Research papers and code for "Yi-Hsuan Yang":
In order to learn object segmentation models in videos, conventional methods require a large amount of pixel-wise ground truth annotations. However, collecting such supervised data is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this paper, we exploit existing annotations in source images and transfer such visual information to segment videos with unseen object categories. Without using any annotations in the target video, we propose a method to jointly mine useful segments and learn feature representations that better adapt to the target frames. The entire process is decomposed into two tasks: 1) solving a submodular function for selecting object-like segments, and 2) learning a CNN model with a transferable module for adapting seen categories in the source domain to the unseen target video. We present an iterative update scheme between two tasks to self-learn the final solution for object segmentation. Experimental results on numerous benchmark datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

* Accepted in ACCV'18 (oral). Code is available at https://github.com/wenz116/TransferSeg
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This paper proposes an end-to-end trainable network, SegFlow, for simultaneously predicting pixel-wise object segmentation and optical flow in videos. The proposed SegFlow has two branches where useful information of object segmentation and optical flow is propagated bidirectionally in a unified framework. The segmentation branch is based on a fully convolutional network, which has been proved effective in image segmentation task, and the optical flow branch takes advantage of the FlowNet model. The unified framework is trained iteratively offline to learn a generic notion, and fine-tuned online for specific objects. Extensive experiments on both the video object segmentation and optical flow datasets demonstrate that introducing optical flow improves the performance of segmentation and vice versa, against the state-of-the-art algorithms.

* Accepted in ICCV'17. Code is available at https://sites.google.com/site/yihsuantsai/research/iccv17-segflow
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Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at https://salu133445.github.io/musegan/ .

* to appear at AAAI 2018
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A model for hit song prediction can be used in the pop music industry to identify emerging trends and potential artists or songs before they are marketed to the public. While most previous work formulates hit song prediction as a regression or classification problem, we present in this paper a convolutional neural network (CNN) model that treats it as a ranking problem. Specifically, we use a commercial dataset with daily play-counts to train a multi-objective Siamese CNN model with Euclidean loss and pairwise ranking loss to learn from audio the relative ranking relations among songs. Besides, we devise a number of pair sampling methods according to some empirical observation of the data. Our experiment shows that the proposed model with a sampling method called A/B sampling leads to much higher accuracy in hit song prediction than the baseline regression model. Moreover, we can further improve the accuracy by using a neural attention mechanism to extract the highlights of songs and by using a separate CNN model to offer high-level features of songs.

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In this paper, we propose a learning-based method to compose a video-story from a group of video clips that describe an activity or experience. We learn the coherence between video clips from real videos via the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) that jointly incorporates the spatial-temporal semantics and motion dynamics to generate smooth and relevant compositions. We further rearrange the results generated by the RNN to make the overall video-story compatible with the storyline structure via a submodular ranking optimization process. Experimental results on the video-story dataset show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art approach.

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A caricature is an artistic form of a person's picture in which certain striking characteristics are abstracted or exaggerated in order to create a humor or sarcasm effect. For numerous caricature related applications such as attribute recognition and caricature editing, face parsing is an essential pre-processing step that provides a complete facial structure understanding. However, current state-of-the-art face parsing methods require large amounts of labeled data on the pixel-level and such process for caricature is tedious and labor-intensive. For real photos, there are numerous labeled datasets for face parsing. Thus, we formulate caricature face parsing as a domain adaptation problem, where real photos play the role of the source domain, adapting to the target caricatures. Specifically, we first leverage a spatial transformer based network to enable shape domain shifts. A feed-forward style transfer network is then utilized to capture texture-level domain gaps. With these two steps, we synthesize face caricatures from real photos, and thus we can use parsing ground truths of the original photos to learn the parsing model. Experimental results on the synthetic and real caricatures demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed domain adaptation algorithm. Code is available at: https://github.com/ZJULearning/CariFaceParsing .

* Accepted in ICIP 2019, code and model are available at https://github.com/ZJULearning/CariFaceParsing
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Online video object segmentation is a challenging task as it entails to process the image sequence timely and accurately. To segment a target object through the video, numerous CNN-based methods have been developed by heavily finetuning on the object mask in the first frame, which is time-consuming for online applications. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate video object segmentation algorithm that can immediately start the segmentation process once receiving the images. We first utilize a part-based tracking method to deal with challenging factors such as large deformation, occlusion, and cluttered background. Based on the tracked bounding boxes of parts, we construct a region-of-interest segmentation network to generate part masks. Finally, a similarity-based scoring function is adopted to refine these object parts by comparing them to the visual information in the first frame. Our method performs favorably against state-of-the-art algorithms in accuracy on the DAVIS benchmark dataset, while achieving much faster runtime performance.

* Accepted in CVPR'18 as Spotlight. Code and model are available at https://github.com/JingchunCheng/FAVOS
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We study domain-specific video streaming. Specifically, we target a streaming setting where the videos to be streamed from a server to a client are all in the same domain and they have to be compressed to a small size for low-latency transmission. Several popular video streaming services, such as the video game streaming services of GeForce Now and Twitch, fall in this category. While conventional video compression standards such as H.264 are commonly used for this task, we hypothesize that one can leverage the property that the videos are all in the same domain to achieve better video quality. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a novel video compression pipeline. Specifically, we first apply H.264 to compress domain-specific videos. We then train a novel binary autoencoder to encode the leftover domain-specific residual information frame-by-frame into binary representations. These binary representations are then compressed and sent to the client together with the H.264 stream. In our experiments, we show that our pipeline yields consistent gains over standard H.264 compression across several benchmark datasets while using the same channel bandwidth.

* Accepted in AAAI'18. Project website at https://research.nvidia.com/publication/2018-02_Learning-Binary-Residual
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Being able to predict whether a song can be a hit has impor- tant applications in the music industry. Although it is true that the popularity of a song can be greatly affected by exter- nal factors such as social and commercial influences, to which degree audio features computed from musical signals (whom we regard as internal factors) can predict song popularity is an interesting research question on its own. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning techniques, we attempt to ex- tend previous work on hit song prediction by jointly learning the audio features and prediction models using deep learning. Specifically, we experiment with a convolutional neural net- work model that takes the primitive mel-spectrogram as the input for feature learning, a more advanced JYnet model that uses an external song dataset for supervised pre-training and auto-tagging, and the combination of these two models. We also consider the inception model to characterize audio infor- mation in different scales. Our experiments suggest that deep structures are indeed more accurate than shallow structures in predicting the popularity of either Chinese or Western Pop songs in Taiwan. We also use the tags predicted by JYnet to gain insights into the result of different models.

* To appear in the proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
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Compositing is one of the most common operations in photo editing. To generate realistic composites, the appearances of foreground and background need to be adjusted to make them compatible. Previous approaches to harmonize composites have focused on learning statistical relationships between hand-crafted appearance features of the foreground and background, which is unreliable especially when the contents in the two layers are vastly different. In this work, we propose an end-to-end deep convolutional neural network for image harmonization, which can capture both the context and semantic information of the composite images during harmonization. We also introduce an efficient way to collect large-scale and high-quality training data that can facilitate the training process. Experiments on the synthesized dataset and real composite images show that the proposed network outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.

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We propose a method for semi-supervised semantic segmentation using an adversarial network. While most existing discriminators are trained to classify input images as real or fake on the image level, we design a discriminator in a fully convolutional manner to differentiate the predicted probability maps from the ground truth segmentation distribution with the consideration of the spatial resolution. We show that the proposed discriminator can be used to improve semantic segmentation accuracy by coupling the adversarial loss with the standard cross entropy loss of the proposed model. In addition, the fully convolutional discriminator enables semi-supervised learning through discovering the trustworthy regions in predicted results of unlabeled images, thereby providing additional supervisory signals. In contrast to existing methods that utilize weakly-labeled images, our method leverages unlabeled images to enhance the segmentation model. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscapes datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

* Accepted in BMVC 2018. Code and models available at https://github.com/hfslyc/AdvSemiSeg
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Convolutional neural network-based approaches for semantic segmentation rely on supervision with pixel-level ground truth, but may not generalize well to unseen image domains. As the labeling process is tedious and labor intensive, developing algorithms that can adapt source ground truth labels to the target domain is of great interest. In this paper, we propose an adversarial learning method for domain adaptation in the context of semantic segmentation. Considering semantic segmentations as structured outputs that contain spatial similarities between the source and target domains, we adopt adversarial learning in the output space. To further enhance the adapted model, we construct a multi-level adversarial network to effectively perform output space domain adaptation at different feature levels. Extensive experiments and ablation study are conducted under various domain adaptation settings, including synthetic-to-real and cross-city scenarios. We show that the proposed method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy and visual quality.

* Accepted in CVPR'18. Code and model are available at https://github.com/wasidennis/AdaptSegNet
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We present a scene parsing method that utilizes global context information based on both the parametric and non- parametric models. Compared to previous methods that only exploit the local relationship between objects, we train a context network based on scene similarities to generate feature representations for global contexts. In addition, these learned features are utilized to generate global and spatial priors for explicit classes inference. We then design modules to embed the feature representations and the priors into the segmentation network as additional global context cues. We show that the proposed method can eliminate false positives that are not compatible with the global context representations. Experiments on both the MIT ADE20K and PASCAL Context datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against existing methods.

* Accepted in ICCV'17. Code available at https://github.com/hfslyc/GCPNet
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We propose a deep learning-based framework for instance-level object segmentation. Our method mainly consists of three steps. First, We train a generic model based on ResNet-101 for foreground/background segmentations. Second, based on this generic model, we fine-tune it to learn instance-level models and segment individual objects by using augmented object annotations in first frames of test videos. To distinguish different instances in the same video, we compute a pixel-level score map for each object from these instance-level models. Each score map indicates the objectness likelihood and is only computed within the foreground mask obtained in the first step. To further refine this per frame score map, we learn a spatial propagation network. This network aims to learn how to propagate a coarse segmentation mask spatially based on the pairwise similarities in each frame. In addition, we apply a filter on the refined score map that aims to recognize the best connected region using spatial and temporal consistencies in the video. Finally, we decide the instance-level object segmentation in each video by comparing score maps of different instances.

* CVPR 2017 Workshop on DAVIS Challenge. Code is available at http://github.com/JingchunCheng/Seg-with-SPN
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Stacked dilated convolutions used in Wavenet have been shown effective for generating high-quality audios. By replacing pooling/striding with dilation in convolution layers, they can preserve high-resolution information and still reach distant locations. Producing high-resolution predictions is also crucial in music source separation, whose goal is to separate different sound sources while maintaining the quality of the separated sounds. Therefore, this paper investigates using stacked dilated convolutions as the backbone for music source separation. However, while stacked dilated convolutions can reach wider context than standard convolutions, their effective receptive fields are still fixed and may not be wide enough for complex music audio signals. To reach information at remote locations, we propose to combine dilated convolution with a modified version of gated recurrent units (GRU) called the `Dilated GRU' to form a block. A Dilated GRU unit receives information from k steps before instead of the previous step for a fixed k. This modification allows a GRU unit to reach a location with fewer recurrent steps and run faster because it can execute partially in parallel. We show that the proposed model with a stack of such blocks performs equally well or better than the state-of-the-art models for separating vocals and accompaniments.

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Recent work has proposed various adversarial losses for training generative adversarial networks. Yet, it remains unclear what certain types of functions are valid adversarial loss functions, and how these loss functions perform against one another. In this paper, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of adversarial losses by decoupling the effects of their component functions and regularization terms. We first derive some necessary and sufficient conditions of the component functions such that the adversarial loss is a divergence-like measure between the data and the model distributions. In order to systematically compare different adversarial losses, we then propose DANTest, a new, simple framework based on discriminative adversarial networks. With this framework, we evaluate an extensive set of adversarial losses by combining different component functions and regularization approaches. This study leads to some new insights into the adversarial losses. For reproducibility, all source code is available at https://github.com/salu133445/dan .

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We propose the BinaryGAN, a novel generative adversarial network (GAN) that uses binary neurons at the output layer of the generator. We employ the sigmoid-adjusted straight-through estimators to estimate the gradients for the binary neurons and train the whole network by end-to-end backpropogation. The proposed model is able to directly generate binary-valued predictions at test time. We implement such a model to generate binarized MNIST digits and experimentally compare the performance for different types of binary neurons, GAN objectives and network architectures. Although the results are still preliminary, we show that it is possible to train a GAN that has binary neurons and that the use of gradient estimators can be a promising direction for modeling discrete distributions with GANs. For reproducibility, the source code is available at https://github.com/salu133445/binarygan .

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It has been shown recently that deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (GANs) can learn to generate music in the form of piano-rolls, which represent music by binary-valued time-pitch matrices. However, existing models can only generate real-valued piano-rolls and require further post-processing, such as hard thresholding (HT) or Bernoulli sampling (BS), to obtain the final binary-valued results. In this paper, we study whether we can have a convolutional GAN model that directly creates binary-valued piano-rolls by using binary neurons. Specifically, we propose to append to the generator an additional refiner network, which uses binary neurons at the output layer. The whole network is trained in two stages. Firstly, the generator and the discriminator are pretrained. Then, the refiner network is trained along with the discriminator to learn to binarize the real-valued piano-rolls the pretrained generator creates. Experimental results show that using binary neurons instead of HT or BS indeed leads to better results in a number of objective measures. Moreover, deterministic binary neurons perform better than stochastic ones in both objective measures and a subjective test. The source code, training data and audio examples of the generated results can be found at https://salu133445.github.io/bmusegan/ .

* A preliminary version of this paper appeared in ISMIR 2018. In this version, we added an appendix to provide figures of sample results and remarks on the end-to-end models
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Research on automatic music generation has seen great progress due to the development of deep neural networks. However, the generation of multi-instrument music of arbitrary genres still remains a challenge. Existing research either works on lead sheets or multi-track piano-rolls found in MIDIs, but both musical notations have their limits. In this work, we propose a new task called lead sheet arrangement to avoid such limits. A new recurrent convolutional generative model for the task is proposed, along with three new symbolic-domain harmonic features to facilitate learning from unpaired lead sheets and MIDIs. Our model can generate lead sheets and their arrangements of eight-bar long. Audio samples of the generated result can be found at https://drive.google.com/open?id=1c0FfODTpudmLvuKBbc23VBCgQizY6-Rk

* 7 pages, 7 figures and 4 tables
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Singing voice separation attempts to separate the vocal and instrumental parts of a music recording, which is a fundamental problem in music information retrieval. Recent work on singing voice separation has shown that the low-rank representation and informed separation approaches are both able to improve separation quality. However, low-rank optimizations are computationally inefficient due to the use of singular value decompositions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new linear-time algorithm called informed group-sparse representation, and use it to separate the vocals from music using pitch annotations as side information. Experimental results on the iKala dataset confirm the efficacy of our approach, suggesting that the music accompaniment follows a group-sparse structure given a pre-trained instrumental dictionary. We also show how our work can be easily extended to accommodate multiple dictionaries using the DSD100 dataset.

* IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 156-160, Feb. 2017
* 5 pages, 1 figure
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