Models, code, and papers for "Yi Li":
Lesions characterized by computed tomography (CT) scans, are arguably often elliptical objects. However, current lesion detection systems are predominantly adopted from the popular Region Proposal Networks (RPNs) that only propose bounding boxes without fully leveraging the elliptical geometry of lesions. In this paper, we present Gaussian Proposal Networks (GPNs), a novel extension to RPNs, to detect lesion bounding ellipses. Instead of directly regressing the rotation angle of the ellipse as the common practice, GPN represents bounding ellipses as 2D Gaussian distributions on the image plain and minimizes the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the proposed Gaussian and the ground truth Gaussian for object localization. We show the KL divergence loss approximately incarnates the regression loss in the RPN framework when the rotation angle is 0. Experiments on the DeepLesion dataset show that GPN significantly outperforms RPN for lesion bounding ellipse detection thanks to lower localization error. GPN is open sourced at https://github.com/baidu-research/GPN
We present a generative model which can automatically summarize the stroke composition of free-hand sketches of a given category. When our model is fit to a collection of sketches with similar poses, it discovers and learns the structure and appearance of a set of coherent parts, with each part represented by a group of strokes. It represents both consistent (topology) as well as diverse aspects (structure and appearance variations) of each sketch category. Key to the success of our model are important insights learned from a comprehensive study performed on human stroke data. By fitting this model to images, we are able to synthesize visually similar and pleasant free-hand sketches.
In sequence generation task, many works use policy gradient for model optimization to tackle the intractable backpropagation issue when maximizing the non-differentiable evaluation metrics or fooling the discriminator in adversarial learning. In this paper, we replace policy gradient with proximal policy optimization (PPO), which is a proved more efficient reinforcement learning algorithm, and propose a dynamic approach for PPO (PPO-dynamic). We demonstrate the efficacy of PPO and PPO-dynamic on conditional sequence generation tasks including synthetic experiment and chit-chat chatbot. The results show that PPO and PPO-dynamic can beat policy gradient by stability and performance.
Biologically inspired model (BIM) for image recognition is a robust computational architecture, which has attracted widespread attention. BIM can be described as a four-layer structure based on the mechanisms of the visual cortex. Although the performance of BIM for image recognition is robust, it takes the randomly selected ways for the patch selection, which is sightless, and results in heavy computing burden. To address this issue, we propose a novel patch selection method with oriented Gaussian-Hermite moment (PSGHM), and we enhanced the BIM based on the proposed PSGHM, named as PBIM. In contrast to the conventional BIM which adopts the random method to select patches within the feature representation layers processed by multi-scale Gabor filter banks, the proposed PBIM takes the PSGHM way to extract a small number of representation features while offering promising distinctiveness. To show the effectiveness of the proposed PBIM, experimental studies on object categorization are conducted on the CalTech05, TU Darmstadt (TUD), and GRAZ01 databases. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of PBIM is a significant improvement on that of the conventional BIM.
Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at https://salu133445.github.io/musegan/ .
Many well-established recommender systems are based on representation learning in Euclidean space. In these models, matching functions such as the Euclidean distance or inner product are typically used for computing similarity scores between user and item embeddings. This paper investigates the notion of learning user and item representations in Hyperbolic space. In this paper, we argue that Hyperbolic space is more suitable for learning user-item embeddings in the recommendation domain. Unlike Euclidean spaces, Hyperbolic spaces are intrinsically equipped to handle hierarchical structure, encouraged by its property of exponentially increasing distances away from origin. We propose HyperBPR (Hyperbolic Bayesian Personalized Ranking), a conceptually simple but highly effective model for the task at hand. Our proposed HyperBPR not only outperforms their Euclidean counterparts, but also achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple benchmark datasets, demonstrating the effectiveness of personalized recommendation in Hyperbolic space.
Being able to predict whether a song can be a hit has impor- tant applications in the music industry. Although it is true that the popularity of a song can be greatly affected by exter- nal factors such as social and commercial influences, to which degree audio features computed from musical signals (whom we regard as internal factors) can predict song popularity is an interesting research question on its own. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning techniques, we attempt to ex- tend previous work on hit song prediction by jointly learning the audio features and prediction models using deep learning. Specifically, we experiment with a convolutional neural net- work model that takes the primitive mel-spectrogram as the input for feature learning, a more advanced JYnet model that uses an external song dataset for supervised pre-training and auto-tagging, and the combination of these two models. We also consider the inception model to characterize audio infor- mation in different scales. Our experiments suggest that deep structures are indeed more accurate than shallow structures in predicting the popularity of either Chinese or Western Pop songs in Taiwan. We also use the tags predicted by JYnet to gain insights into the result of different models.
In this paper, we propose a method to obtain a compact and accurate 3D wireframe representation from a single image by effectively exploiting global structural regularities. Our method trains a convolutional neural network to simultaneously detect salient junctions and straight lines, as well as predict their 3D depth and vanishing points. Compared with the state-of-the-art learning-based wireframe detection methods, our network is much simpler and more unified, leading to better 2D wireframe detection. With global structural priors such as Manhattan assumption, our method further reconstructs a full 3D wireframe model, a compact vector representation suitable for a variety of high-level vision tasks such as AR and CAD. We conduct extensive evaluations on a large synthetic dataset of urban scenes as well as real images. Our code and datasets will be released.
Segmentation of colorectal cancerous regions from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is a crucial procedure for radiotherapy which conventionally requires accurate delineation of tumour boundaries at an expense of labor, time and reproducibility. To address this important yet challenging task within the framework of performance-leading deep learning methods, regions of interest (RoIs) localization from large whole volume 3D images serves as a preceding operation that brings about multiple benefits in terms of speed, target completeness and reduction of false positives. Distinct from sliding window or discrete localization-segmentation based models, we propose a novel multi-task framework referred to as 3D RoI-aware U-Net (3D RU-Net), for RoI localization and intra-RoI segmentation where the two tasks share one backbone encoder network. With the region proposals from the encoder, we crop multi-level feature maps from the backbone network to form a GPU memory-efficient decoder for detail-preserving intra-RoI segmentation. To effectively train the model, we designed a Dice formulated loss function for the global-to-local multi-task learning procedure. Based on the promising efficiency gains demonstrated by the proposed method, we went on to ensemble multiple models to achieve even higher performance costing minor extra computational expensiveness. Extensive experiments were subsequently conducted on 64 cancerous cases with a four-fold cross-validation, and the results showed significant superiority in terms of accuracy and efficiency over conventional state-of-the art frameworks. In conclusion, the proposed method has a huge potential for extension to other 3D object segmentation tasks from medical images due to its inherent generalizability. The code for the proposed method is publicly available.
This paper presents a semantic brain computer interface (BCI) agent with particle swarm optimization (PSO) based on a Fuzzy Markup Language (FML) for Go learning and prediction applications. Additionally, we also establish an Open Go Darkforest (OGD) cloud platform with Facebook AI research (FAIR) open source Darkforest and ELF OpenGo AI bots. The Japanese robot Palro will simultaneously predict the move advantage in the board game Go to the Go players for reference or learning. The proposed semantic BCI agent operates efficiently by the human-based BCI data from their brain waves and machine-based game data from the prediction of the OGD cloud platform for optimizing the parameters between humans and machines. Experimental results show that the proposed human and smart machine co-learning mechanism performs favorably. We hope to provide students with a better online learning environment, combining different kinds of handheld devices, robots, or computer equipment, to achieve a desired and intellectual learning goal in the future.
Modern machine learning datasets can have biases for certain representations that are leveraged by algorithms to achieve high performance without learning to solve the underlying task. This problem is referred to as "representation bias". The question of how to reduce the representation biases of a dataset is investigated and a new dataset REPresentAtion bIas Removal (REPAIR) procedure is proposed. This formulates bias minimization as an optimization problem, seeking a weight distribution that penalizes examples easy for a classifier built on a given feature representation. Bias reduction is then equated to maximizing the ratio between the classification loss on the reweighted dataset and the uncertainty of the ground-truth class labels. This is a minimax problem that REPAIR solves by alternatingly updating classifier parameters and dataset resampling weights, using stochastic gradient descent. An experimental set-up is also introduced to measure the bias of any dataset for a given representation, and the impact of this bias on the performance of recognition models. Experiments with synthetic and action recognition data show that dataset REPAIR can significantly reduce representation bias, and lead to improved generalization of models trained on REPAIRed datasets. The tools used for characterizing representation bias, and the proposed dataset REPAIR algorithm, are available at https://github.com/JerryYLi/Dataset-REPAIR/.
Sensor drift is a well-known issue in the field of sensors and measurement and has plagued the sensor community for many years. In this paper, we propose a sensor drift correction method to deal with the sensor drift problem. Specifically, we propose a discriminative subspace projection approach for sensor drift reduction in electronic noses. The proposed method inherits the merits of the subspace projection method called domain regularized component analysis. Moreover, the proposed method takes the source data label information into consideration, which minimizes the within-class variance of the projected source samples and at the same time maximizes the between-class variance. The label information is exploited to avoid overlapping of samples with different labels in the subspace. Experiments on two sensor drift datasets have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Breast cancer diagnosis often requires accurate detection of metastasis in lymph nodes through Whole-slide Images (WSIs). Recent advances in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown significant successes in medical image analysis and particularly in computational histopathology. Because of the outrageous large size of WSIs, most of the methods divide one slide into lots of small image patches and perform classification on each patch independently. However, neighboring patches often share spatial correlations, and ignoring these spatial correlations may result in inconsistent predictions. In this paper, we propose a neural conditional random field (NCRF) deep learning framework to detect cancer metastasis in WSIs. NCRF considers the spatial correlations between neighboring patches through a fully connected CRF which is directly incorporated on top of a CNN feature extractor. The whole deep network can be trained end-to-end with standard back-propagation algorithm with minor computational overhead from the CRF component. The CNN feature extractor can also benefit from considering spatial correlations via the CRF component. Compared to the baseline method without considering spatial correlations, we show that the proposed NCRF framework obtains probability maps of patch predictions with better visual quality. We also demonstrate that our method outperforms the baseline in cancer metastasis detection on the Camelyon16 dataset and achieves an average FROC score of 0.8096 on the test set. NCRF is open sourced at https://github.com/baidu-research/NCRF.
Simple tree models for articulated objects prevails in the last decade. However, it is also believed that these simple tree models are not capable of capturing large variations in many scenarios, such as human pose estimation. This paper attempts to address three questions: 1) are simple tree models sufficient? more specifically, 2) how to use tree models effectively in human pose estimation? and 3) how shall we use combined parts together with single parts efficiently? Assuming we have a set of single parts and combined parts, and the goal is to estimate a joint distribution of their locations. We surprisingly find that no latent variables are introduced in the Leeds Sport Dataset (LSP) during learning latent trees for deformable model, which aims at approximating the joint distributions of body part locations using minimal tree structure. This suggests one can straightforwardly use a mixed representation of single and combined parts to approximate their joint distribution in a simple tree model. As such, one only needs to build Visual Categories of the combined parts, and then perform inference on the learned latent tree. Our method outperformed the state of the art on the LSP, both in the scenarios when the training images are from the same dataset and from the PARSE dataset. Experiments on animal images from the VOC challenge further support our findings.
Parsing human poses in images is fundamental in extracting critical visual information for artificial intelligent agents. Our goal is to learn self-contained body part representations from images, which we call visual symbols, and their symbol-wise geometric contexts in this parsing process. Each symbol is individually learned by categorizing visual features leveraged by geometric information. In the categorization, we use Latent Support Vector Machine followed by an efficient cross validation procedure to learn visual symbols. Then, these symbols naturally define geometric contexts of body parts in a fine granularity. When the structure of the compositional parts is a tree, we derive an efficient approach to estimating human poses in images. Experiments on two large datasets suggest our approach outperforms state of the art methods.
Deep neural networks, albeit their great success on feature learning in various computer vision tasks, are usually considered as impractical for online visual tracking because they require very long training time and a large number of training samples. In this work, we present an efficient and very robust tracking algorithm using a single Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for learning effective feature representations of the target object, in a purely online manner. Our contributions are multifold: First, we introduce a novel truncated structural loss function that maintains as many training samples as possible and reduces the risk of tracking error accumulation. Second, we enhance the ordinary Stochastic Gradient Descent approach in CNN training with a robust sample selection mechanism. The sampling mechanism randomly generates positive and negative samples from different temporal distributions, which are generated by taking the temporal relations and label noise into account. Finally, a lazy yet effective updating scheme is designed for CNN training. Equipped with this novel updating algorithm, the CNN model is robust to some long-existing difficulties in visual tracking such as occlusion or incorrect detections, without loss of the effective adaption for significant appearance changes. In the experiment, our CNN tracker outperforms all compared state-of-the-art methods on two recently proposed benchmarks which in total involve over 60 video sequences. The remarkable performance improvement over the existing trackers illustrates the superiority of the feature representations which are learned
We propose a novel randomized incremental gradient algorithm, namely, VAriance-Reduced Accelerated Gradient (Varag), for finite-sum optimization. Equipped with a unified step-size policy that adjusts itself to the value of the conditional number, Varag exhibits the unified optimal rates of convergence for solving smooth convex finite-sum problems directly regardless of their strong convexity. Moreover, Varag is the first of its kind that benefits from the strong convexity of the data-fidelity term, and solves a wide class of problems only satisfying an error bound condition rather than strong convexity, both resulting in the optimal linear rate of convergence. Varag can also be extended to solve stochastic finite-sum problems.
This work improves monolingual sentence alignment for text simplification, specifically for text in standard and simple Wikipedia. We introduce a convolutional neural network structure to model similarity between two sentences. Due to the limitation of available parallel corpora, the model is trained in a semi-supervised way, by using the output of a knowledge-based high performance aligning system. We apply the resulting similarity score to rescore the knowledge-based output, and adapt the model by a small hand-aligned dataset. Experiments show that both rescoring and adaptation improve the performance of knowledge-based method.
Deep neural network (DNN) as a popular machine learning model is found to be vulnerable to adversarial attack. This attack constructs adversarial examples by adding small perturbations to the raw input, while appearing unmodified to human eyes but will be misclassified by a well-trained classifier. In this paper, we focus on the black-box attack setting where attackers have almost no access to the underlying models. To conduct black-box attack, a popular approach aims to train a substitute model based on the information queried from the target DNN. The substitute model can then be attacked using existing white-box attack approaches, and the generated adversarial examples will be used to attack the target DNN. Despite its encouraging results, this approach suffers from poor query efficiency, i.e., attackers usually needs to query a huge amount of times to collect enough information for training an accurate substitute model. To this end, we first utilize state-of-the-art white-box attack methods to generate samples for querying, and then introduce an active learning strategy to significantly reduce the number of queries needed. Besides, we also propose a diversity criterion to avoid the sampling bias. Our extensive experimental results on MNIST and CIFAR-10 show that the proposed method can reduce more than $90\%$ of queries while preserve attacking success rates and obtain an accurate substitute model which is more than $85\%$ similar with the target oracle.
As a precious part of the human cultural heritage, Chinese poetry has influenced people for generations. Automatic poetry composition is a challenge for AI. In recent years, significant progress has been made in this area benefiting from the development of neural networks. However, the coherence in meaning, theme or even artistic conception for a generated poem as a whole still remains a big problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Salient-Clue mechanism for Chinese poetry generation. Different from previous work which tried to exploit all the context information, our model selects the most salient characters automatically from each so-far generated line to gradually form a salient clue, which is utilized to guide successive poem generation process so as to eliminate interruptions and improve coherence. Besides, our model can be flexibly extended to control the generated poem in different aspects, for example, poetry style, which further enhances the coherence. Experimental results show that our model is very effective, outperforming three strong baselines.