Models, code, and papers for "Ying Liu":

Novelty Detection Meets Collider Physics

Sep 11, 2018
Jan Hajer, Ying-Ying Li, Tao Liu, He Wang

Novelty detection is the machine learning task to recognize data, which belong to an unknown pattern. Complementary to supervised learning, it allows to analyze data model-independently. We demonstrate the potential role of novelty detection in collider physics, using autoencoder-based deep neural network. Explicitly, we develop a set of density-based novelty evaluators, which are sensitive to the clustering of unknown-pattern testing data or new-physics signal events, for the design of detection algorithms. We also explore the influence of the known-pattern data fluctuations, arising from non-signal regions, on detection sensitivity. Strategies to address it are proposed. The algorithms are applied to detecting fermionic di-top partner and resonant di-top productions at LHC, and exotic Higgs decays of two specific modes at a $e^+e^-$ future collider. With parton-level analysis, we conclude that potentially the new-physics benchmarks can be recognized with high efficiency.

* 6 pages. 5 figures. Version for journal submission. Comments are welcome 

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Improving brain computer interface performance by data augmentation with conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks

Jun 19, 2018
Qiqi Zhang, Ying Liu

One of the big restrictions in brain computer interface field is the very limited training samples, it is difficult to build a reliable and usable system with such limited data. Inspired by generative adversarial networks, we propose a conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial (cDCGAN) Networks method to generate more artificial EEG signal automatically for data augmentation to improve the performance of convolutional neural networks in brain computer interface field and overcome the small training dataset problems. We evaluate the proposed cDCGAN method on BCI competition dataset of motor imagery. The results show that the generated artificial EEG data from Gaussian noise can learn the features from raw EEG data and has no less than the classification accuracy of raw EEG data in the testing dataset. Also by using generated artificial data can effectively improve classification accuracy at the same model with limited training data.

* 5 pages, 6 figures 

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Three IQs of AI Systems and their Testing Methods

Dec 14, 2017
Feng Liu, Yong Shi, Ying Liu

The rapid development of artificial intelligence has brought the artificial intelligence threat theory as well as the problem about how to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligent products. Both need to find a quantitative method to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligence systems, including human intelligence. Based on the standard intelligence system and the extended Von Neumann architecture, this paper proposes General IQ, Service IQ and Value IQ evaluation methods for intelligence systems, depending on different evaluation purposes. Among them, the General IQ of intelligence systems is to answer the question of whether the artificial intelligence can surpass the human intelligence, which is reflected in putting the intelligence systems on an equal status and conducting the unified evaluation. The Service IQ and Value IQ of intelligence systems are used to answer the question of how the intelligent products can better serve the human, reflecting the intelligence and required cost of each intelligence system as a product in the process of serving human.

* 15 pages, 5 figures 

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Intelligence Quotient and Intelligence Grade of Artificial Intelligence

Oct 04, 2017
Feng Liu, Yong Shi, Ying Liu

Although artificial intelligence is currently one of the most interesting areas in scientific research, the potential threats posed by emerging AI systems remain a source of persistent controversy. To address the issue of AI threat, this study proposes a standard intelligence model that unifies AI and human characteristics in terms of four aspects of knowledge, i.e., input, output, mastery, and creation. Using this model, we observe three challenges, namely, expanding of the von Neumann architecture; testing and ranking the intelligence quotient of naturally and artificially intelligent systems, including humans, Google, Bing, Baidu, and Siri; and finally, the dividing of artificially intelligent systems into seven grades from robots to Google Brain. Based on this, we conclude that AlphaGo belongs to the third grade.

* Annals of Data Science, June 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 179-191 

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Learning Gaussian Graphical Models with Observed or Latent FVSs

Nov 10, 2013
Ying Liu, Alan S. Willsky

Gaussian Graphical Models (GGMs) or Gauss Markov random fields are widely used in many applications, and the trade-off between the modeling capacity and the efficiency of learning and inference has been an important research problem. In this paper, we study the family of GGMs with small feedback vertex sets (FVSs), where an FVS is a set of nodes whose removal breaks all the cycles. Exact inference such as computing the marginal distributions and the partition function has complexity $O(k^{2}n)$ using message-passing algorithms, where k is the size of the FVS, and n is the total number of nodes. We propose efficient structure learning algorithms for two cases: 1) All nodes are observed, which is useful in modeling social or flight networks where the FVS nodes often correspond to a small number of high-degree nodes, or hubs, while the rest of the networks is modeled by a tree. Regardless of the maximum degree, without knowing the full graph structure, we can exactly compute the maximum likelihood estimate in $O(kn^2+n^2\log n)$ if the FVS is known or in polynomial time if the FVS is unknown but has bounded size. 2) The FVS nodes are latent variables, where structure learning is equivalent to decomposing a inverse covariance matrix (exactly or approximately) into the sum of a tree-structured matrix and a low-rank matrix. By incorporating efficient inference into the learning steps, we can obtain a learning algorithm using alternating low-rank correction with complexity $O(kn^{2}+n^{2}\log n)$ per iteration. We also perform experiments using both synthetic data as well as real data of flight delays to demonstrate the modeling capacity with FVSs of various sizes.

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General Scaled Support Vector Machines

Sep 27, 2010
Xin Liu, Ying Ding, Forrest Sheng Bao

Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are popular tools for data mining tasks such as classification, regression, and density estimation. However, original SVM (C-SVM) only considers local information of data points on or over the margin. Therefore, C-SVM loses robustness. To solve this problem, one approach is to translate (i.e., to move without rotation or change of shape) the hyperplane according to the distribution of the entire data. But existing work can only be applied for 1-D case. In this paper, we propose a simple and efficient method called General Scaled SVM (GS-SVM) to extend the existing approach to multi-dimensional case. Our method translates the hyperplane according to the distribution of data projected on the normal vector of the hyperplane. Compared with C-SVM, GS-SVM has better performance on several data sets.

* 5 pages, 4 figures 

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ClsGAN: Selective Attribute Editing Based On Classification Adversarial Network

Oct 25, 2019
Liu Ying, Heng Fan, Fuchuan Ni, Jinhai Xiang

Attribution editing has shown remarking progress by the incorporating of encoder-decoder structure and generative adversarial network. However, there are still some challenges in the quality and attribute transformation of the generated images. Encoder-decoder structure leads to blurring of images and the skip-connection of encoder-decoder structure weakens the attribute transfer ability. To address these limitations, we propose a classification adversarial model(Cls-GAN) that can balance between attribute transfer and generated photo-realistic images. Considering that the transfer images are affected by the original attribute using skip-connection, we introduce upper convolution residual network(Tr-resnet) to selectively extract information from the source image and target label. Specially, we apply to the attribute classification adversarial network to learn about the defects of attribute transfer images so as to guide the generator. Finally, to meet the requirement of multimodal and improve reconstruction effect, we build two encoders including the content and style network, and select a attribute label approximation between source label and the output of style network. Experiments that operates at the dataset of CelebA show that images are superiority against the existing state-of-the-art models in image quality and transfer accuracy. Experiments on wikiart and seasonal datasets demonstrate that ClsGAN can effectively implement styel transfer.

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Using Deep Learning and Machine Learning to Detect Epileptic Seizure with Electroencephalography (EEG) Data

Oct 06, 2019
Haotian Liu, Lin Xi, Ying Zhao, Zhixiang Li

The prediction of epileptic seizure has always been extremely challenging in medical domain. However, as the development of computer technology, the application of machine learning introduced new ideas for seizure forecasting. Applying machine learning model onto the predication of epileptic seizure could help us obtain a better result and there have been plenty of scientists who have been doing such works so that there are sufficient medical data provided for researchers to do training of machine learning models.

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Stochastic AUC Maximization with Deep Neural Networks

Aug 30, 2019
Mingrui Liu, Zhuoning Yuan, Yiming Ying, Tianbao Yang

Stochastic AUC maximization has garnered an increasing interest due to better fit to imbalanced data classification. However, existing works are limited to stochastic AUC maximization with a linear predictive model, which restricts its predictive power when dealing with extremely complex data. In this paper, we consider stochastic AUC maximization problem with a deep neural network as the predictive model. Building on the saddle point reformulation of a surrogated loss of AUC, the problem can be cast into a {\it non-convex concave} min-max problem. The main contribution made in this paper is to make stochastic AUC maximization more practical for deep neural networks and big data with theoretical insights as well. In particular, we propose to explore Polyak-\L{}ojasiewicz (PL) condition that has been proved and observed in deep learning, which enables us to develop new stochastic algorithms with even faster convergence rate and more practical step size scheme. An AdaGrad-style algorithm is also analyzed under the PL condition with adaptive convergence rate. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

* add some citations 

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An Exploratory Analysis of the Latent Structure of Process Data via Action Sequence Autoencoder

Aug 16, 2019
Xueying Tang, Zhi Wang, Jingchen Liu, Zhiliang Ying

Computer simulations have become a popular tool of assessing complex skills such as problem-solving skills. Log files of computer-based items record the entire human-computer interactive processes for each respondent. The response processes are very diverse, noisy, and of nonstandard formats. Few generic methods have been developed for exploiting the information contained in process data. In this article, we propose a method to extract latent variables from process data. The method utilizes a sequence-to-sequence autoencoder to compress response processes into standard numerical vectors. It does not require prior knowledge of the specific items and human-computers interaction patterns. The proposed method is applied to both simulated and real process data to demonstrate that the resulting latent variables extract useful information from the response processes.

* 28 pages, 13 figures 

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Accurate and Robust Pulmonary Nodule Detection by 3D Feature Pyramid Network with Self-supervised Feature Learning

Jul 25, 2019
Jingya Liu, Liangliang Cao, Oguz Akin, Yingli Tian

Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules with high sensitivity and specificity is essential for automatic lung cancer diagnosis from CT scans. Although many deep learning-based algorithms make great progress for improving the accuracy of nodule detection, the high false positive rate is still a challenging problem which limits the automatic diagnosis in routine clinical practice. Moreover, the CT scans collected from multiple manufacturers may affect the robustness of Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) due to the differences in intensity scales and machine noises. In this paper, we propose a novel self-supervised learning assisted pulmonary nodule detection framework based on a 3D Feature Pyramid Network (3DFPN) to improve the sensitivity of nodule detection by employing multi-scale features to increase the resolution of nodules, as well as a parallel top-down path to transit the high-level semantic features to complement low-level general features. Furthermore, a High Sensitivity and Specificity (HS2) network is introduced to eliminate the false positive nodule candidates by tracking the appearance changes in continuous CT slices of each nodule candidate on Location History Images (LHI). In addition, in order to improve the performance consistency of the proposed framework across data captured by different CT scanners without using additional annotations, an effective self-supervised learning schema is applied to learn spatiotemporal features of CT scans from large-scale unlabeled data. The performance and robustness of our method are evaluated on several publicly available datasets with significant performance improvements. The proposed framework is able to accurately detect pulmonary nodules with high sensitivity and specificity and achieves 90.6% sensitivity with 1/8 false positive per scan which outperforms the state-of-the-art results 15.8% on LUNA16 dataset.

* 15 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables, under review by Medical Image Analysis. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1906.03467 

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FPCNet: Fast Pavement Crack Detection Network Based on Encoder-Decoder Architecture

Jul 04, 2019
Wenjun Liu, Yuchun Huang, Ying Li, Qi Chen

Timely, accurate and automatic detection of pavement cracks is necessary for making cost-effective decisions concerning road maintenance. Conventional crack detection algorithms focus on the design of single or multiple crack features and classifiers. However, complicated topological structures, varying degrees of damage and oil stains make the design of crack features difficult. In addition, the contextual information around a crack is not investigated extensively in the design process. Accordingly, these design features have limited discriminative adaptability and cannot fuse effectively with the classifiers. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a deep learning network for pavement crack detection. Using the Encoder-Decoder structure, crack characteristics with multiple contexts are automatically learned, and end-to-end crack detection is achieved. Specifically, we first propose the Multi-Dilation (MD) module, which can synthesize the crack features of multiple context sizes via dilated convolution with multiple rates. The crack MD features obtained in this module can describe cracks of different widths and topologies. Next, we propose the SE-Upsampling (SEU) module, which uses the Squeeze-and-Excitation learning operation to optimize the MD features. Finally, the above two modules are integrated to develop the fast crack detection network, namely, FPCNet. This network continuously optimizes the MD features step-by-step to realize fast pixel-level crack detection. Experiments are conducted on challenging public CFD datasets and G45 crack datasets involving various crack types under different shooting conditions. The distinct performance and speed improvements over all the datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art crack detection methods.

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3DFPN-HS$^2$: 3D Feature Pyramid Network Based High Sensitivity and Specificity Pulmonary Nodule Detection

Jun 11, 2019
Jingya Liu, Liangliang Cao, Oguz Akin, Yingli Tian

Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules with high sensitivity and specificity is essential for automatic lung cancer diagnosis from CT scans. Although many deep learning-based algorithms make great progress for improving the accuracy of nodule detection, the high false positive rate is still a challenging problem which limited the automatic diagnosis in routine clinical practice. In this paper, we propose a novel pulmonary nodule detection framework based on a 3D Feature Pyramid Network (3DFPN) to improve the sensitivity of nodule detection by employing multi-scale features to increase the resolution of nodules, as well as a parallel top-down path to transit the high-level semantic features to complement low-level general features. Furthermore, a High Sensitivity and Specificity (HS$^2$) network is introduced to eliminate the falsely detected nodule candidates by tracking the appearance changes in continuous CT slices of each nodule candidate. The proposed framework is evaluated on the public Lung Nodule Analysis (LUNA16) challenge dataset. Our method is able to accurately detect lung nodules at high sensitivity and specificity and achieves $90.4\%$ sensitivity with 1/8 false positive per scan which outperforms the state-of-the-art results $15.6\%$.

* 8 pages, 3 figures. Accepted to MICCAI 2019 

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3DTI-Net: Learn Inner Transform Invariant 3D Geometry Features using Dynamic GCN

Dec 15, 2018
Guanghua Pan, Jun Wang, Rendong Ying, Peilin Liu

Deep learning on point clouds has made a lot of progress recently. Many point cloud dedicated deep learning frameworks, such as PointNet and PointNet++, have shown advantages in accuracy and speed comparing to those using traditional 3D convolution algorithms. However, nearly all of these methods face a challenge, since the coordinates of the point cloud are decided by the coordinate system, they cannot handle the problem of 3D transform invariance properly. In this paper, we propose a general framework for point cloud learning. We achieve transform invariance by learning inner 3D geometry feature based on local graph representation, and propose a feature extraction network based on graph convolution network. Through experiments on classification and segmentation tasks, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in rotated 3D object classification, and achieve competitive performance with the state-of-the-art in classification and segmentation tasks with fixed coordinate value.

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Efficient Outlier Removal for Large Scale Global Structure-from-Motion

Aug 17, 2018
Fei Wen, Danping Zou, Rendong Ying, Peilin Liu

This work addresses the outlier removal problem in large-scale global structure-from-motion. In such applications, global outlier removal is very useful to mitigate the deterioration caused by mismatches in the feature point matching step. Unlike existing outlier removal methods, we exploit the structure in multiview geometry problems to propose a dimension reduced formulation, based on which two methods have been developed. The first method considers a convex relaxed $\ell_1$ minimization and is solved by a single linear programming (LP), whilst the second one approximately solves the ideal $\ell_0$ minimization by an iteratively reweighted method. The dimension reduction results in a significant speedup of the new algorithms. Further, the iteratively reweighted method can significantly reduce the possibility of removing true inliers. Realistic multiview reconstruction experiments demonstrated that, compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, the new algorithms are much more efficient and meanwhile can give improved solution. Matlab code for reproducing the results is available at \textit{}.

* 6 pages 

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MemNet: A Persistent Memory Network for Image Restoration

Aug 07, 2017
Ying Tai, Jian Yang, Xiaoming Liu, Chunyan Xu

Recently, very deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been attracting considerable attention in image restoration. However, as the depth grows, the long-term dependency problem is rarely realized for these very deep models, which results in the prior states/layers having little influence on the subsequent ones. Motivated by the fact that human thoughts have persistency, we propose a very deep persistent memory network (MemNet) that introduces a memory block, consisting of a recursive unit and a gate unit, to explicitly mine persistent memory through an adaptive learning process. The recursive unit learns multi-level representations of the current state under different receptive fields. The representations and the outputs from the previous memory blocks are concatenated and sent to the gate unit, which adaptively controls how much of the previous states should be reserved, and decides how much of the current state should be stored. We apply MemNet to three image restoration tasks, i.e., image denosing, super-resolution and JPEG deblocking. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the necessity of the MemNet and its unanimous superiority on all three tasks over the state of the arts. Code is available at

* Accepted by ICCV 2017 (Spotlight presentation) 

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Image Type Water Meter Character Recognition Based on Embedded DSP

Aug 27, 2015
Ying Liu, Yan-bin Han, Yu-lin Zhang

In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

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Reasoning about Cardinal Directions between Extended Objects

Sep 01, 2009
Xiaotong Zhang, Weiming Liu, Sanjiang Li, Mingsheng Ying

Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Recently, Goyal and Egenhofer proposed a formal model, known as Cardinal Direction Calculus (CDC), for representing direction relations between connected plane regions. CDC is perhaps the most expressive qualitative calculus for directional information, and has attracted increasing interest from areas such as artificial intelligence, geographical information science, and image retrieval. Given a network of CDC constraints, the consistency problem is deciding if the network is realizable by connected regions in the real plane. This paper provides a cubic algorithm for checking consistency of basic CDC constraint networks, and proves that reasoning with CDC is in general an NP-Complete problem. For a consistent network of basic CDC constraints, our algorithm also returns a 'canonical' solution in cubic time. This cubic algorithm is also adapted to cope with cardinal directions between possibly disconnected regions, in which case currently the best algorithm is of time complexity O(n^5).

* Artificial Intelligence, Volume 174, Issues 12-13, August 2010, Pages 951-983 

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Statistical Analysis of Stationary Solutions of Coupled Nonconvex Nonsmooth Empirical Risk Minimization

Oct 06, 2019
Zhengling Qi, Ying Cui, Yufeng Liu, Jong-Shi Pang

This paper has two main goals: (a) establish several statistical properties---consistency, asymptotic distributions, and convergence rates---of stationary solutions and values of a class of coupled nonconvex and nonsmoothempirical risk minimization problems, and (b) validate these properties by a noisy amplitude-based phase retrieval problem, the latter being of much topical interest.Derived from available data via sampling, these empirical risk minimization problems are the computational workhorse of a population risk model which involves the minimization of an expected value of a random functional. When these minimization problems are nonconvex, the computation of their globally optimal solutions is elusive. Together with the fact that the expectation operator cannot be evaluated for general probability distributions, it becomes necessary to justify whether the stationary solutions of the empirical problems are practical approximations of the stationary solution of the population problem. When these two features, general distribution and nonconvexity, are coupled with nondifferentiability that often renders the problems "non-Clarke regular", the task of the justification becomes challenging. Our work aims to address such a challenge within an algorithm-free setting. The resulting analysis is therefore different from the much of the analysis in the recent literature that is based on local search algorithms. Furthermore, supplementing the classical minimizer-centric analysis, our results offer a first step to close the gap between computational optimization and asymptotic analysis of coupled nonconvex nonsmooth statistical estimation problems, expanding the former with statistical properties of the practically obtained solution and providing the latter with a more practical focus pertaining to computational tractability.

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Estimation of Individualized Decision Rules Based on an Optimized Covariate-Dependent Equivalent of Random Outcomes

Aug 27, 2019
Zhengling Qi, Ying Cui, Yufeng Liu, Jong-Shi Pang

Recent exploration of optimal individualized decision rules (IDRs) for patients in precision medicine has attracted a lot of attention due to the heterogeneous responses of patients to different treatments. In the existing literature of precision medicine, an optimal IDR is defined as a decision function mapping from the patients' covariate space into the treatment space that maximizes the expected outcome of each individual. Motivated by the concept of Optimized Certainty Equivalent (OCE) introduced originally in \cite{ben1986expected} that includes the popular conditional-value-of risk (CVaR) \cite{rockafellar2000optimization}, we propose a decision-rule based optimized covariates dependent equivalent (CDE) for individualized decision making problems. Our proposed IDR-CDE broadens the existing expected-mean outcome framework in precision medicine and enriches the previous concept of the OCE. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our overall approach outperforms existing methods in estimating optimal IDRs under heavy-tail distributions of the data.

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