPIQN are trained by an adaptive training procedure, which adjusts the network's attention to learn the policy features and its own Q-values at different phases of the training process. We present a comprehensive analysis of DPIQN and DRPIQN, and highlight their effectiveness and generalizability in various multi-agent settings. Our models are evaluated in a classic soccer game involving both competitive and collaborative scenarios. Experimental results performed on 1 vs. 1 and 2 vs. 2 games show that DPIQN and DRPIQN demonstrate superior performance to the baseline DQN and deep recurrent Q-network (DRQN) models. We also explore scenarios in which collaborators or opponents dynamically change their policies, and show that DPIQN and DRPIQN do lead to better overall performance in terms of stability and mean scores.


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When Causal Intervention Meets Image Masking and Adversarial Perturbation for Deep Neural Networks

Feb 13, 2019
Chao-Han Huck Yang, Yi-Chieh Liu, Pin-Yu Chen, Xiaoli Ma, Yi-Chang James Tsai

Discovering and exploiting the causality in deep neural networks (DNNs) are crucial challenges for understanding and reasoning causal effects (CE) on an explainable visual model. "Intervention" has been widely used for recognizing a causal relation ontologically. In this paper, we propose a causal inference framework for visual reasoning via do-calculus. To study the intervention effects on pixel-level feature(s) for causal reasoning, we introduce pixel-wise masking and adversarial perturbation. In our framework, CE is calculated using features in a latent space and perturbed prediction from a DNN-based model. We further provide a first look into the characteristics of discovered CE of adversarially perturbed images generated by gradient-based methods. Experimental results show that CE is a competitive and robust index for understanding DNNs when compared with conventional methods such as class-activation mappings (CAMs) on the ChestX-ray 14 dataset for human-interpretable feature(s) (e.g., symptom) reasoning. Moreover, CE holds promises for detecting adversarial examples as it possesses distinct characteristics in the presence of adversarial perturbations.

* Submitted to IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2019, Pytorch code will be released in Jun, 2019 

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Interpretable Self-Attention Temporal Reasoning for Driving Behavior Understanding

Nov 06, 2019
Yi-Chieh Liu, Yung-An Hsieh, Min-Hung Chen, Chao-Han Huck Yang, Jesper Tegner, Yi-Chang James Tsai

Performing driving behaviors based on causal reasoning is essential to ensure driving safety. In this work, we investigated how state-of-the-art 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) perform on classifying driving behaviors based on causal reasoning. We proposed a perturbation-based visual explanation method to inspect the models' performance visually. By examining the video attention saliency, we found that existing models could not precisely capture the causes (e.g., traffic light) of the specific action (e.g., stopping). Therefore, the Temporal Reasoning Block (TRB) was proposed and introduced to the models. With the TRB models, we achieved the accuracy of $\mathbf{86.3\%}$, which outperform the state-of-the-art 3D CNNs from previous works. The attention saliency also demonstrated that TRB helped models focus on the causes more precisely. With both numerical and visual evaluations, we concluded that our proposed TRB models were able to provide accurate driving behavior prediction by learning the causal reasoning of the behaviors.

* Submitted to IEEE ICASSP 2020; Pytorch code will be released soon 

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Synthesizing New Retinal Symptom Images by Multiple Generative Models

Feb 11, 2019
Yi-Chieh Liu, Hao-Hsiang Yang, Chao-Han Huck Yang, Jia-Hong Huang, Meng Tian, Hiromasa Morikawa, Yi-Chang James Tsai, Jesper Tegner

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an asymptomatic retinal disease which may result in loss of vision. There is limited access to high-quality relevant retinal images and poor understanding of the features defining sub-classes of this disease. Motivated by recent advances in machine learning we specifically explore the potential of generative modeling, using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and style transferring, to facilitate clinical diagnosis and disease understanding by feature extraction. We design an analytic pipeline which first generates synthetic retinal images from clinical images; a subsequent verification step is applied. In the synthesizing step we merge GANs (DCGANs and WGANs architectures) and style transferring for the image generation, whereas the verified step controls the accuracy of the generated images. We find that the generated images contain sufficient pathological details to facilitate ophthalmologists' task of disease classification and in discovery of disease relevant features. In particular, our system predicts the drusen and geographic atrophy sub-classes of AMD. Furthermore, the performance using CFP images for GANs outperforms the classification based on using only the original clinical dataset. Our results are evaluated using existing classifier of retinal diseases and class activated maps, supporting the predictive power of the synthetic images and their utility for feature extraction. Our code examples are available online.

* AI for Retinal Image Analysis Workshop ACCV 2018 

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Automatic Melody Harmonization with Triad Chords: A Comparative Study

Jan 08, 2020
Yin-Cheng Yeh, Wen-Yi Hsiao, Satoru Fukayama, Tetsuro Kitahara, Benjamin Genchel, Hao-Min Liu, Hao-Wen Dong, Yian Chen, Terence Leong, Yi-Hsuan Yang

Several prior works have proposed various methods for the task of automatic melody harmonization, in which a model aims to generate a sequence of chords to serve as the harmonic accompaniment of a given multiple-bar melody sequence. In this paper, we present a comparative study evaluating and comparing the performance of a set of canonical approaches to this task, including a template matching based model, a hidden Markov based model, a genetic algorithm based model, and two deep learning based models. The evaluation is conducted on a dataset of 9,226 melody/chord pairs we newly collect for this study, considering up to 48 triad chords, using a standardized training/test split. We report the result of an objective evaluation using six different metrics and a subjective study with 202 participants.

* 20 pages, 6 figures, submitted to JNMR 

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PFML-based Semantic BCI Agent for Game of Go Learning and Prediction

Jan 10, 2019
Chang-Shing Lee, Mei-Hui Wang, Li-Wei Ko, Bo-Yu Tsai, Yi-Lin Tsai, Sheng-Chi Yang, Lu-An Lin, Yi-Hsiu Lee, Hirofumi Ohashi, Naoyuki Kubota, Nan Shuo

This paper presents a semantic brain computer interface (BCI) agent with particle swarm optimization (PSO) based on a Fuzzy Markup Language (FML) for Go learning and prediction applications. Additionally, we also establish an Open Go Darkforest (OGD) cloud platform with Facebook AI research (FAIR) open source Darkforest and ELF OpenGo AI bots. The Japanese robot Palro will simultaneously predict the move advantage in the board game Go to the Go players for reference or learning. The proposed semantic BCI agent operates efficiently by the human-based BCI data from their brain waves and machine-based game data from the prediction of the OGD cloud platform for optimizing the parameters between humans and machines. Experimental results show that the proposed human and smart machine co-learning mechanism performs favorably. We hope to provide students with a better online learning environment, combining different kinds of handheld devices, robots, or computer equipment, to achieve a desired and intellectual learning goal in the future.


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Very Long Natural Scenery Image Prediction by Outpainting

Dec 29, 2019
Zongxin Yang, Jian Dong, Ping Liu, Yi Yang, Shuicheng Yan

Comparing to image inpainting, image outpainting receives less attention due to two challenges in it. The first challenge is how to keep the spatial and content consistency between generated images and original input. The second challenge is how to maintain high quality in generated results, especially for multi-step generations in which generated regions are spatially far away from the initial input. To solve the two problems, we devise some innovative modules, named Skip Horizontal Connection and Recurrent Content Transfer, and integrate them into our designed encoder-decoder structure. By this design, our network can generate highly realistic outpainting prediction effectively and efficiently. Other than that, our method can generate new images with very long sizes while keeping the same style and semantic content as the given input. To test the effectiveness of the proposed architecture, we collect a new scenery dataset with diverse, complicated natural scenes. The experimental results on this dataset have demonstrated the efficacy of our proposed network. The code and dataset are available from https://github.com/z-x-yang/NS-Outpainting.

* ICCV-19 

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Unsupervised Scene Adaptation with Memory Regularization in vivo

Jan 26, 2020
Zhedong Zheng, Yi Yang

We consider the unsupervised scene adaptation problem of learning from both labeled source data and unlabeled target data. Existing methods focus on minoring the inter-domain gap between the source and target domains. However, the intra-domain knowledge and inherent uncertainty learned by the network are under-explored. In this paper, we propose an orthogonal method, called memory regularization in vivo to exploit the intra-domain knowledge and regularize the model training. Specifically, we refer to the segmentation model itself as the memory module, and minor the discrepancy of the two classifiers, i.e., the primary classifier and the auxiliary classifier, to reduce the prediction inconsistency. Without extra parameters, the proposed method is complementary to the most existing domain adaptation methods and could generally improve the performance of existing methods. Albeit simple, we verify the effectiveness of memory regularization on two synthetic-to-real benchmarks: GTA5 -> Cityscapes and SYNTHIA -> Cityscapes, yielding +11.1% and +11.3% mIoU improvement over the baseline model, respectively. Besides, a similar +12.0% mIoU improvement is observed on the cross-city benchmark: Cityscapes -> Oxford RobotCar.

* 7 pages, 4 figures, 6 tables 

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NAS-Bench-201: Extending the Scope of Reproducible Neural Architecture Search

Jan 15, 2020
Xuanyi Dong, Yi Yang

Neural architecture search (NAS) has achieved breakthrough success in a great number of applications in the past few years. It could be time to take a step back and analyze the good and bad aspects in the field of NAS. A variety of algorithms search architectures under different search space. These searched architectures are trained using different setups, e.g., hyper-parameters, data augmentation, regularization. This raises a comparability problem when comparing the performance of various NAS algorithms. NAS-Bench-101 has shown success to alleviate this problem. In this work, we propose an extension to NAS-Bench-101: NAS-Bench-201 with a different search space, results on multiple datasets, and more diagnostic information. NAS-Bench-201 has a fixed search space and provides a unified benchmark for almost any up-to-date NAS algorithms. The design of our search space is inspired from the one used in the most popular cell-based searching algorithms, where a cell is represented as a DAG. Each edge here is associated with an operation selected from a predefined operation set. For it to be applicable for all NAS algorithms, the search space defined in NAS-Bench-201 includes all possible architectures generated by 4 nodes and 5 associated operation options, which results in 15,625 candidates in total. The training log and the performance for each architecture candidate are provided for three datasets. This allows researchers to avoid unnecessary repetitive training for selected candidate and focus solely on the search algorithm itself. The training time saved for every candidate also largely improves the efficiency of many methods. We provide additional diagnostic information such as fine-grained loss and accuracy, which can give inspirations to new designs of NAS algorithms. In further support, we have analyzed it from many aspects and benchmarked 10 recent NAS algorithms.

* Published at ICLR 2020 as a spotlight paper; 16 pages; 10 figures; 7 tables; Code is available at https://github.com/D-X-Y/AutoDL-Projects 

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NAS-Bench-102: Extending the Scope of Reproducible Neural Architecture Search

Jan 02, 2020
Xuanyi Dong, Yi Yang

Neural architecture search (NAS) has achieved breakthrough success in a great number of applications in the past few years. It could be time to take a step back and analyze the good and bad aspects in the field of NAS. A variety of algorithms search architectures under different search space. These searched architectures are trained using different setups, e.g., hyper-parameters, data augmentation, regularization. This raises a comparability problem when comparing the performance of various NAS algorithms. NAS-Bench-101 has shown success to alleviate this problem. In this work, we propose an extension to NAS-Bench-101: NAS-Bench-102 with a different search space, results on multiple datasets, and more diagnostic information. NAS-Bench-102 has a fixed search space and provides a unified benchmark for almost any up-to-date NAS algorithms. The design of our search space is inspired from the one used in the most popular cell-based searching algorithms, where a cell is represented as a DAG. Each edge here is associated with an operation selected from a predefined operation set. For it to be applicable for all NAS algorithms, the search space defined in NAS-Bench-102 includes all possible architectures generated by 4 nodes and 5 associated operation options, which results in 15,625 candidates in total. The training log and the performance for each architecture candidate are provided for three datasets. This allows researchers to avoid unnecessary repetitive training for selected candidate and focus solely on the search algorithm itself. The training time saved for every candidate also largely improves the efficiency of many methods. We provide additional diagnostic information such as fine-grained loss and accuracy, which can give inspirations to new designs of NAS algorithms. In further support, we have analyzed it from many aspects and benchmarked 10 recent NAS algorithms.

* Published at ICLR 2020; 15 pages; 8 figures; 6 tables; Code is available at https://github.com/D-X-Y/NAS-Projects/blob/master/NAS-Bench-102.md 

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