PSO is a widely recognized optimization algorithm inspired by social swarm. In this brief we present a heterogeneous strategy particle swarm optimization (HSPSO), in which a proportion of particles adopt a fully informed strategy to enhance the converging speed while the rest are singly informed to maintain the diversity. Our extensive numerical experiments show that HSPSO algorithm is able to obtain satisfactory solutions, outperforming both PSO and the fully informed PSO. The evolution process is examined from both structural and microscopic points of view. We find that the cooperation between two types of particles can facilitate a good balance between exploration and exploitation, yielding better performance. We demonstrate the applicability of HSPSO on the filter design problem.

Click to Read Paper
Low-light images are not conducive to human observation and computer vision algorithms due to their low visibility. Although many image enhancement techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, existing methods inevitably introduce contrast under- and over-enhancement. Inspired by human visual system, we design a multi-exposure fusion framework for low-light image enhancement. Based on the framework, we propose a dual-exposure fusion algorithm to provide an accurate contrast and lightness enhancement. Specifically, we first design the weight matrix for image fusion using illumination estimation techniques. Then we introduce our camera response model to synthesize multi-exposure images. Next, we find the best exposure ratio so that the synthetic image is well-exposed in the regions where the original image is under-exposed. Finally, the enhanced result is obtained by fusing the input image and the synthetic image according to the weight matrix. Experiments show that our method can obtain results with less contrast and lightness distortion compared to that of several state-of-the-art methods.

* Project website: https://baidut.github.io/BIMEF/
Click to Read Paper
We propose a new reasoning protocol called generalized recursive reasoning (GR2), and embed it into the multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) framework. The GR2 model defines reasoning categories: level-$0$ agent acts randomly, and level-$k$ agent takes the best response to a mixed type of agents that are distributed over level $0$ to $k-1$. The GR2 leaners can take into account the bounded rationality, and it does not need the assumption that the opponent agents play Nash strategy in all stage games, which many MARL algorithms require. We prove that when the level $k$ is large, the GR2 learners will converge to at least one Nash Equilibrium (NE). In addition, if lower-level agents play the NE, high-level agents will surely follow as well. We evaluate the GR2 Soft Actor-Critic algorithms in a series of games and high-dimensional environment; results show that the GR2 methods have faster convergence speed than strong MARL baselines.

Click to Read Paper
This work addresses the outlier removal problem in large-scale global structure-from-motion. In such applications, global outlier removal is very useful to mitigate the deterioration caused by mismatches in the feature point matching step. Unlike existing outlier removal methods, we exploit the structure in multiview geometry problems to propose a dimension reduced formulation, based on which two methods have been developed. The first method considers a convex relaxed $\ell_1$ minimization and is solved by a single linear programming (LP), whilst the second one approximately solves the ideal $\ell_0$ minimization by an iteratively reweighted method. The dimension reduction results in a significant speedup of the new algorithms. Further, the iteratively reweighted method can significantly reduce the possibility of removing true inliers. Realistic multiview reconstruction experiments demonstrated that, compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, the new algorithms are much more efficient and meanwhile can give improved solution. Matlab code for reproducing the results is available at \textit{https://github.com/FWen/OUTLR.git}.

* 6 pages
Click to Read Paper
Single materials have colors which form straight lines in RGB space. However, in severe shadow cases, those lines do not intersect the origin, which is inconsistent with the description of most literature. This paper is concerned with the detection and correction of the offset between the intersection and origin. First, we analyze the reason for forming that offset via an optical imaging model. Second, we present a simple and effective way to detect and remove the offset. The resulting images, named ORGB, have almost the same appearance as the original RGB images while are more illumination-robust for color space conversion. Besides, image processing using ORGB instead of RGB is free from the interference of shadows. Finally, the proposed offset correction method is applied to road detection task, improving the performance both in quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

* Project website: https://baidut.github.io/ORGB/
Click to Read Paper
Recently, the rapid development of word embedding and neural networks has brought new inspiration to various NLP and IR tasks. In this paper, we describe a staged hybrid model combining Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNN) with highway layers. The highway network module is incorporated in the middle takes the output of the bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network (Bi-RNN) module in the first stage and provides the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) module in the last stage with the input. The experiment shows that our model outperforms common neural network models (CNN, RNN, Bi-RNN) on a sentiment analysis task. Besides, the analysis of how sequence length influences the RCNN with highway layers shows that our model could learn good representation for the long text.

* Neu-IR '16 SIGIR Workshop on Neural Information Retrieval
Click to Read Paper
Humans are capable of attributing latent mental contents such as beliefs, or intentions to others. The social skill is critical in everyday life to reason about the potential consequences of their behaviors so as to plan ahead. It is known that humans use this reasoning ability recursively, i.e. considering what others believe about their own beliefs. In this paper, we start from level-$1$ recursion and introduce a probabilistic recursive reasoning (PR2) framework for multi-agent reinforcement learning. Our hypothesis is that it is beneficial for each agent to account for how the opponents would react to its future behaviors. Under the PR2 framework, we adopt variational Bayes methods to approximate the opponents' conditional policy, to which each agent finds the best response and then improve their own policy. We develop decentralized-training-decentralized-execution algorithms, PR2-Q and PR2-Actor-Critic, that are proved to converge in the self-play scenario when there is one Nash equilibrium. Our methods are tested on both the matrix game and the differential game, which have a non-trivial equilibrium where common gradient-based methods fail to converge. Our experiments show that it is critical to reason about how the opponents believe about what the agent believes. We expect our work to contribute a new idea of modeling the opponents to the multi-agent reinforcement learning community.

* ICLR 2019
Click to Read Paper
In typical reinforcement learning (RL), the environment is assumed given and the goal of the learning is to identify an optimal policy for the agent taking actions through its interactions with the environment. In this paper, we extend this setting by considering the environment is not given, but controllable and learnable through its interaction with the agent at the same time. This extension is motivated by environment design scenarios in the real-world, including game design, shopping space design and traffic signal design. Theoretically, we find a dual Markov decision process (MDP) w.r.t. the environment to that w.r.t. the agent, and derive a policy gradient solution to optimizing the parametrized environment. Furthermore, discontinuous environments are addressed by a proposed general generative framework. Our experiments on a Maze game design task show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in generating diverse and challenging Mazes against various agent settings.

Click to Read Paper
We conduct an empirical study on discovering the ordered collective dynamics obtained by a population of intelligence agents, driven by million-agent reinforcement learning. Our intention is to put intelligent agents into a simulated natural context and verify if the principles developed in the real world could also be used in understanding an artificially-created intelligent population. To achieve this, we simulate a large-scale predator-prey world, where the laws of the world are designed by only the findings or logical equivalence that have been discovered in nature. We endow the agents with the intelligence based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL). In order to scale the population size up to millions agents, a large-scale DRL training platform with redesigned experience buffer is proposed. Our results show that the population dynamics of AI agents, driven only by each agent's individual self-interest, reveals an ordered pattern that is similar to the Lotka-Volterra model studied in population biology. We further discover the emergent behaviors of collective adaptations in studying how the agents' grouping behaviors will change with the environmental resources. Both of the two findings could be explained by the self-organization theory in nature.

* Full version of the paper presented at AAMAS 2018 (International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems)
Click to Read Paper
Many artificial intelligence (AI) applications often require multiple intelligent agents to work in a collaborative effort. Efficient learning for intra-agent communication and coordination is an indispensable step towards general AI. In this paper, we take StarCraft combat game as a case study, where the task is to coordinate multiple agents as a team to defeat their enemies. To maintain a scalable yet effective communication protocol, we introduce a Multiagent Bidirectionally-Coordinated Network (BiCNet ['bIknet]) with a vectorised extension of actor-critic formulation. We show that BiCNet can handle different types of combats with arbitrary numbers of AI agents for both sides. Our analysis demonstrates that without any supervisions such as human demonstrations or labelled data, BiCNet could learn various types of advanced coordination strategies that have been commonly used by experienced game players. In our experiments, we evaluate our approach against multiple baselines under different scenarios; it shows state-of-the-art performance, and possesses potential values for large-scale real-world applications.

* 10 pages, 10 figures. Previously as title: "Multiagent Bidirectionally-Coordinated Nets for Learning to Play StarCraft Combat Games", Mar 2017
Click to Read Paper
Predicting user responses, such as clicks and conversions, is of great importance and has found its usage in many Web applications including recommender systems, web search and online advertising. The data in those applications is mostly categorical and contains multiple fields; a typical representation is to transform it into a high-dimensional sparse binary feature representation via one-hot encoding. Facing with the extreme sparsity, traditional models may limit their capacity of mining shallow patterns from the data, i.e. low-order feature combinations. Deep models like deep neural networks, on the other hand, cannot be directly applied for the high-dimensional input because of the huge feature space. In this paper, we propose a Product-based Neural Networks (PNN) with an embedding layer to learn a distributed representation of the categorical data, a product layer to capture interactive patterns between inter-field categories, and further fully connected layers to explore high-order feature interactions. Our experimental results on two large-scale real-world ad click datasets demonstrate that PNNs consistently outperform the state-of-the-art models on various metrics.

* 6 pages, 5 figures, ICDM2016
Click to Read Paper
Speech enhancement (SE) aims to reduce noise in speech signals. Most SE techniques focus only on addressing audio information. In this work, inspired by multimodal learning, which utilizes data from different modalities, and the recent success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in SE, we propose an audio-visual deep CNNs (AVDCNN) SE model, which incorporates audio and visual streams into a unified network model. We also propose a multi-task learning framework for reconstructing audio and visual signals at the output layer. Precisely speaking, the proposed AVDCNN model is structured as an audio-visual encoder-decoder network, in which audio and visual data are first processed using individual CNNs, and then fused into a joint network to generate enhanced speech (the primary task) and reconstructed images (the secondary task) at the output layer. The model is trained in an end-to-end manner, and parameters are jointly learned through back-propagation. We evaluate enhanced speech using five instrumental criteria. Results show that the AVDCNN model yields a notably superior performance compared with an audio-only CNN-based SE model and two conventional SE approaches, confirming the effectiveness of integrating visual information into the SE process. In addition, the AVDCNN model also outperforms an existing audio-visual SE model, confirming its capability of effectively combining audio and visual information in SE.

* To appear in IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence. Some audio samples can be reached in this link: https://sites.google.com/view/avse2017
Click to Read Paper
Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at https://salu133445.github.io/musegan/ .

* to appear at AAAI 2018
Click to Read Paper
A probabilistic method of reasoning under uncertainty is proposed based on the principle of Minimum Cross Entropy (MCE) and concept of Recursive Causal Model (RCM). The dependency and correlations among the variables are described in a special language BNDL (Belief Networks Description Language). Beliefs are propagated among the clauses of the BNDL programs representing the underlying probabilistic distributions. BNDL interpreters in both Prolog and C has been developed and the performance of the method is compared with those of the others.

* Appears in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI1988)
Click to Read Paper
Although some information-theoretic measures of uncertainty or granularity have been proposed in rough set theory, these measures are only dependent on the underlying partition and the cardinality of the universe, independent of the lower and upper approximations. It seems somewhat unreasonable since the basic idea of rough set theory aims at describing vague concepts by the lower and upper approximations. In this paper, we thus define new information-theoretic entropy and co-entropy functions associated to the partition and the approximations to measure the uncertainty and granularity of an approximation space. After introducing the novel notions of entropy and co-entropy, we then examine their properties. In particular, we discuss the relationship of co-entropies between different universes. The theoretical development is accompanied by illustrative numerical examples.

Click to Read Paper
To study the communication between information systems, Wang et al. [C. Wang, C. Wu, D. Chen, Q. Hu, and C. Wu, Communicating between information systems, Information Sciences 178 (2008) 3228-3239] proposed two concepts of type-1 and type-2 consistent functions. Some properties of such functions and induced relation mappings have been investigated there. In this paper, we provide an improvement of the aforementioned work by disclosing the symmetric relationship between type-1 and type-2 consistent functions. We present more properties of consistent functions and induced relation mappings and improve upon several deficient assertions in the original work. In particular, we unify and extend type-1 and type-2 consistent functions into the so-called neighborhood-consistent functions. This provides a convenient means for studying the communication between information systems based on various neighborhoods.

* Information Sciences, 180(18): 3521-3531, 2010
* 12 pages
Click to Read Paper
In this work, a new constrained hybrid variational deblurring model is developed by combining the non-convex first- and second-order total variation regularizers. Moreover, a box constraint is imposed on the proposed model to guarantee high deblurring performance. The developed constrained hybrid variational model could achieve a good balance between preserving image details and alleviating ringing artifacts. In what follows, we present the corresponding numerical solution by employing an iteratively reweighted algorithm based on alternating direction method of multipliers. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality assessments.

* 4 pages, 5 figures
Click to Read Paper
Stratifying patients at risk for postoperative complications may facilitate timely and accurate workups and reduce the burden of adverse events on patients and the health system. Currently, a widely-used surgical risk calculator created by the American College of Surgeons, NSQIP, uses 21 preoperative covariates to assess risk of postoperative complications, but lacks dynamic, real-time capabilities to accommodate postoperative information. We propose a new Hidden Markov Model sequence classifier for analyzing patients' postoperative temperature sequences that incorporates their time-invariant characteristics in both transition probability and initial state probability in order to develop a postoperative "real-time" complication detector. Data from elective Colectomy surgery indicate that our method has improved classification performance compared to 8 other machine learning classifiers when using the full temperature sequence associated with the patients' length of stay. Additionally, within 44 hours after surgery, the performance of the model is close to that of full-length temperature sequence.

* Machine Learning for Health (ML4H) Workshop at NeurIPS 2018 arXiv:1811.07216
Click to Read Paper
Adversarial attacks find perturbations that can fool models into misclassifying images. Previous works had successes in generating noisy/edge-rich adversarial perturbations, at the cost of degradation of image quality. Such perturbations, even when they are small in scale, are usually easily spottable by human vision. In contrast, we propose Harmonic Adversar- ial Attack Methods (HAAM), that generates edge-free perturbations by using harmonic functions. The property of edge-free guarantees that the generated adversarial images can still preserve visual quality, even when perturbations are of large magnitudes. Experiments also show that adversaries generated by HAAM often have higher rates of success when transferring between models. In addition, we find harmonic perturbations can simulate natural phenomena like natural lighting and shadows. It would then be possible to help find corner cases for given models, as a first step to improving them.

Click to Read Paper
A recent Cell paper [Chang and Tsao, 2017] reports an interesting discovery. For the face stimuli generated by a pre-trained active appearance model (AAM), the responses of neurons in the areas of the primate brain that are responsible for face recognition exhibit strong linear relationship with the shape variables and appearance variables of the AAM that generates the face stimuli. In this paper, we show that this behavior can be replicated by a deep generative model called the generator network, which assumes that the observed signals are generated by latent random variables via a top-down convolutional neural network. Specifically, we learn the generator network from the face images generated by a pre-trained AAM model using variational auto-encoder, and we show that the inferred latent variables of the learned generator network have strong linear relationship with the shape and appearance variables of the AAM model that generates the face images. Unlike the AAM model that has an explicit shape model where the shape variables generate the control points or landmarks, the generator network has no such shape model and shape variables. Yet the generator network can learn the shape knowledge in the sense that some of the latent variables of the learned generator network capture the shape variations in the face images generated by AAM.

Click to Read Paper