Models, code, and papers for "Ye Jia":
We propose a framework, named Aggregated Wasserstein, for computing a dissimilarity measure or distance between two Hidden Markov Models with state conditional distributions being Gaussian. For such HMMs, the marginal distribution at any time position follows a Gaussian mixture distribution, a fact exploited to softly match, aka register, the states in two HMMs. We refer to such HMMs as Gaussian mixture model-HMM (GMM-HMM). The registration of states is inspired by the intrinsic relationship of optimal transport and the Wasserstein metric between distributions. Specifically, the components of the marginal GMMs are matched by solving an optimal transport problem where the cost between components is the Wasserstein metric for Gaussian distributions. The solution of the optimization problem is a fast approximation to the Wasserstein metric between two GMMs. The new Aggregated Wasserstein distance is a semi-metric and can be computed without generating Monte Carlo samples. It is invariant to relabeling or permutation of states. The distance is defined meaningfully even for two HMMs that are estimated from data of different dimensionality, a situation that can arise due to missing variables. This distance quantifies the dissimilarity of GMM-HMMs by measuring both the difference between the two marginal GMMs and that between the two transition matrices. Our new distance is tested on tasks of retrieval, classification, and t-SNE visualization of time series. Experiments on both synthetic and real data have demonstrated its advantages in terms of accuracy as well as efficiency in comparison with existing distances based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence.
We propose a framework, named Aggregated Wasserstein, for computing a dissimilarity measure or distance between two Hidden Markov Models with state conditional distributions being Gaussian. For such HMMs, the marginal distribution at any time spot follows a Gaussian mixture distribution, a fact exploited to softly match, aka register, the states in two HMMs. We refer to such HMMs as Gaussian mixture model-HMM (GMM-HMM). The registration of states is inspired by the intrinsic relationship of optimal transport and the Wasserstein metric between distributions. Specifically, the components of the marginal GMMs are matched by solving an optimal transport problem where the cost between components is the Wasserstein metric for Gaussian distributions. The solution of the optimization problem is a fast approximation to the Wasserstein metric between two GMMs. The new Aggregated Wasserstein distance is a semi-metric and can be computed without generating Monte Carlo samples. It is invariant to relabeling or permutation of the states. This distance quantifies the dissimilarity of GMM-HMMs by measuring both the difference between the two marginal GMMs and the difference between the two transition matrices. Our new distance is tested on the tasks of retrieval and classification of time series. Experiments on both synthetic data and real data have demonstrated its advantages in terms of accuracy as well as efficiency in comparison with existing distances based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence.
The state-of-the-art semantic segmentation solutions usually leverage different receptive fields via multiple parallel branches to handle objects with different sizes. However, employing separate kernels for individual branches degrades the generalization and representation abilities of the network, and the amount of parameters increases by the times of the number of branches. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel network structure namely Kernel-Sharing Atrous Convolution (KSAC), where branches of different receptive fields share the same kernel, i.e., let a single kernel `see' the input feature maps more than once with different receptive fields, to facilitate communication among branches and perform `feature augmentation' inside the network. Experiments conducted on the benchmark VOC 2012 dataset show that the proposed sharing strategy can not only boost network's generalization and representation abilities but also reduce the model complexity significantly. Specifically, when compared with DeepLabV3+ equipped with MobileNetv2 backbone, 33% parameters are reduced together with an mIOU improvement of 0.6%. When Xception is used as the backbone, the mIOU is elevated from 83.34% to 85.96% with about 10M parameters saved. In addition, different from the widely used ASPP structure, our proposed KSAC is able to further improve the mIOU by taking benefit of wider context with larger atrous rates.
In a variety of research areas, the weighted bag of vectors and the histogram are widely used descriptors for complex objects. Both can be expressed as discrete distributions. D2-clustering pursues the minimum total within-cluster variation for a set of discrete distributions subject to the Kantorovich-Wasserstein metric. D2-clustering has a severe scalability issue, the bottleneck being the computation of a centroid distribution, called Wasserstein barycenter, that minimizes its sum of squared distances to the cluster members. In this paper, we develop a modified Bregman ADMM approach for computing the approximate discrete Wasserstein barycenter of large clusters. In the case when the support points of the barycenters are unknown and have low cardinality, our method achieves high accuracy empirically at a much reduced computational cost. The strengths and weaknesses of our method and its alternatives are examined through experiments, and we recommend scenarios for their respective usage. Moreover, we develop both serial and parallelized versions of the algorithm. By experimenting with large-scale data, we demonstrate the computational efficiency of the new methods and investigate their convergence properties and numerical stability. The clustering results obtained on several datasets in different domains are highly competitive in comparison with some widely used methods in the corresponding areas.
Visual recognition in real-world requires handling long-tailed and even open-ended data. It is a practical utility of a visual system to reliably recognizing the populated "head" visual concepts and meanwhile to learn about "tail" categories of few instances. Class-balanced many-shot learning and few-shot learning tackle one side of this challenging problem, via either learning strong classifiers for populated categories or few-shot classifiers for the tail classes. In this paper, we investigate the problem of generalized few-shot learning, where recognition on the head and the tail are performed jointly. We propose a neural dictionary-based ClAssifier SynThesis LEarning (CASTLE) approach to synthesizes the calibrated "tail" classifiers in addition to the multi-class "head" classifiers, and simultaneously recognizes the head and tail visual categories in a global discerning framework. CASTLE has demonstrated superior performances across different learning scenarios, i.e., many-shot learning, few-shot learning, and generalized few-shot learning, on two standard benchmark datasets --- MiniImageNet and TieredImageNet.
Learning with limited data is a key challenge for visual recognition. Few-shot learning methods address this challenge by learning an instance embedding function from seen classes and apply the function to instances from unseen classes with limited labels. This style of transfer learning is task-agnostic: the embedding function is not learned optimally discriminative with respect to the unseen classes, where discerning among them is the target task. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to adapt the embedding model to the target classification task, yielding embeddings that are task-specific and are discriminative. To this end, we employ a type of self-attention mechanism called Transformer to transform the embeddings from task-agnostic to task-specific by focusing on relating instances from the test instances to the training instances in both seen and unseen classes. Our approach also extends to both transductive and generalized few-shot classification, two important settings that have essential use cases. We verify the effectiveness of our model on two standard benchmark few-shot classification datasets --- MiniImageNet and CUB, where our approach demonstrates state-of-the-art empirical performance.
Scene text recognition has recently been widely treated as a sequence-to-sequence prediction problem, where traditional fully-connected-LSTM (FC-LSTM) has played a critical role. Due to the limitation of FC-LSTM, existing methods have to convert 2-D feature maps into 1-D sequential feature vectors, resulting in severe damages of the valuable spatial and structural information of text images. In this paper, we argue that scene text recognition is essentially a spatiotemporal prediction problem for its 2-D image inputs, and propose a convolution LSTM (ConvLSTM)-based scene text recognizer, namely, FACLSTM, i.e., Focused Attention ConvLSTM, where the spatial correlation of pixels is fully leveraged when performing sequential prediction with LSTM. Particularly, the attention mechanism is properly incorporated into an efficient ConvLSTM structure via the convolutional operations and additional character center masks are generated to help focus attention on right feature areas. The experimental results on benchmark datasets IIIT5K, SVT and CUTE demonstrate that our proposed FACLSTM performs competitively on the regular, low-resolution and noisy text images, and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on the curved text with large margins.
Most existing knowledge graphs (KGs) in academic domains suffer from problems of insufficient multi-relational information, name ambiguity and improper data format for large-scale machine processing. In this paper, we present AceKG, a new large-scale KG in academic domain. AceKG not only provides clean academic information, but also offers a large-scale benchmark dataset for researchers to conduct challenging data mining projects including link prediction, community detection and scholar classification. Specifically, AceKG describes 3.13 billion triples of academic facts based on a consistent ontology, including necessary properties of papers, authors, fields of study, venues and institutes, as well as the relations among them. To enrich the proposed knowledge graph, we also perform entity alignment with existing databases and rule-based inference. Based on AceKG, we conduct experiments of three typical academic data mining tasks and evaluate several state-of- the-art knowledge embedding and network representation learning approaches on the benchmark datasets built from AceKG. Finally, we discuss several promising research directions that benefit from AceKG.
Recent success of the Tacotron speech synthesis architecture and its variants in producing natural sounding multi-speaker synthesized speech has raised the exciting possibility of replacing expensive, manually transcribed, domain-specific, human speech that is used to train speech recognizers. The multi-speaker speech synthesis architecture can learn latent embedding spaces of prosody, speaker and style variations derived from input acoustic representations thereby allowing for manipulation of the synthesized speech. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of enhancing speech recognition performance using speech synthesis using two corpora from different domains. We explore algorithms to provide the necessary acoustic and lexical diversity needed for robust speech recognition. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a data augmentation strategy for domain-transfer. We find that improvements to speech recognition performance is achievable by augmenting training data with synthesized material. However, there remains a substantial gap in performance between recognizers trained on human speech those trained on synthesized speech.
Low-dimensional embeddings of knowledge graphs and behavior graphs have proved remarkably powerful in varieties of tasks, from predicting unobserved edges between entities to content recommendation. The two types of graphs can contain distinct and complementary information for the same entities/nodes. However, previous works focus either on knowledge graph embedding or behavior graph embedding while few works consider both in a unified way. Here we present BEM , a Bayesian framework that incorporates the information from knowledge graphs and behavior graphs. To be more specific, BEM takes as prior the pre-trained embeddings from the knowledge graph, and integrates them with the pre-trained embeddings from the behavior graphs via a Bayesian generative model. BEM is able to mutually refine the embeddings from both sides while preserving their own topological structures. To show the superiority of our method, we conduct a range of experiments on three benchmark datasets: node classification, link prediction, triplet classification on two small datasets related to Freebase, and item recommendation on a large-scale e-commerce dataset.
We proposed a probabilistic approach to joint modeling of participants' reliability and humans' regularity in crowdsourced affective studies. Reliability measures how likely a subject will respond to a question seriously; and regularity measures how often a human will agree with other seriously-entered responses coming from a targeted population. Crowdsourcing-based studies or experiments, which rely on human self-reported affect, pose additional challenges as compared with typical crowdsourcing studies that attempt to acquire concrete non-affective labels of objects. The reliability of participants has been massively pursued for typical non-affective crowdsourcing studies, whereas the regularity of humans in an affective experiment in its own right has not been thoroughly considered. It has been often observed that different individuals exhibit different feelings on the same test question, which does not have a sole correct response in the first place. High reliability of responses from one individual thus cannot conclusively result in high consensus across individuals. Instead, globally testing consensus of a population is of interest to investigators. Built upon the agreement multigraph among tasks and workers, our probabilistic model differentiates subject regularity from population reliability. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness for in-depth robust analysis of large-scale crowdsourced affective data, including emotion and aesthetic assessments collected by presenting visual stimuli to human subjects.
We present an attention-based sequence-to-sequence neural network which can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language, without relying on an intermediate text representation. The network is trained end-to-end, learning to map speech spectrograms into target spectrograms in another language, corresponding to the translated content (in a different canonical voice). We further demonstrate the ability to synthesize translated speech using the voice of the source speaker. We conduct experiments on two Spanish-to-English speech translation datasets, and find that the proposed model slightly underperforms a baseline cascade of a direct speech-to-text translation model and a text-to-speech synthesis model, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach on this very challenging task.
Many advances of deep learning techniques originate from the efforts of addressing the image classification task on large-scale datasets. However, the construction of such clean datasets is costly and time-consuming since the Internet is overwhelmed by noisy images with inadequate and inaccurate tags. In this paper, we propose a Ubiquitous Reweighting Network (URNet) that learns an image classification model from large-scale noisy data. By observing the web data, we find that there are five key challenges, \ie, imbalanced class sizes, high intra-classes diversity and inter-class similarity, imprecise instances, insufficient representative instances, and ambiguous class labels. To alleviate these challenges, we assume that every training instance has the potential to contribute positively by alleviating the data bias and noise via reweighting the influence of each instance according to different class sizes, large instance clusters, its confidence, small instance bags and the labels. In this manner, the influence of bias and noise in the web data can be gradually alleviated, leading to the steadily improving performance of URNet. Experimental results in the WebVision 2018 challenge with 16 million noisy training images from 5000 classes show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art models and ranks the first place in the image classification task.
Humans are arguably innately prepared to possess the ability to comprehend others' emotional expressions from subtle body movements. A number of robotic applications become possible if robots or computers can be empowered with this capability. Recognizing human bodily expression automatically in unconstrained situations, however, is daunting due to the lack of a full understanding about relationship between body movements and emotional expressions. The current research, as a multidisciplinary effort among computer and information sciences, psychology, and statistics, proposes a scalable and reliable crowdsourcing approach for collecting in-the-wild perceived emotion data for computers to learn to recognize body languages of humans. To do this, a large and growing annotated dataset with 9,876 body movements video clips and 13,239 human characters, named BoLD (Body Language Dataset), has been created. Comprehensive statistical analysis revealed many interesting insights from the dataset. A system to model the emotional expressions based on bodily movements, named ARBEE (Automated Recognition of Bodily Expression of Emotion), has also been developed and evaluated. Our feature analysis shows the effectiveness of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) features in characterizing arousal. Our experiments using a deep model further demonstrate computability of bodily expression. The dataset and findings presented in this work will likely serve as a launchpad for multiple future discoveries in body language understanding that will make future robots more useful as they interact and collaborate with humans.
Digital face manipulation has become a popular and fascinating way to touch images with the prevalence of smartphones and social networks. With a wide variety of user preferences, facial expressions, and accessories, a general and flexible model is necessary to accommodate different types of facial editing. In this paper, we propose a model to achieve this goal based on an end-to-end convolutional neural network that supports fast inference, edit-effect control, and quick partial-model update. In addition, this model learns from unpaired image sets with different attributes. Experimental results show that our framework can handle a wide range of expressions, accessories, and makeup effects. It produces high-resolution and high-quality results in fast speed.
The emergence of big data enables us to evaluate the various human emotions at places from a statistic perspective by applying affective computing. In this study, a novel framework for extracting human emotions from large-scale georeferenced photos at different places is proposed. After the construction of places based on spatial clustering of user generated footprints collected in social media websites, online cognitive services are utilized to extract human emotions from facial expressions using the state-of-the-art computer vision techniques. And two happiness metrics are defined for measuring the human emotions at different places. To validate the feasibility of the framework, we take 80 tourist attractions around the world as an example and a happiness ranking list of places is generated based on human emotions calculated over 2 million faces detected out from over 6 million photos. Different kinds of geographical contexts are taken into consideration to find out the relationship between human emotions and environmental factors. Results show that much of the emotional variation at different places can be explained by a few factors such as openness. The research may offer insights on integrating human emotions to enrich the understanding of sense of place in geography and in place-based GIS.
Meteorologists use shapes and movements of clouds in satellite images as indicators of several major types of severe storms. Satellite imaginary data are in increasingly higher resolution, both spatially and temporally, making it impossible for humans to fully leverage the data in their forecast. Automatic satellite imagery analysis methods that can find storm-related cloud patterns as soon as they are detectable are in demand. We propose a machine learning and pattern recognition based approach to detect "comma-shaped" clouds in satellite images, which are specific cloud distribution patterns strongly associated with the cyclone formulation. In order to detect regions with the targeted movement patterns, our method is trained on manually annotated cloud examples represented by both shape and motion-sensitive features. Sliding windows in different scales are used to ensure that dense clouds will be captured, and we implement effective selection rules to shrink the region of interest among these sliding windows. Finally, we evaluate the method on a hold-out annotated comma-shaped cloud dataset and cross-match the results with recorded storm events in the severe weather database. The validated utility and accuracy of our method suggest a high potential for assisting meteorologists in weather forecasting.
Taxi demand prediction is an important building block to enabling intelligent transportation systems in a smart city. An accurate prediction model can help the city pre-allocate resources to meet travel demand and to reduce empty taxis on streets which waste energy and worsen the traffic congestion. With the increasing popularity of taxi requesting services such as Uber and Didi Chuxing (in China), we are able to collect large-scale taxi demand data continuously. How to utilize such big data to improve the demand prediction is an interesting and critical real-world problem. Traditional demand prediction methods mostly rely on time series forecasting techniques, which fail to model the complex non-linear spatial and temporal relations. Recent advances in deep learning have shown superior performance on traditionally challenging tasks such as image classification by learning the complex features and correlations from large-scale data. This breakthrough has inspired researchers to explore deep learning techniques on traffic prediction problems. However, existing methods on traffic prediction have only considered spatial relation (e.g., using CNN) or temporal relation (e.g., using LSTM) independently. We propose a Deep Multi-View Spatial-Temporal Network (DMVST-Net) framework to model both spatial and temporal relations. Specifically, our proposed model consists of three views: temporal view (modeling correlations between future demand values with near time points via LSTM), spatial view (modeling local spatial correlation via local CNN), and semantic view (modeling correlations among regions sharing similar temporal patterns). Experiments on large-scale real taxi demand data demonstrate effectiveness of our approach over state-of-the-art methods.